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This project is in Maintenance Mode

We have no plans to further develop this codebase or release new versions of applications contained within this repository.

HTM Studio by Numenta

Cross-platform Desktop Application to demonstrate basic HTM functionality to users using their own data files.


Dual Commercial and AGPLv3 License. See LICENSE.txt and


The app/ directory contains Cross-platform Desktop Application GUI code, running Javascript/HTML/CSS/etc. on Node.js, Electron, and Google Chromium. It also contains non-GUI logic to run and manage HTM Models on the model runner.

The py/ directory contains ModelRunner and supporting code (Python / C++), which drives the main functionality of the app, which it is our goal to demo to the user.

Filesystem Tree

tree output last updated Thu Apr 7 08:15:13 PDT 2016:

./                          # Git Repo Root
├── .babelrc                # ES7 ES6 => JS transpiler global settings
├── .eslintrc               # JS/ES lint settings
├── .pylintrc               # Python lint settings
├──         # Module dependency overview file
├── LICENSE.txt             # Dual: Commercial and AGPLv3
├──               # This file. A project overview.
├── app/                    # Frontend+GUI that exposes NuPIC HTM models to User
│   ├── browser/            # JS+HTML+CSS as GUI in electron's Renderer Process
│   │   ├── actions/        # FLUX Fluxible Actions JS
│   │   ├── entry.js        # Fluxible Web GUI App entry, compiles to bundle.js  
│   │   ├── assets/         # Browser/GUI images, icons, and other assets
│   │   │   ├── bundle/     # Auto-generated WebPack output bundle target dir
│   │   │   ├── images/     # GUI imagery
│   │   │   └── styles/     # CSS for GUI (global-like styles, overrides, etc).
│   │   ├── components/     # FLUX React view components JSX
│   │   ├── index.html      # App main startup browser window contents
│   │   ├── lib/            # Library code for the browser, extensions, plugins
│   │   └── stores/         # FLUX Fluxible Stores JS
│   ├── config/             # JS Config files, both auto-init with nconf, more.
│   ├── database/           # File-based database storage (levelup + leveldown)
│   │   └── schema/         # Database definition schemas in JSONSchema Draft-3
│   ├── main/               # JS for Electron's "Main Process", App init startup
│   │   ├── index.js        # ES6 Electron App main entry, init GUI, run models
│   │   └── loader.js       # Electron App entry loader for main.js ES5 => ES6
│   ├── node_modules/       # Where npm installs packages for distribution
│   ├── package.json        # npm dependencies and config for distribution
│   └── samples/            # Sample .CSV data files to pre-load for user in GUI
├── build/                  # Distribution assets, images, icons, etc.
├── coverage/               # JS Unit+Integration test coverage output (!git)
├── dist/                   # Installers and disk images for distribution
├── docs/                   # Output dir for generated JS docs (not in git)
├── esdoc.json              # ESDoc configuration file
├── node_modules/           # Where npm installs packages for development
├── package.json            # npm dependencies and config for development
├── py/                     # ModelRunner and support Python/C++ code
│   └──           # Python Backend instructions
├── scripts/                # Building and cross-platform Portability scripts
├── tests/                  # All tests, javascript, python, unit, integration
│   ├── data/               # Data tests, bad formats, etc.
│   ├── js/                 # JS tests, config,  unit and integration
│   └── py/                 # Python tests, config, unit and integration
└── webpack.config.babel.js # JS build tooling config




See: py/requirements.txt

  • Languages:
  • Machine Intelligence:
    • NuPIC


The Machine Intelligence behind this app is a technology known as Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM). NuPIC is Numenta's open source HTM engine. NuPIC runs on streams of data, predicting future values, and detecting pattern anomalies.



See: package.json


The Frontend contains code to manage Models on the Backend. It also contains the Graphical User Interface that allows users to explore HTM Models on their own data.

The GUI for this application is web code. Javascript, HTML, and CSS are loaded into a browser. For Desktop, this browser is a bare-bones Chrome window opened by the Electron framework. Electron also runs Node.js to connect with the host Operating System, allowing for cross-platform native controls.

In the browser, we run a one-way Uni-directional data flow, an Architecture known as "Flux".

