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README

Google C++ Testing Framework
============================
http://code.google.com/p/googletest/

Overview
--------
Google's framework for writing C++ tests on a variety of platforms (Linux, Mac
OS X, Windows, Windows CE, Symbian, and etc). Based on the xUnit architecture.
Supports automatic test discovery, a rich set of assertions, user-defined
assertions, death tests, fatal and non-fatal failures, various options for
running the tests, and XML test report generation.

Please see the project page above for more information as well as mailing lists
for questions, discussions, and development. There is also an IRC channel on
OFTC (irc.oftc.net) #gtest available. Please join us!

Requirements
------------
Google Test is designed to have fairly minimal requirements to build
and use with your projects, but there are some. Currently, we support
building Google Test on Linux, Windows, Mac OS X, and Cygwin.  We will
also make our best effort to support other platforms (e.g. Solaris and
IBM z/OS).  However, since core members of the Google Test project
have no access to them, Google Test may have outstanding issues on
these platforms.  If you notice any problems on your platform, please
notify googletestframework@googlegroups.com (patches for fixing them
are even more welcome!).

### Linux Requirements ###
These are the base requirements to build and use Google Test from a source
package (as described below):
  * GNU-compatible Make or "gmake"
  * POSIX-standard shell
  * POSIX(-2) Regular Expressions (regex.h)
  * A C++98 standards compliant compiler

Furthermore, if you are building Google Test from a VCS Checkout (also
described below), there are further requirements:
  * Automake version 1.9 or newer
  * Autoconf version 2.59 or newer
  * Libtool / Libtoolize
  * Python version 2.4 or newer

### Windows Requirements ###
  * Microsoft Visual Studio 7.1 or newer

### Cygwin Requirements ###
  * Cygwin 1.5.25-14 or newer

### Mac OS X Requirements ###
  * Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger or newer
  * Developer Tools Installed
  * Optional: Xcode 2.5 or later for univeral-binary framework; see note below.

Getting the Source
------------------
There are two primary ways of getting Google Test's source code: you can
download a source release in your preferred archive format, or directly check
out the source from a Version Control System (VCS, we use Google Code's
Subversion hosting). The VCS checkout requires a few extra steps and some extra
software packages on your system, but lets you track development, and make
patches to contribute much more easily, so we highly encourage it.

### VCS Checkout: ###
The first step is to select whether you want to check out the main line of
development on Google Test, or one of the released branches. The former will be
much more active and have the latest features, but the latter provides much
more stability and predictability. Choose whichever fits your needs best, and
proceed with the following Subversion commands:

  svn checkout http://googletest.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/ gtest-svn

or for a release version X.Y.*'s branch:

  svn checkout http://googletest.googlecode.com/svn/branches/release-X.Y/ \
    gtest-X.Y-svn

Next you will need to prepare the GNU Autotools build system, if you
are using Linux, Mac OS X, or Cygwin. Enter the target directory of
the checkout command you used ('gtest-svn' or 'gtest-X.Y-svn' above)
and proceed with the following command:

  autoreconf -fvi

Once you have completed this step, you are ready to build the library. Note
that you should only need to complete this step once. The subsequent `make'
invocations will automatically re-generate the bits of the build system that
need to be changed.

If your system uses older versions of the autotools, the above command will
fail. You may need to explicitly specify a version to use. For instance, if you
have both GNU Automake 1.4 and 1.9 installed and `automake' would invoke the
1.4, use instead:

  AUTOMAKE=automake-1.9 ACLOCAL=aclocal-1.9 autoreconf -fvi

Make sure you're using the same version of automake and aclocal.

### Source Package: ###
Google Test is also released in source packages which can be downloaded from
its Google Code download page[1]. Several different archive formats are
provided, but the only difference is the tools used to manipulate them, and the
size of the resulting file. Download whichever you are most comfortable with.

