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Getting Started with Characters

A Note about Side Channels

The NuCypher network does not store or handle an application's data; instead - it manages access to application data. Management of encrypted secrets and public keys tends to be highly domain-specific - The surrounding architecture will vary greatly depending on the throughput, sensitivity, and sharing cadence of application secrets. In all cases, NuCypher must be integrated with a storage and transport layer in order to function properly. Along with the transport of ciphertexts, a nucypher application also needs to include channels for Alice and Bob to discover each other's public keys, and provide policy encrypting information to Bob and Enrico.

Side Channel Application Data
  • Secrets:
    • Message Kits - Encrypted Messages, or "Ciphertexts"
  • Identities:
    • Alice Verifying Key - Public key used for verifying Alice
    • Bob Encrypting Key - Public key used to encrypt for Bob
    • Bob Verifying Key - Public key used to verify Bob
  • Policies:
    • Policy Encrypting Key - Public key used to encrypt messages for a Policy.
    • Labels - A label for specifying a Policy's target, like a filepath

Running an Ethereum Node

Operation of a decentralized NuCypher character [Alice, Bob, Ursula] requires a connection to an Ethereum node and wallet to interact with smart contracts (https://docs.nucypher.com/en/latest/architecture/contracts.html).

For general background information about choosing a node technology and operation, see https://web3py.readthedocs.io/en/stable/node.html.

In this guide, a local Geth node connected to the Goerli Testnet is used. For detailed information on using the geth CLI and Javascript console, see https://geth.ethereum.org/interface/Command-Line-Options.

To run a Goerli-connected Geth node in fast syncing mode:

$ geth --goerli

To run a Goerli-connected Geth node in light syncing mode:

$ geth --goerli --syncmode light

Note that using --syncmode light is not 100% stable but can be a life savior when using a mobile connection (or congested hackathon wifi...).

Connect to the Geth Console to test your ethereum node's IPC:

$ geth attach ~/.ethereum/goerli/geth.ipc

Wallets

To list available accounts on your geth node (Hardware wallet addresses will also be listed here if one is attached to the system hardware):

$ geth attach ~/.ethereum/goerli/geth.ipc
> eth.accounts
["0x287a817426dd1ae78ea23e9918e2273b6733a43d"]

To create a new software based Geth account:

$ geth attach ~/.ethereum/goerli/geth.ipc
> personal.newAccount()
...
"0xc080708026a3a280894365efd51bb64521c45147"

Note that the Geth console does not return EIP-55 compliant checksum addresses, and instead will output the lowercase version of the address. Since Nucypher requires EIP-55 checksum addresses, you will need to convert your address to checksum format:

> web3.toChecksumAddress(eth.accounts[0])
"0x287A817426DD1AE78ea23e9918e2273b6733a43D"

Connecting to The NuCypher Network

Provider URI

Nucypher uses the ethereum node's IPC-File to communicate, specified by provider_uri. By default in ubuntu, the path is ~/.ethereum/goerli/geth.ipc - This path will also be logged to the geth-running console on startup.

Connecting Nucypher to an Ethereum Provider

from nucypher.blockchain.eth.interfaces import BlockchainInterfaceFactory
BlockchainInterfaceFactory.initialize_interface(provider_uri='~/.ethereum/goerli/geth.ipc')

Ursula: Untrusted Re-Encryption Proxies

When initializing an Alice, Bob, or Ursula, an initial "Stranger-Ursula" is needed to perform the role of a Teacher, or "seednode":

from nucypher.characters.lawful import Ursula

seed_uri = "discover.nucypher.network:9151"
seed_uri2 = "104.248.215.144:9151"

ursula = Ursula.from_seed_and_stake_info(seed_uri=seed_uri)
another_ursula = Ursula.from_seed_and_stake_info(seed_uri=seed_uri2)

Stranger Ursulas can be created by invoking the from_seed_and_stake_info method, then a list of known_nodes can be passed into any Character's init. The known_nodes will inform your character of all of the nodes they know about network-wide, then kick-off the automated node-discovery loop:

from nucypher.characters.lawful import Alice
alice = Alice(known_nodes=[ursula, another_ursula], ...)