Below is an example of tracing of our way through GUI initialization, GUI first loop run, and GUI loop continuation:

  1. Electron loads app/main.js
  2. .. which (or Browser directly) loads app/browser/index.html
  3. .. which loads app/browser/app.js
  4. .. which inits Fluxible
  5. .. and then Fluxible fires off an initial Action
  6. .. which dispatches Events with state data to Stores
  7. .. which then integrate state data into themselves
  8. .. and then View Components tied to updated Stores render
  9. .. and then The User interacts with the app firing off a new Action
  10. .. GOTO #6, RINSE and REPEAT.


  • ECMAScript Styleguide: npm run lint, Rules: .eslintrc
  • HTML5 and JSX @TODO
  • CSS3 @TODO


IMPORTANT: These setup instructions are only about if you care about running the full app with all its components (Electron app with packaged model runner). If you care about the python only - for example - then change to unicorn/py and follow the README instructions there.

Example of setting up development environment on Mac OS/X:

brew install git node chromedriver
git clone
cd numenta-apps/unicorn
python py/ install
npm install



To install without the lengthy python bundle, assuming the desired python bundle is already installed:

npm install --no-optional



Execute the following command after making changes to unicorn_backend code:

npm run install:backend

IMPORTANT: run this if you updated the python code in py/unicorn_backend and you want these changes to take effect in the portable python distribution run by the electron app.


npm run dev

# see pretty logs
npm run dev | `npm bin`/bunyan

# same thing, but explicit
NODE_ENV=development npm run dev


Frontend code documentation can be generated and viewed by following the directions below. Comments are in JSDoc format, with output generated by ESDoc.

npm run docs  # generate and open documentation

Packaging and distribution

We use electron-builder to build and package the application for distribution. The authors of electron-builder strongly recommend to use two package.json files.

Two package.json structure:

  1. For development In the root of the project. Here you declare dependencies for your development environment, tests and build scripts.

  2. For your application In the app directory. Only this directory is distributed with real application.

npm Scripts

Here are the npm scripts available via npm run <script-name>. Please see package.json for more info.

  • build:osx: Run all steps required to build the application (OSX)
  • build:win: Run all steps required to build the application (Windows)
  • clean: Clean all build an runtime artifacts
    • clean:backend: Delete python backend packages
    • clean:dist: Delete all build artifacts
    • clean:osx: Delete build artifacts (OSX)
    • clean:win: Delete build artifacts (Windows)
    • clean:db:osx: Delete database files (OSX)
    • clean:docs: Delete documentation
    • clean:npm: Delete npm installed packages
    • clean:portable_python:osx: Delete cached portable_python package (OSX)
    • clean:portable_python:win: Delete cached portable_python package (Windows)
    • clean:python: Delete python build artifacts
    • clean:webpack: Clean compiled/packaged JS code
  • dev: Launch Desktop application
  • dev:debug: Launch in debug mode. See Electron Documentation for instructions on how to use the debugger
  • dev:inspect: Launch node-inspector used to debug Electron application. See Electron Documentation for detailed instructions on how to use the debugger
  • docs: Build documentation (esdoc)
  • dist:osx: Build Mac OSX distribution artifacts
  • dist:win: Build Windows distribution artifacts
  • electron: Launch Electron
  • electron:debug: Launch Electron in debug mode. See Electron Documentation for instructions on how to use the debugger
  • electron:packager: Build installable packages
  • esfmt: Format JS code (esformatter)
  • lint: Lint JS code (eslint)
  • pack:osx: Package the electron app as a Mac OSX Application
  • pack:win: Package the electron app as a Windows Application
  • prepare: Prepare code for packaging
  • test: Run all JS tests using developer options. See mocha.opts
    • test:integration: Run all JS integration tests
    • test:unit: Run all JS unit tests
    • test:functional: Run all JS functional tests
  • test:pipeline: Run all JS tests using pipeline options. See mocha.opts
    • test:pipeline:integration: Run all JS integration tests
    • test:pipeline:unit: Run all JS unit tests
  • test:coverage: Run test coverage on all JS unit+integration tests, and open reports when done in browser.


  • Maybe the DB stored bad data? npm run clean:db:osx.
  • Sometimes node_modules/ directory can become corrupted, try cleaning and reinstalling (slow): npm run clean ; npm install.
  • Local Git repo can get stuck with out-of-date JS somehow, so back up your current repo, and try again on a fresh repo clone.

