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Setting up PostgreSQL extensions

The provider allows you to specify PostgreSQL extensions that should be set up in your database. Simply use HasPostgresExtension in your context's OnModelCreating:

protected override void OnModelCreating(ModelBuilder modelBuilder) {

Optimistic Concurrency and Concurrency Tokens

Entity Framework supports the concept of optimistic concurrency - a property on your entity is designated as a concurrency token, and EF detects concurrent modifications by checking whether that token has changed since the entity was read. You can read more about this in the EF docs.

Although applications can update concurrency tokens themselves, we frequently rely on the database automatically updating a column on update - a "last modified" timestamp, an SQL Server rowversion, etc. Unfortunately PostgreSQL doesn't have such auto-updating columns - but there is one feature that can be used for concurrency token. All PostgreSQL tables have a set of implicit and hidden system columns, among which xmin holds the ID of the latest updating transaction. Since this value automatically gets updated every time the row is changed, it is ideal for use as a concurrency token.

To enable this feature on an entity, insert the following code into your model's OnModelCreating method:


PostgreSQL Index Methods

PostgreSQL supports a number of index methods, or types. These are specified at index creation time via the USING _method_ clause, see the PostgreSQL docs for CREATE INDEX and this page for info on the different types.

The Npgsql EF Core provider allows you to specify the index method to be used by specifying ForNpgsqlHasMethod() on your index in your context's OnModelCreating:

protected override void OnModelCreating(ModelBuilder modelBuilder) {
        .HasIndex(b => b.Url)

Execution Strategy

Since 2.0.0, the Npgsql provider provides a retrying execution strategy, which will attempt to detect most transient PostgreSQL/network errors and will automatically retry your operation. To enable, place the following code in your context's OnModelConfiguring:

    "<connection string>",
    options => options.EnableRetryOnFailure());

This strategy relies on NpgsqlException's IsTransient property. Both this property and the retrying strategy are new and should be considered somewhat experimental - please report any issues.


PostgreSQL allows you to attach comments to database objects, which can help explain their purpose for someone examining the schema. The EF Core provider supports this for tables or columns, simply set the comment in your model's OnModelCreating as follows:

modelBuilder.Entity<MyEntity>().ForNpgsqlHasComment("Some comment");

Certificate authentication

Npgsql allows you to provide a callback for verifying the server-provided certificates, and to provide a callback for providing certificates to the server. The latter, if properly set up on the PostgreSQL side, allows you to do client certificate authentication - see the Npgsql docs and also the PostgreSQL docs on setting this up.

The Npgsql EF Core provider allows you to set these two callbacks on the DbContextOptionsBuilder as follows:

builder.UseNpgsql("<connection string>", opts => opts.RemoteCertificateValidationCallback(x));

You may also consider passing Trust Server Certificate=true in your connection string to make Npgsql accept whatever certificate your PostgreSQL provides (useful for self-signed certificates).

Database Creation

Specifying the administrative db

When the Npgsql EF Core provider creates or deletes a database (EnsureCreated(), EnsureDeleted()), it must connect to an administrative database which already exists (with PostgreSQL you always have to be connected to some database, even when creating/deleting another database). Up to now the postgres database was used, which is supposed to always be present.

However, there are some PostgreSQL-like databases where the postgres database isn't available. For these cases you can specify the administrative database as follows:

protected override void OnConfiguring(DbContextOptionsBuilder optionsBuilder)
        b => b.UseAdminDatabase("<admin_db>"));

Using a database template

When creating a new database, PostgreSQL allows specifying another "template database" which will be copied as the basis for the new one. This can be useful for including database entities which aren't managed by Entity Framework. You can trigger this by using HasDatabaseTemplate in your context's OnModelCreating:


Setting a tablespace

PostgreSQL allows you to locate your database in different parts of your filesystem, via tablespaces. Npgsql allows you to specify your database's namespace:


You must have created your tablespace prior to this via the CREATE TABLESPACE command - the EF Core provider doesn't do this for you. Note also that specifying a tablespace on specific tables isn't supported.

CockroachDB Interleave In Parent

If you're using CockroachDB, the Npgsql provider exposes its "interleave in parent" feature. Use the following code:

    .ForCockroachDbInterleaveInParent(typeof(ParentEntityType), new List<string> { "prefix_column_1", "prefix_column_2" });