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Arm has released a MRAS (machine-readable architecture specification) for ARMv8.3-A to the public.

This repository contains an in-progress library for (dis)assembling and analyzing ARMv8.3-A code, part of which is generated from the MRAS. This repository also contains an in-progress implementation of ARM ASL (architecture specification language).


This code generation process is complex, but nix makes it manageable. The entire process is described in ./default.nix. ./nix-results contains some up-to-date nix output for perusal.

  • asl: Library for parsing and (someday) interpreting ARM ASL (Architecture Specification Language).
  • harm:
    • harm-types: Types describing ARM operands.
    • harm-tables-gen: Program whose input is the MRAS and a Haskell file containing logic written in an EDSL describing the (dis)assembly and parsing of each instruction encoding, and whose output is a Haskell library containing types for representing instructions, along with the tables needed to (dis)assemble ARM code and parse and generate assembly.
    • harm-tables: The output of harm-tables-gen, and some manual decoding/encoding logic (in-progress).
    • harm: An interface to harm-tables, along with various other analysis utilities (in-progress).
  • arm-mras:
    • arm-mras-dtd-gen-utils: Program whose input is the MRAS, and whose output is a Haskell library containing types corresponding to the types found in the MRAS DTD's.
    • arm-mras-types: Library containing types for describing the information contained in the MRAS.
    • arm-mras-parse: Library for parsing XML files into the MRAS types, using the DTD's.
    • arm-mras-values-gen: Program whose input is the MRAS, and whose output is part of a Haskell library containing values of the types found in arm-mras-types.
    • arm-mras-values: Library containing expressions of the types found in types. Includes the output of values-gen.
    • arm-mras: Library exporting modules from arm-mras-types and arm-mras-values, along with some useful functions for using the specification.


Decode instructions from an object file:

import Harm
import Harm.Extra
import Control.Monad

main :: IO ()
main = do
    (start, words) <- elfText "../test/nix-results/test.busybox/busybox"
    forM_ (zip [start, start + 4..] words) $ \(offset, word) ->
        putStrLn $ hex offset ++ "  " ++ hex word ++ "  " ++
            case decode word of
                Nothing -> ".inst  " ++ hex word
                Just insn -> padRight 30 (showAsmCol 7 insn) ++ encodingId insn
0000000000400200  d11843ff  sub    sp, sp, #0x610         SUB_64_addsub_imm
0000000000400204  7100041f  subs   wzr, w0, #0x001        SUBS_32S_addsub_imm
0000000000400208  1a9fd7e0  csinc  w0, wzr, wzr, le       CSINC_32_condsel
000000000040020c  6a00003f  ands   wzr, w1, w0            ANDS_32_log_shift
0000000000400210  a9bd7bfd  stp    r29, r30, [sp, #-48]!  STP_64_ldstpair_pre
0000000000400214  910003fd  add    x29, sp, #0x000        ADD_64_addsub_imm
0000000000400218  a90153f3  stp    r19, r20, [sp, #16]    STP_64_ldstpair_off
000000000040021c  d0000c73  adrp   r19, 0x00018e          ADRP_only_pcreladdr
0000000000400220  91358263  add    x3, x19, #0xd60        ADD_64_addsub_imm
0000000000400224  f9400064  ldr    r4, [x3]               LDR_64_ldst_pos

Parse all shared pseudocode:

import ARM.MRAS
import ARM.MRAS.ASL.Parser

import Control.Monad
import Control.Monad.State
import Control.Monad.Except
import System.Exit

parse :: Monad m => String -> StateT [String] (ExceptT PError m) [Definition]
parse asl = StateT $ ExceptT . return . parseDefs asl

main :: IO ()
main = do
    r <- runExceptT . flip runStateT [] $ do
        liftIO (readFile "examples/prelude.asl") >>= parse
        forM_ (topoSort sharedps) $
            parse . _shared_ps_code >=> liftIO . mapM_ print
    case r of
        Left err -> die (show err)
        Right _ -> return ()
    (Just [TyExprId (QIdent Nothing (Ident "boolean"))])
    (QIdent Nothing (Ident "HaveAnyAArch32"))
    (Just (StRet
        (Just (ExprImpDef
            (TyExprId (QIdent Nothing (Ident "boolean"))) Nothing)) :| []))

Print all instruction templates (including aliases) in alphabetical order:

import ARM.MRAS
import Control.Lens
import Data.List
import Data.Monoid

templates :: [String]
templates = sort $ (base ++ fpsimd) ^..
    classes = insn_classes.traverse._1 <> insn_aliases.traverse.alias_class

main = mapM_ putStrLn templates
ABS  <V><d>, <V><n>
ABS  <Vd>.<T>, <Vn>.<T>
ADC  <Wd>, <Wn>, <Wm>
ADC  <Xd>, <Xn>, <Xm>
ADCS  <Wd>, <Wn>, <Wm>
ADCS  <Xd>, <Xn>, <Xm>
ADD  <V><d>, <V><n>, <V><m>
ADD  <Vd>.<T>, <Vn>.<T>, <Vm>.<T>
ADD  <Wd>, <Wn>, <Wm>{, <shift> #<amount>}
ADD  <Wd|WSP>, <Wn|WSP>, #<imm>{, <shift>}


(Dis)assembler and analyzer generated from the machine-readable ARMv8.3-A specification



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