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Center for Democracy & Technology

So You Want to Build an Ethical Algorithm...

Design

Concept

As you design the goal and the purpose of your machine learning product, you must first ask: Who is your audience?

  • Is your product or analysis meant to include all people?
  • And, if not: is it targeted to an exclusive audience?
  • Is there a person on your team tasked specifically with identifying and resolving bias and discrimination issues?

Scope

After you have defined the concept of your machine learning problem, you need to identify possible outcomes and define criteria that contribute to them.

  • How transparent will you be about the relationships between the inputs and the anticipated outcomes?
  • Are there sensitive characteristics you need to monitor in your data in order to observe their effect on your outputs?

Then you will need to define expected results.

  • Could your expectations rely on unacknowledged bias of you and your team?

One way to check: have you asked a diverse audience if your expectations make sense to them?

Data

Once the concept and scope have been defined, it is time to focus on the acquisition, evaluation, and cleaning of data.

Acquire Data (buy, collect, generate)
  • Did the data come from a system prone to human error?
  • Is the data current?
  • What technology facilitated the collection of the data?
  • Was participation of the data subjects voluntary?
  • Does the context of the collection match the context of your use?
  • Was your data collected by people or a system that was operating with quotas or a particular incentive structure?

Evaluate & Describe Data
  • Who is represented in the data?
  • Who is under-represented or absent from your data?
  • Can you find additional data, or use statistical methods, to make your data more inclusive?
  • Was the data collected in an environment where data subjects had meaningful choices?
  • How does the data reflect the perspective of the institution that collected it?
  • Were fields within the data inferred or appended beyond what was clear to the data subject?
  • Would this use of the data surprise the data subjects?

Clean Data
  • Are there any fields that should be eliminated from your data?
  • Can you use anonymization or pseudonymization techniques to avoid needless evaluation or processing of individual data?

Constrain

Establish logic for variables
  • Can you describe the logic that connects the variables to the output of your equation?
  • Do your variables have a causal relationship to the results they predict?
  • How did you determine what weight to give each variable?

Identify assumptions
  • Will your variables apply equally across race, gender, age, disability, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, etc.?
  • What are you assuming about the kinds of people in your data set?
  • Would you be comfortable explaining your assumptions to the public?
  • What assumptions are you relying on to determine the relevant variables and their weights?

Define success
  • What amount and type of error do you expect?
  • How will you ensure your system is behaving the way you intend? How reliable is it?

Build

Data Process

How will you choose your analytical method? For example, predictive analytics, machine learning (supervised, unsupervised), neural networks or deep learning, etc.

  • How much transparency does this method allow your end users and yourself?
  • Are non-deterministic outcomes acceptable given your legal or ethical obligations around transparency and explainability?
  • Does your choice of analytical method allow you to sufficiently explain your results?
  • What particular tasks are associated with the type of analytical method you are using?

Tools

You have two options. The first: will you need to choose tools from available libraries?

  • How could results that look successful still contain bias?
  • Is there a trustworthy or audited source for the tools you need?
  • Have the tools you are using been associated with biased products?

Or will you build new tools from scratch?

  • Can you or a third-party test your tools for any features that can result in biased or unfair outcomes?

Feedback Mechanism

Internal
  • Have you built in a mechanism to track anomalous results so that they can be analyzed?
  • Is there a person on your team tasked with identifying the technical cause of biased outcomes?

External
  • Is there a way for users to report problematic results including potentially discriminatory treatment?

Test

Run Model

After you audit the results, you must test the model on preliminary data set(s).

  • Can you test your product using a data set that is representative (or over-samples) a diverse population based on race, socioeconomic status, gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, age, disability, education, etc.?

Audit Results

Then you wil need to determine if your model performed in a way that you designed.

  • Is a person accountable for addressing biased results and resolving issues with errors?
  • Did your feedback mechanism capture and report anomalous results in a way that allows you to check for biased outcomes?
  • What about the results is consistent with your expectations? Where do the results deviate?

Identify Errors

Examine the distribution of errors
  • Are errors evenly distributed across all demographics?
  • Is the type of error the same for different populations? (i.e., false positives vs. false negatives)

Evaluate effect of error
  • What is the impact on an individual of a false positive?
  • What is the impact on an individual of a false negative?

Re-evaluate Variables and Data

You will need to address errors by changing your variables and/or data.

  • Process any new data and variables with the same inquiry as the original model.
  • What factors are predominant in determining outcomes?
  • Are unintended factors or variables correlated with sensitive characteristics?

Implement

Contextualize Results

Consider quality of results
  • What degree of confidence do you have in the results given the limitations of the data, etc.?
  • Are these results a good basis on which to make a decision?

Interpret Results
  • Does your product work equally as well for all types of people?
  • Can you determine metrics that demonstrate the reliability of your model (the degree to which it performs as expected)?
  • Can you inform future users of the data, current data subjects, and other audiences of your product about its weaknesses and remaining biases?

Monitor Results

Critically examine results for disparate impacts.
  • Where could bias have come into this analysis?
  • Is there a way for users to appeal a decision?
  • Is there a way for data subjects to report that they may have been treated unfairly?
  • Do you discard the data? If not, how do you keep it secure?