  [1] Google Test Downloads: http://code.google.com/p/googletest/downloads/list

Once downloaded expand the archive using whichever tools you prefer for that
type. This will always result in a new directory with the name "gtest-X.Y.Z"
which contains all of the source code. Here are some examples in Linux:

  tar -xvzf gtest-X.Y.Z.tar.gz
  tar -xvjf gtest-X.Y.Z.tar.bz2
  unzip gtest-X.Y.Z.zip

Choosing a TR1 Tuple Library
----------------------------
Some Google Test features require the C++ Technical Report 1 (TR1)
tuple library, which is not yet widely available with all compilers.
The good news is that Google Test implements a subset of TR1 tuple
that's enough for its own need, and will automatically use this when
the compiler doesn't provide TR1 tuple.

Usually you don't need to care about which tuple library Google Test
uses.  However, if your project already uses TR1 tuple, you need to
tell Google Test to use the same TR1 tuple library the rest of your
project uses (this requirement is new in Google Test 1.4.0, so you may
need to take care of it when upgrading from an earlier version), or
the two tuple implementations will clash.  To do that, add

  -DGTEST_USE_OWN_TR1_TUPLE=0

to the compiler flags while compiling Google Test and your tests.

If you don't want Google Test to use tuple at all, add

  -DGTEST_HAS_TR1_TUPLE=0

to the compiler flags.  All features using tuple will be disabled in
this mode.

Building the Source
-------------------
### Linux, Mac OS X (without Xcode), and Cygwin ###
There are two primary options for building the source at this point: build it
inside the source code tree, or in a separate directory. We recommend building
in a separate directory as that tends to produce both more consistent results
and be easier to clean up should anything go wrong, but both patterns are
supported. The only hard restriction is that while the build directory can be
a subdirectory of the source directory, the opposite is not possible and will
result in errors. Once you have selected where you wish to build Google Test,
create the directory if necessary, and enter it. The following steps apply for
either approach by simply substituting the shell variable SRCDIR with "." for
building inside the source directory, and the relative path to the source
directory otherwise.

  ${SRCDIR}/configure  # Standard GNU configure script, --help for more info
  make  # Standard makefile following GNU conventions
  make check  # Builds and runs all tests - all should pass

Other programs will only be able to use Google Test's functionality if you
install it in a location which they can access, in Linux this is typically
under '/usr/local'. The following command will install all of the Google Test
libraries, public headers, and utilities necessary for other programs and
libraries to leverage it:

  sudo make install  # Not necessary, but allows use by other programs

Should you need to remove Google Test from your system after having installed
it, run the following command, and it will back out its changes.  However, note
carefully that you must run this command on the *same* Google Test build that
you ran the install from, or the results are not predictable.  If you install
Google Test on your system, and are working from a VCS checkout, make sure you
run this *before* updating your checkout of the source in order to uninstall
the same version which you installed.

  sudo make uninstall  # Must be run against the exact same build as "install"

Your project can build against Google Test simply by leveraging the
'gtest-config' script. This script can be invoked directly out of the 'scripts'
subdirectory of the build tree, and it will be installed in the binary
directory specified during the 'configure'. Here are some examples of its use,
see 'gtest-config --help' for more detailed information.

  gtest-config --min-version=1.0 || echo "Insufficient Google Test version."

  g++ $(gtest-config --cppflags --cxxflags) -o foo.o -c foo.cpp
  g++ $(gtest-config --ldflags --libs) -o foo foo.o

  # When using a built but not installed Google Test:
  g++ $(../../my_gtest_build/scripts/gtest-config ...) ...

### Windows ###
The msvc\ folder contains two solutions with Visual C++ projects. Open the
gtest.sln or gtest-md.sln file using Visual Studio, and you are ready to
build Google Test the same way you build any Visual Studio project. Files
that have names ending with -md use DLL versions of Microsoft runtime
libraries (the /MD or the /MDd compiler option). Files without that suffix
use static versions of the runtime libraries (the /MT or the /MTd option).
Please note that one must use the same option to compile both gtest and his
test code. If you use Visual Studio 2005 or above, we recommend the -md
version as /MD is the default for new projects in these versions of Visual
Studio.

