N2n is a light VPN software which make it easy to create virtual networks bypassing intermediate firewalls.
In order to start using N2N, two elements are required:
A supernode: it allows edge nodes to announce and discover other nodes. It must have a port publicly accessible on internet.
Edge nodes: the nodes which will be part of the virtual networks
A virtual network shared between multiple edge nodes in n2n is called a community. A single supernode can relay multiple communities and a single PC can be part of multiple communities at the same time. An encryption key can be used by the edge nodes to encrypt the packets within their community.
N2n tries to enstablish a direct P2P connection between the edge nodes when possible. When this is not possible (usually due to special NAT devices), the supernode is also used to relay the packets.
Some linux distributions already provide n2n as a package so a simple
sudo apt-get install n2n will do the work. Alternatively, up to date packages for most distributions are available on ntop repositories.
On host1 run:
$ sudo edge -c mynetwork -k mysecretpass -a 192.168.100.1 -f -l supernode.ntop.org:7777
On host2 run:
$ sudo edge -c mynetwork -k mysecretpass -a 192.168.100.2 -f -l supernode.ntop.org:7777
Now the two hosts can ping each other.
IMPORTANT It is strongly adviced to choose a custom community name (-c) and a secret encryption key (-k) in order to prevent other users to connect to your PC. For privacy and to reduce the above server load, it is also suggested to set up a custom supernode as exmplained below.
Setting up a custom Supernode
You can create your own infrastructure by setting up a supernode on a public server (e.g. a VPS). You just need to open a single port (1234 in the example below) on your firewall (usually iptables).
- Install the n2n package
/etc/n2n/supernode.confand add the following:
- Start the supernode service with
sudo systemctl start supernode
- Optionally enable supernode start on boot:
sudo systemctl enable supernode
Now the supernode service should be up and running on port 1234. On your edge nodes you can now specify
-l your_supernode_ip:1234 to use it. All the edge nodes must use the same supernode.
Routing the traffic
On linux, n2n provides a standard TAP interface, so routing works gracefully via the standard system utilities as follows.
In this example host1 is the edge router (with n2n IP 192.168.100.1), whereas host2 is the client.
Here is how to configure host1:
- Add the
-roption to the edge options to enable routing
- Enable packet forwarding with
sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
- Possibly configure iptables to
ACCEPTthe packets on the
On host2, run the
edge program as normal to join the host1 community.
In order to forward all the internet traffic via host2:
# Determine the current gateway (e.g. 192.168.1.1) $ ip route show default # Add a route to reach the supernode via such gateway $ sudo ip route add supernode.ntop.org via 192.168.1.1 # Forward all the internet traffic via host1 $ sudo ip route del default $ sudo ip route add default via 192.168.100.1
This process can be greatly simplified by using the n2n_gateway.sh script.
See Routing.md for other use cases and in depth explanation.
On linux, compilation from source is straight forward:
./autogen.sh ./configure make # optionally install make install
For Windows, check out Windows.md for compilation and run instuctions.
For MacOS, check out n2n_on_MacOS.txt.
Running edge as a service
edge can also be run as a service instead of cli:
/etc/n2n/edge.confwith your custom options. See
- Start the service:
sudo systemctl start edge
- Optionally enable edge start on boot:
sudo systemctl enable edge
You can run multiple edge service instances by creating
starting it with
sudo systemctl start edge@instance1.
N2n can tunnel IPv6 traffic into the virtual network but does not support IPv6 for edge-to-supernode communication yet.
Check out IPv6.md for more information.
n2n edge nodes use twofish encryption by default for compatibility reasons with existing versions.
IMPORTANT Encryption is only applied to the packet payload. Some metadata like the virtual MAC address of the edge nodes, their IP address and the community are sent in cleartext.
When encryption is enabled, the supernode will not be able to decrypt the traffic exchanged between two edge nodes, but it will now that edge A is talking with edge B.
Recently AES encryption support has been implemented, which increases both security and performance,
so it is recommended to enable it on all the edge nodes by specifying the
A benchmark of the encryption methods is available when compiled from source with
You can contribute to n2n in variuos ways:
- Update an open issue or create a new one with detailed information
- Propose new features
- Improve the documentation
- Provide pull requests with enhancenents
For details about the internals of n2n check out Hacking guide.
Here is a list of third-party projects connected to this repository.
- N2n for android: hin2n
- N2n v1 and v2 version from meyerd: meyerd n2n
- Docker images: DockerHub - DockerStore
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