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Inventory
Inventory keeps track of the contents of your Ruby¹ projects. Such an
inventory can be used to load the project, create gem specifications and
gems, run unit tests, compile extensions, and verify that the project’s
content is what you think it is.
¹ See http://ruby-lang.org/
§ Usage
Let’s begin by discussing the project structure that Inventory expects you
to use. It’s pretty much exactly the same as the standard Ruby project
structure¹:
├── README
├── Rakefile
├── lib
│ ├── foo-1.0
│ │ ├── bar.rb
│ │ └── version.rb
│ └── foo-1.0.rb
└── test
└── unit
├── foo-1.0
│ ├── bar.rb
│ └── version.rb
└── foo-1.0.rb
Here you see a simplified version of a project called “Foo”’s project
structure. The only real difference from the standard is that the main
entry point into the library is named “foo-1.0.rb” instead of “foo.rb” and
that the root sub-directory of “lib” is similarly named “foo-1.0” instead
of “foo”. The difference is the inclusion of the API version. This must
be the major version of the project followed by a constant “.0”. The
reason for this is that it allows concurrent installations of different
major versions of the project and means that the wrong version will never
accidentally be loaded with require.
There’s a bigger difference in the content of the files.
‹Lib/foo-1.0/version.rb› will contain our inventory instead of a String:
require 'inventory-1.0'
class Foo
Version = Foo.new(1, 4, 0){
authors{
author 'A. U. Thor', 'a.u.thor@example.org'
}
homepage 'http://example.org/'
licenses{
license 'LGPLv3+',
'GNU Lesser General Public License, version 3 or later',
'http://www.gnu.org/licenses/'
}
def dependencies
super + Dependencies.new{
development 'baz', 1, 3, 0
runtime 'goo', 2, 0, 0
optional 'roo-loo', 3, 0, 0, :feature => 'roo-loo'
}
end
def package_libs
%w[bar.rb]
end
}
end
We’re introducing quite a few concepts at once, and we’ll look into each in
greater detail, but we begin by setting the ‹Version› constant to a new
instance of an Inventory with major, minor, and patch version atoms 1, 4,
and 0. Then we add a couple of dependencies and list the library files
that are included in this project.
The version numbers shouldn’t come as a surprise. These track the version
of the API that we’re shipping using {semantic versioning}². They also
allow the Inventory#to_s method to act as if you’d defined Version as
‹'1.4.0'›.
Next follows information about the authors of the project, the project’s
homepage, and the project’s licenses. Each author has a name and an email
address. The homepage is simply a string URL. Licenses have an
abbreviation, a name, and a URL where the license text can be found.
We then extend the definition of ‹dependencies› by adding another set of
dependencies to ‹super›. ‹Super› includes a dependency on the version of
the inventory project that’s being used with this project, so you’ll never
have to list that yourself. The other three dependencies are all of
different kinds: development, runtime, and optional. A development
dependency is one that’s required while developing the project, for
example, a unit-testing framework, a documentation generator, and so on.
Runtime dependencies are requirements of the project to be able to run,
both during development and when installed. Finally, optional dependencies
are runtime dependencies that may or may not be required during execution.
The difference between runtime and optional is that the inventory won’t try
to automatically load an optional dependency, instead leaving that up to
you to do when and if it becomes necessary. By that logic, runtime
dependencies will be automatically loaded, which is a good reason for
having dependency information available at runtime.
The version numbers of dependencies also use semantic versioning, but note
that the patch atom is ignored unless the major atom is 0. You should
always only depend on the major and minor atoms.
As mentioned, runtime dependencies will be automatically loaded and the
feature they try to load is based on the name of the dependency with a
“-X.0” tacked on the end, where ‘X’ is the major version of the dependency.
Sometimes, this isn’t correct, in which case the :feature option may be
given to specify the name of the feature.
You may also override other parts of a dependency by passing in a block to
the dependency, much like we’re doing for inventories.
