Value is a library for defining immutable value objects in Ruby.
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  Value is a library for defining immutable value objects in Ruby.  A value
  object is an object whose equality to other objects is determined by its
  value, not its identity, think dates and amounts of money.  A value object
  should also be immutable, as you don’t want the date “2013-04-22” itself to
  change but the current date to change from “2013-04-22” to “2013-04-23”.
  That is, you don’t want entries in a calendar for 2013-04-22 to move to
  2013-04-23 simply because the current date changes from 2013-04-22 to

  A value object consists of one or more attributes stored in instance
  variables.  Value sets up an #initialize method for you that let’s you set
  these attributes, as, value objects being immutable, this’ll be your only
  chance to do so.  Value also adds equality checks ‹#==› and ‹#eql?› (which
  are themselves equivalent), a ‹#hash› method, a nice ‹#inspect› method, and a
  protected attribute reader for each attribute.  You may of course add any
  additional methods that your value object will benefit from.

  That’s basically all there’s too it.  Let’s now look at using the Value

§ Usage

    You create value object class by invoking ‹#Value› inside the class
    (module) you wish to make into a value object class.  Let’s create a class
    that represent points on a plane:

      class Point
        Value :x, :y

    A ‹Point› is thus a value object consisting of two sub-values ‹x› and ‹y›
    (the coordinates).  Just from invoking ‹#Value›, a ‹Point› object will have
    a constructor that takes two arguments to set instance variables ‹@x› and
    ‹@y›, equality checks ‹#==› and ‹#eql?› (which are the same), a ‹#hash›
    method, a nice ‹#inspect› method, and two protected attribute readers ‹#x›
    and ‹#y›.  We can thus already creat ‹Point›s:

      origo =, 0)

    The default of making the attribute readers protected is often good
    practice, but for a ‹Point› it probably makes sense to be able to access
    its coordinates:

      class Point

    This’ll make all attributes of ‹Point› public.  You can of course choose to
    only make certain attributes public:

      class Point
        public :x

    Note that this public is standard Ruby functionality.  Adding a method to
    ‹Point› is of course also possible and very much Rubyish:

      class Point
        def distance(other)
          Math.sqrt((other.x - x)**2 + (other.y - y)**2)

    For some value object classes you might want to support optional
    attributes.  This is done by providing a default value for the attribute,
    like so:

      class Money
        Value :amount, [:currency, :USD]

    Here, the ‹currency› attribute will default to ‹:USD›.  You can create
    ‹Money› via

      dollars =

    but also

      kronor =, :SEK)

    All required attributes must come before any optional attributes.

    Splat attributes are also supported:

      class List
        Value :'*elements'

      empty =
      suits =, :hearts, :diamonds, :clubs)

    Splat attributes are optional.

    Finally, block attributes are also available:

      class Block
        Value :'&block'

      block ={ |e| e * 2 }

    Block attributes are optional.

    Comparison beyond ‹#==› is possible by specifingy the ‹:comparable› option
    to ‹#Value›, listing one or more attributes that should be included in the

      class Vector
        Value :a, :b, :comparable => :a

    Note that equality (‹#==› and ‹#eql?›) is always defined based on all
    attributes, regardless of arguments to ‹:comparable›.

    Here we say that comparisons between ‹Vector›s should be made between the
    values of the ‹a› attribute only.  We can also make comparisons between all
    attributes of a value object:

      class Vector
        Value :a, :b, :comparable => true

    To sum things up, let’s use all possible arguments to ‹#Value› at once:

      class Method
        Value :file, :line, [:name, 'unnamed'], :'*args', :'&block',
              :comparable => [:file, :line]

    A ‹Method› consists of file and line information, a possible name, some
    arguments, possibly a block, and is comparable on the file and line on
    which they appear.

    Check out the {full API documentation}¹ for a more explicit description,
    should you need it or should you want to extend it.

¹ See

§ Financing

    Currently, most of my time is spent at my day job and in my rather busy
    private life.  Please motivate me to spend time on this piece of software
    by donating some of your money to this project.  Yeah, I realize that
    requesting money to develop software is a bit, well, capitalistic of me.
    But please realize that I live in a capitalistic society and I need money
    to have other people give me the things that I need to continue living
    under the rules of said society.  So, if you feel that this piece of
    software has helped you out enough to warrant a reward, please PayPal a
    donation to now@disu.se¹.  Thanks!  Your support won’t go unnoticed!

¹ Send a donation:

§ Reporting Bugs

    Please report any bugs that you encounter to the {issue tracker}¹.

  ¹ See

§ Authors

    Nikolai Weibull wrote the code, the tests, the manual pages, and this

§ Licensing

    Value is free software: you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the
    terms of the {GNU Lesser General Public License, version 3}¹ or later², as
    published by the {Free Software Foundation}³.

¹ See
² See
³ See