### Mac OS X (universal-binary framework) ###
Open the gtest.xcodeproj in the xcode/ folder using Xcode. Build the "gtest"
target. The universal binary framework will end up in your selected build
directory (selected in the Xcode "Preferences..." -> "Building" pane and
defaults to xcode/build). Alternatively, at the command line, enter:

  xcodebuild

This will build the "Release" configuration of gtest.framework in your
default build location. See the "xcodebuild" man page for more information about
building different configurations and building in different locations.

To test the gtest.framework in Xcode, change the active target to "Check" and
then build. This target builds all of the tests and then runs them. Don't worry
if you see some errors. Xcode reports all test failures (even the intentional
ones) as errors. However, you should see a "Build succeeded" message at the end
of the build log. To run all of the tests from the command line, enter:

  xcodebuild -target Check

Installation with xcodebuild requires specifying an installation desitination
directory, known as the DSTROOT. Three items will be installed when using
xcodebuild:

  $DSTROOT/Library/Frameworks/gtest.framework
  $DSTROOT/usr/local/lib/libgtest.a
  $DSTROOT/usr/local/lib/libgtest_main.a

You specify the installation directory on the command line with the other
xcodebuild options. Here's how you would install in a user-visible location:

  xcodebuild install DSTROOT=~

To perform a system-wide inistall, escalate to an administrator and specify
the file system root as the DSTROOT:

  sudo xcodebuild install DSTROOT=/

To uninstall gtest.framework via the command line, you need to delete the three
items listed above. Remember to escalate to an administrator if deleting these
from the system-wide location using the commands listed below:

  sudo rm -r /Library/Frameworks/gtest.framework
  sudo rm /usr/local/lib/libgtest.a
  sudo rm /usr/local/lib/libgtest_main.a

It is also possible to build and execute individual tests within Xcode. Each
test has its own Xcode "Target" and Xcode "Executable". To build any of the
tests, change the active target and the active executable to the test of
interest and then build and run.

Individual tests can be built from the command line using:

  xcodebuild -target <test_name>

These tests can be executed from the command line by moving to the build
directory and then (in bash)

  export DYLD_FRAMEWORK_PATH=`pwd`
  ./<test_name>  # (e.g. ./gtest_unittest)

To use gtest.framework for your own tests, first, install the framework using
the steps described above. Then add it to your Xcode project by selecting
Project->Add to Project... from the main menu. Next, add libgtest_main.a from
gtest.framework/Resources directory using the same menu command. Finally,
create a new executable target and add gtest.framework and libgtest_main.a to
the "Link Binary With Libraries" build phase.

### Using GNU Make ###
The make/ directory contains a Makefile that you can use to build
Google Test on systems where GNU make is available (e.g. Linux, Mac OS
X, and Cygwin).  It doesn't try to build Google Test's own tests.
Instead, it just builds the Google Test library and a sample test.
You can use it as a starting point for your own Makefile.

If the default settings are correct for your environment, the
following commands should succeed:

  cd ${SRCDIR}/make
  make
  ./sample1_unittest

If you see errors, try to tweak the contents of make/Makefile to make
them go away.  There are instructions in make/Makefile on how to do
it.

### Using Your Own Build System ###
If none of the build solutions we provide works for you, or if you
prefer your own build system, you just need to compile
src/gtest-all.cc into a library and link your tests with it.  Assuming
a Linux-like system and gcc, something like the following will do:

  cd ${SRCDIR}
  g++ -I. -I./include -c src/gtest-all.cc
  ar -rv libgtest.a gtest-all.o
  g++ -I. -I./include path/to/your_test.cc libgtest.a -o your_test

Regenerating Source Files
-------------------------
Some of Google Test's source files are generated from templates (not
in the C++ sense) using a script.  A template file is named FOO.pump,
where FOO is the name of the file it will generate.  For example, the
file include/gtest/internal/gtest-type-util.h.pump is used to generate
gtest-type-util.h in the same directory.

Normally you don't need to worry about regenerating the source files,
unless you need to modify them (e.g. if you are working on a patch for
Google Test).  In that case, you should modify the corresponding .pump
files instead and run the 'pump' script (for Pump is Useful for Meta
Programming) to regenerate them.  We are still working on releasing
the script and its documentation.  If you need it now, please email
googletestframework@googlegroups.com such that we know to make it
happen sooner.

Happy testing!