The rest of an inventory will list the various files included in the
project. This project only consists of one additional file to those that
an inventory automatically include (Rakefile, README, the main entry point,
and the version.rb file that defines the inventory itself), namely the
library file ‹bar.rb›. Library files will be loaded automatically when the
main entry point file loads the inventory. Library files that shouldn’t be
loaded may be listed under a different heading, namely “additional_libs”.
Both these sets of files will be used to generate a list of unit test files
automatically, so each library file will have a corresponding unit test
file in the inventory. We’ll discuss the different headings of an
inventory in more detail later on.
Now that we’ve written our inventory, let’s set it up so that it’s content
gets loaded when our main entry point gets loaded. We add the following
piece of code to ‹lib/foo-1.0.rb›:
module Foo
load File.expand_path('../foo-1.0/version.rb', __FILE__)
Version.load
end
That’s all there’s to it.
The inventory can also be used to great effect from a Rakefile using a
separate project called Inventory-Rake³. Using it’ll give us tasks for
cleaning up our project, compiling extensions, installing dependencies,
installing and uninstalling the project itself, and creating and pushing
distribution files to distribution points.
require 'inventory-rake-1.0'
load File.expand_path('../lib/foo-1.0/version.rb', __FILE__)
Inventory::Rake::Tasks.define Foo::Version
Inventory::Rake::Tasks.unless_installing_dependencies do
require 'lookout-rake-3.0'
Lookout::Rake::Tasks::Test.new
end
It’s ‹Inventory::Rake::Tasks.define› that does the heavy lifting. It takes
our inventory and sets up the tasks mentioned above.
As we want to be able to use our Rakefile to install our dependencies for
us, the rest of the Rakefile is inside the conditional
#unless_installing_dependencies, which, as the name certainly implies,
executes its block unless the task being run is the one that installs our
dependencies. This becomes relevant when we set up Travis⁴ integration
next. The only conditional set-up we do in our Rakefile is creating our
test task via Lookout-Rake⁵, which also uses our inventory to find the unit
tests to run when executed.
Travis integration is straightforward. Simply put
before_script:
- gem install inventory-rake -v '~> VERSION' --no-rdoc --no-ri
- rake gem:deps:install
in the project’s ‹.travis.yml› file, replacing ‹VERSION› with the version
of Inventory-Rake that you require. This’ll make sure that Travis installs
all development, runtime, and optional dependencies that you’ve listed in
your inventory before running any tests.
You might also need to put
env:
- RUBYOPT=rubygems
in your ‹.travis.yml› file, depending on how things are set up.
¹ Ruby project structure: http://guides.rubygems.org/make-your-own-gem/
² Semantic versioning: http://semver.org/
³ Inventory-Rake: http://disu.se/software/inventory-rake-1.0/
⁴ Travis: http://travis-ci.org/
⁵ Lookout-Rake: http://disu.se/software/lookout-rake-3.0/
§ API
If the guide above doesn’t provide you with all the answers you seek, you
may refer to the API¹ for more answers.
¹ See http://disu.se/software/inventory-1.0/api/Inventory/
§ Financing
Currently, most of my time is spent at my day job and in my rather busy
private life. Please motivate me to spend time on this piece of software
by donating some of your money to this project. Yeah, I realize that
requesting money to develop software is a bit, well, capitalistic of me.
But please realize that I live in a capitalistic society and I need money
to have other people give me the things that I need to continue living
under the rules of said society. So, if you feel that this piece of
software has helped you out enough to warrant a reward, please PayPal a
donation to now@disu.se¹. Thanks! Your support won’t go unnoticed!
¹ Send a donation:
https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_donations&business=now@disu.se&item_name=Inventory
§ Reporting Bugs
Please report any bugs that you encounter to the {issue tracker}¹.
¹ See https://github.com/now/inventory/issues
§ Authors
Nikolai Weibull wrote the code, the tests, the documentation, and this
README.
§ Licensing
Inventory is free software: you may redistribute it and/or modify it under
the terms of the {GNU Lesser General Public License, version 3}¹ or later²,
as published by the {Free Software Foundation}³.
¹ See http://disu.se/licenses/lgpl-3.0/
² See http://gnu.org/licenses/
³ See http://fsf.org/
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