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Support code for building Python extensions on Windows.
# NT stuff
# 1. Make sure libpython<version>.a exists for gcc. If not, build it.
# 2. Force windows to use gcc (we're struggling with MSVC and g77 support)
# 3. Force windows to use g77
from __future__ import division, absolute_import, print_function
import os
import sys
import subprocess
import re
# Overwrite certain distutils.ccompiler functions:
import numpy.distutils.ccompiler
if sys.version_info[0] < 3:
from . import log
from numpy.distutils import log
# NT stuff
# 1. Make sure libpython<version>.a exists for gcc. If not, build it.
# 2. Force windows to use gcc (we're struggling with MSVC and g77 support)
# --> this is done in numpy/distutils/
# 3. Force windows to use g77
import distutils.cygwinccompiler
from distutils.version import StrictVersion
from numpy.distutils.ccompiler import gen_preprocess_options, gen_lib_options
from distutils.unixccompiler import UnixCCompiler
from distutils.msvccompiler import get_build_version as get_build_msvc_version
from distutils.errors import (DistutilsExecError, CompileError,
from numpy.distutils.misc_util import (msvc_runtime_library,
def get_msvcr_replacement():
"""Replacement for outdated version of get_msvcr from cygwinccompiler"""
msvcr = msvc_runtime_library()
return [] if msvcr is None else [msvcr]
# monkey-patch cygwinccompiler with our updated version from misc_util
# to avoid getting an exception raised on Python 3.5
distutils.cygwinccompiler.get_msvcr = get_msvcr_replacement
# Useful to generate table of symbols from a dll
_START = re.compile(r'\[Ordinal/Name Pointer\] Table')
_TABLE = re.compile(r'^\s+\[([\s*[0-9]*)\] ([a-zA-Z0-9_]*)')
# the same as cygwin plus some additional parameters
class Mingw32CCompiler(distutils.cygwinccompiler.CygwinCCompiler):
""" A modified MingW32 compiler compatible with an MSVC built Python.
compiler_type = 'mingw32'
def __init__ (self,
distutils.cygwinccompiler.CygwinCCompiler.__init__ (self, verbose,
dry_run, force)
# we need to support 3.2 which doesn't match the standard
# get_versions methods regex
if self.gcc_version is None:
import re
p = subprocess.Popen(['gcc', '-dumpversion'], shell=True,
out_string =
result ='(\d+\.\d+)', out_string)
if result:
self.gcc_version = StrictVersion(
# A real mingw32 doesn't need to specify a different entry point,
# but cygwin 2.91.57 in no-cygwin-mode needs it.
if self.gcc_version <= "2.91.57":
entry_point = '--entry _DllMain@12'
entry_point = ''
if self.linker_dll == 'dllwrap':
# Commented out '--driver-name g++' part that fixes weird
# g++.exe: g++: No such file or directory
# error (mingw 1.0 in Enthon24 tree, gcc-3.4.5).
# If the --driver-name part is required for some environment
# then make the inclusion of this part specific to that
# environment.
self.linker = 'dllwrap' # --driver-name g++'
elif self.linker_dll == 'gcc':
self.linker = 'g++'
# **changes: eric jones 4/11/01
# 1. Check for import library on Windows. Build if it doesn't exist.
# Check for custom msvc runtime library on Windows. Build if it doesn't exist.
msvcr_success = build_msvcr_library()
msvcr_dbg_success = build_msvcr_library(debug=True)
if msvcr_success or msvcr_dbg_success:
# add preprocessor statement for using customized msvcr lib
# Define the MSVC version as hint for MinGW
msvcr_version = msvc_runtime_version()
if msvcr_version:
self.define_macro('__MSVCRT_VERSION__', '0x%04i' % msvcr_version)
# MS_WIN64 should be defined when building for amd64 on windows,
# but python headers define it only for MS compilers, which has all
# kind of bad consequences, like using Py_ModuleInit4 instead of
# Py_ModuleInit4_64, etc... So we add it here
if get_build_architecture() == 'AMD64':
if self.gcc_version < "4.0":
compiler='gcc -g -DDEBUG -DMS_WIN64 -mno-cygwin -O0 -Wall',
compiler_so='gcc -g -DDEBUG -DMS_WIN64 -mno-cygwin -O0'
' -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes',
linker_exe='gcc -g -mno-cygwin',
linker_so='gcc -g -mno-cygwin -shared')
# gcc-4 series releases do not support -mno-cygwin option
compiler='gcc -g -DDEBUG -DMS_WIN64 -O0 -Wall',
compiler_so='gcc -g -DDEBUG -DMS_WIN64 -O0 -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes',
linker_exe='gcc -g',
linker_so='gcc -g -shared')
if self.gcc_version <= "3.0.0":
compiler='gcc -mno-cygwin -O2 -w',
compiler_so='gcc -mno-cygwin -mdll -O2 -w'
' -Wstrict-prototypes',
linker_exe='g++ -mno-cygwin',
linker_so='%s -mno-cygwin -mdll -static %s' %
(self.linker, entry_point))
elif self.gcc_version < "4.0":
compiler='gcc -mno-cygwin -O2 -Wall',
compiler_so='gcc -mno-cygwin -O2 -Wall'
