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import numpy as np
import math
class RobotArm2D:
'''RobotArm2D([xRoot=0, yRoot=0])
xRoot, yRoot (optional): x and y coordinates of the root joint.
Both default to 0 if not set.
thetas: 1D array of joint angles; contains N elements, one per joint.
joints: 4 x N array of joint coordinates; each column is a vector
(column 0 is the root joint and column N-1 is the end effector).
lengths: list of arm link lengths, containing N elements, where
lengths[0] is the first link and lengths[N-1] is the last link,
terminating at the end effector.
def __init__(self, **kwargs):
self.xRoot = kwargs.get('xRoot', 0)
self.yRoot = kwargs.get('yRoot', 0)
self.thetas = np.array([[]], dtype=np.float)
self.joints = np.array([[self.xRoot, self.yRoot, 0, 1]], dtype=np.float).T
self.lengths = []
def add_revolute_link(self, **kwargs):
'''add_revolute_link(length[, thetaInit=0])
Add a revolute joint to the arm with a link whose length is given
by required argument "length". Optionally, the initial angle
of the joint can be specified.
self.joints = np.append(self.joints, np.array([[0,0,0,1]]).T, axis=1)
self.thetas = np.append(self.thetas, kwargs.get('thetaInit', 0))
def get_transformation_matrix(self, theta, x, y):
'''get_transformation_matrix(theta, x, y)
Returns a 4x4 transformation matrix for a 2D rotation
and translation. "theta" specifies the rotation. "x"
and "y" specify the translational offset.
transformationMatrix = np.array([
[math.cos(theta), -math.sin(theta), 0, x],
[math.sin(theta), math.cos(theta), 0, y],
[0, 0, 1, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 1]
return transformationMatrix
def update_joint_coords(self):
Recompute x and y coordinates of each joint and end effector.
# "T" is a cumulative transformation matrix that is the result of
# the multiplication of all transformation matrices up to and including
# the ith joint of the for loop.
T = self.get_transformation_matrix(
self.thetas[0].item(), self.xRoot, self.yRoot)
for i in range(len(self.lengths) - 1):
T_next = self.get_transformation_matrix(
self.thetas[i+1], self.lengths[i], 0)
T =
self.joints[:,[i+1]] =[[0,0,0,1]]).T)
# Update end effector coordinates.
endEffectorCoords = np.array([[self.lengths[-1],0,0,1]]).T
self.joints[:,[-1]] =
def get_jacobian(self):
Return the 3 x N Jacobian for the current set of joint angles.
# Define unit vector "k-hat" pointing along the Z axis.
kUnitVec = np.array([[0,0,1]], dtype=np.float)
jacobian = np.zeros((3, len(self.joints[0,:]) - 1), dtype=np.float)
endEffectorCoords = self.joints[:3,[-1]]
# Utilize cross product to compute each row of the Jacobian matrix.
for i in range(len(self.joints[0,:]) - 1):
currentJointCoords = self.joints[:3,[i]]
jacobian[:,i] = np.cross(
kUnitVec, (endEffectorCoords - currentJointCoords).reshape(3,))
return jacobian
def update_theta(self, deltaTheta):
self.thetas += deltaTheta.flatten()