For information on how to run a staking Ursula node via CLI, see https://docs.nucypher.com/en/latest/guides/staking_guide.html

Alice: Grant Access to a Secret

Setup Alice

Create a NuCypher Keyring

from nucypher.config import NucypherKeyring
keyring = NucypherKeyring.generate(checksum_address='0x287A817426DD1AE78ea23e9918e2273b6733a43D', password=PASSWORD)
from nucypher.characters.lawful import Alice, Ursula

ursula = Ursula.from_seed_and_stake_info(seed_uri='discover.nucypher.network:9151')

# Unlock Alice's Keyring
keyring = NucypherKeyring(account='0x287A817426DD1AE78ea23e9918e2273b6733a43D')
keyring.unlock(password=PASSWORD)

# Instantiate Alice
alice = Alice(keyring=keyring, known_nodes=[ursula], provider_uri='~/.ethereum/goerli/geth.ipc')

# Start Node Discovery
alice.start_learning_loop(now=True)

Alice needs to know about Bob in order to grant access by acquiring Bob's public key's through the application side channel:

from umbral.keys import UmbralPublicKey

verifying_key = UmbralPublicKey.from_hex(verifying_key),
encrypting_key = UmbralPublicKey.from_hex(encryption_key)

Grant

Then, Alice can grant access to Bob:

from nucypher.characters.lawful import Bob
from datetime import timedelta
import maya


bob = Bob.from_public_keys(verifying_key=bob_verifying_key,  encrypting_key=bob_encrypting_key)
policy_end_datetime = maya.now() + timedelta(days=5)  # Five days from now
policy = alice.grant(bob,
                     label=b'my-secret-stuff',  # Sent to Bob via side channel
                     m=2, n=3,
                     expiration=policy_end_datetime)

policy_encrypting_key = policy.public_key

Enrico: Encrypt a Secret

Setup Enrico

First, A policy_encrypting_key must be retrieved from the application side channel, then to encrypt a secret using Enrico:

Encrypt

from nucypher.characters.lawful import Enrico

enrico = Enrico(policy_encrypting_key=policy_encrypting_key)
ciphertext, signature = enrico.encrypt_message(message=b'Peace at dawn.')

The ciphertext can then be sent to Bob via the application side channel.

Note that Alice can get the public key even before creating the policy. From this moment on, any Data Source (Enrico) that knows the public key can encrypt data originally intended for Alice, but can be shared with any Bob that Alice grants access.

policy_pubkey = alice.get_policy_encrypting_key_from_label(label)

Bob: Decrypt a Secret

For Bob to retrieve a secret, The ciphertext, label, policy encrypting key, and Alice's veryfying key must all be fetched from the application side channel. Then, Bob constructs his perspective of the policy's network actors:

Setup Bob

from nucypher.characters.lawful import Alice, Bob, Enrico, Ursula

# Application Side-Channel
# --------------------------
# label = <Side Channel>
# ciphertext = <Side Channel>
# policy_encrypting_key = <Side Channel>
# alice_verifying_key = <Side Channel>

# Everyone!
ursula = Ursula.from_seed_and_stake_info(seed_uri='discover.nucypher.network:9151')
alice = Alice.from_public_keys(verifying_key=alice_verifying_key)
enrico = Enrico(policy_encrypting_key=policy_encrypting_key)

# Generate and unlock Bob's keyring
keyring = NucypherKeyring.generate(checksum_address='0xC080708026a3A280894365Efd51Bb64521c45147', password=PASSWORD)
keyring.unlock(PASSWORD)

# Make Bob
bob = Bob(known_nodes=[ursula], checksum_address="0xC080708026a3A280894365Efd51Bb64521c45147")

Join a Policy

Next, Bob needs to join the policy:

bob.join_policy(label=label, alice_verifying_key=alice.public_keys(SigningPower), block=True)

Retrieve and Decrypt

Then Bob can retrieve, and decrypt the ciphertext:

cleartexts = bob.retrieve(label=label,
                          message_kit=ciphertext,
                          data_source=enrico,
                          alice_verifying_key=alice.public_keys(SigningPower))
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