Development Notes

  • Do not upgrade the following node/npm packages without syncing with the rest of the team first. The Mac build box is dependent on these versions, and must be upgraded in parallel:
    • node, npm, electron-packager, electron-prebuilt
  • Make sure to update packages often, especially after pulling an update into your branch:
    • npm oudated -depth 0
    • pip list --outdated
  • Lint your code before creating pull requests: npm run lint
  • Manual access to LevelDB file database from Lev command-line tool (Mac OS/X):
    • `npm bin`/lev $HOME/Library/Application\ Support/unicorn/database/
  • Remember, this is cross-platform. We need to support all main operating systems. Windows has no environment variables, etc. Paths should not be defined manually, but use the path library helper instead.


Unit and Integration Tests

Write Unit and Integration tests using mocha test framework.

Write Functional or e2e tests using selenium and webdriverio test automation frameworks.

npm run test              # all
npm run test:unit         # unit tests only
npm run test:integration  # integration tests only
npm run test:functional   # functional tests only

To run the (python) backend integration tests with the portable python distribution run:

npm run test:integration:backend

Optional: you might want to run a npm run clean && npm install before running the test to make you have an up-to-date portable python distribution.

This will make sure (among other things) that the model_runner and param_finder are giving results that are compatible with the NAB ones. That is to say:

  • Make sure that the new system (param_finder + model_runner) detects the same set of anomalies as NAB.
  • It is ok for the new system to detect anomalies earlier than the NAB results.
  • It is not OK for the new system to have significantly more false positives than the NAB detections.

Pipeline Tests

To generate reults appropriate for the pipeline mocha needs to run with a different set of options (see mocha.pipeline.opts).

npm run test:pipeline               # pipeline all
npm run test:pipeline:unit          # pipeline unit tests only
npm run test:pipeline:integration   # pipeline integration tests only

Test Coverage

Use the following to generate JS Unit and Integration test code coverage results, build the reports, and open them in browser for display. Output data is in the untracked ./coverage/ directory.

npm run test:coverage     # run code coverage on js unit+int tests

Common Test Problems

Python Path


Uncaught AssertionError: Fatal Python error: PyThreadState_Get: no current thread




Mac OS/X

Build the electron app with:

npm run build:osx

# same thing, but explicit
NODE_ENV=production npm run build:osx

The resulting artifacts can be found in dist/


npm run build:win

# same thing, but explicit
NODE_ENV=production npm run build:win

The resulting artifacts can be found in dist/



  • You need a certificate type of “Developer ID Application” from Apple. This certificate usually has a common name in the form of Developer ID Application: YourCompany, Inc. (ABCDEFGHIJK).
  • Set the environment variable CSC_NAME and sign the app: export CSC_NAME="Developer ID Application: Numenta, Inc. (ABCDEFGHIJK)"
  • Now when you package with npm run build:osx, the app will be signed.
  • See electron-builder#code-signing for more info.

Google Analytics


App Store


npm run dev:debug  # open http://localhost:5858 in browser


  • @TODO Python, NuPIC, Models, debugging etc.

Node.js system-level


Frontend + Browser

Warning: React Chrome DevTools does not yet work with Electron.


Release management

How to create a release?

  • Create a branch called "htm-studio-vX" where X is the version number
  • Update app/package.json with new version number
  • The convention for version numbers is semantic versioning
  • For example, we have a branch called htm-studio-v0.0.1

Automatic Updates

HTM Studio uses Electron built-in support for automatic updates based on Squirrel.Mac and Squirrel.Windows. For more information see

Mac OSX (darwin)

  1. Create update package using npm run build:osx
  2. Upload update package dist/HTM Studio-darwin-x64/HTM to update site.

The update site URL is composed of the update URL specified in app/config/default.json under update:url key and the platform name. For example, if the update URL points to then the darwin version should be uploaded to

  1. Upload manifest to update site. The update manifest should be named after the old version describing the new version. For example, if updating from version 0.0.1 to version 0.0.2 then the update manifest should be named update.0.0.1.json and point to HTM For more information on the update.version.json format see

Sample manifest file:

  • update.0.0.2.json
  "url": "",
  "name": "0.0.3",
  "notes": "* Automatic Updates \n* Improved Charts \n* Fix timezone when exporting results",
  "pub_date": "2016-02-02T21:51:58Z"

These variables can be used to format the update dialog shown to the user once a new update is available. See app/config/default.json under update:message and update:detail.

Here is a sample message formatting:
"update": {
    "message": "A new version of HTM Studio (%name) is available",
    "detail": "What's new in version %name:\n%notes",