' -Wstrict-prototypes',
linker_exe='g++ -mno-cygwin',
linker_so='g++ -mno-cygwin -shared')
# gcc-4 series releases do not support -mno-cygwin option
self.set_executables(compiler='gcc -O2 -Wall',
compiler_so='gcc -O2 -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes',
linker_exe='g++ ',
linker_so='g++ -shared')
# added for python2.3 support
# we can't pass it through set_executables because pre 2.2 would fail
self.compiler_cxx = ['g++']
# Maybe we should also append -mthreads, but then the finished dlls
# need another dll (mingwm10.dll see Mingw32 docs) (-mthreads: Support
# thread-safe exception handling on `Mingw32')
# no additional libraries needed
# __init__ ()
def link(self,
export_symbols = None,
# Include the appropriate MSVC runtime library if Python was built
# with MSVC >= 7.0 (MinGW standard is msvcrt)
runtime_library = msvc_runtime_library()
if runtime_library:
if not libraries:
libraries = []
args = (self,
None, #export_symbols, we do this in our def-file
if self.gcc_version < "3.0.0":
func =
func =
def object_filenames (self,
if output_dir is None: output_dir = ''
obj_names = []
for src_name in source_filenames:
# use normcase to make sure '.rc' is really '.rc' and not '.RC'
(base, ext) = os.path.splitext (os.path.normcase(src_name))
# added these lines to strip off windows drive letters
# without it, .o files are placed next to .c files
# instead of the build directory
drv, base = os.path.splitdrive(base)
if drv:
base = base[1:]
if ext not in (self.src_extensions + ['.rc', '.res']):
raise UnknownFileError(
"unknown file type '%s' (from '%s')" % \
(ext, src_name))
if strip_dir:
base = os.path.basename (base)
if ext == '.res' or ext == '.rc':
# these need to be compiled to object files
obj_names.append (os.path.join (output_dir,
base + ext + self.obj_extension))
obj_names.append (os.path.join (output_dir,
base + self.obj_extension))
return obj_names
# object_filenames ()
def find_python_dll():
# We can't do much here:
# - find it in the virtualenv (sys.prefix)
# - find it in python main dir (sys.base_prefix, if in a virtualenv)
# - sys.real_prefix is main dir for virtualenvs in Python 2.7
# - in system32,
# - ortherwise (Sxs), I don't know how to get it.
stems = [sys.prefix]
if hasattr(sys, 'base_prefix') and sys.base_prefix != sys.prefix:
elif hasattr(sys, 'real_prefix') and sys.real_prefix != sys.prefix:
sub_dirs = ['', 'lib', 'bin']
# generate possible combinations of directory trees and sub-directories
lib_dirs = []
for stem in stems:
for folder in sub_dirs:
lib_dirs.append(os.path.join(stem, folder))
# add system directory as well
if 'SYSTEMROOT' in os.environ:
lib_dirs.append(os.path.join(os.environ['SYSTEMROOT'], 'System32'))
# search in the file system for possible candidates
major_version, minor_version = tuple(sys.version_info[:2])
patterns = ['python%d%d.dll']
for pat in patterns:
dllname = pat % (major_version, minor_version)
print("Looking for %s" % dllname)
for folder in lib_dirs:
dll = os.path.join(folder, dllname)
if os.path.exists(dll):
return dll
raise ValueError("%s not found in %s" % (dllname, lib_dirs))
def dump_table(dll):
st = subprocess.Popen(["objdump.exe", "-p", dll], stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
return st.stdout.readlines()
def generate_def(dll, dfile):
"""Given a dll file location, get all its exported symbols and dump them
into the given def file.
The .def file will be overwritten"""
dump = dump_table(dll)
for i in range(len(dump)):
if _START.match(dump[i].decode()):
raise ValueError("Symbol table not found")
syms = []
for j in range(i+1, len(dump)):
m = _TABLE.match(dump[j].decode())
if m:
if len(syms) == 0:
log.warn('No symbols found in %s' % dll)
d = open(dfile, 'w')
d.write('LIBRARY %s\n' % os.path.basename(dll))
for s in syms:
#d.write('@%d %s\n' % (s[0], s[1]))
d.write('%s\n' % s[1])
def find_dll(dll_name):
arch = {'AMD64' : 'amd64',
'Intel' : 'x86'}[get_build_architecture()]
def _find_dll_in_winsxs(dll_name):
# Walk through the WinSxS directory to find the dll.
winsxs_path = os.path.join(os.environ.get('WINDIR', r'C:\WINDOWS'),
if not os.path.exists(winsxs_path):
return None
for root, dirs, files in os.walk(winsxs_path):
if dll_name in files and arch in root:
return os.path.join(root, dll_name)
return None
def _find_dll_in_path(dll_name):
# First, look in the Python directory, then scan PATH for
# the given dll name.
for path in [sys.prefix] + os.environ['PATH'].split(';'):
filepath = os.path.join(path, dll_name)
if os.path.exists(filepath):
return os.path.abspath(filepath)
return _find_dll_in_winsxs(dll_name) or _find_dll_in_path(dll_name)
def build_msvcr_library(debug=False):
if != 'nt':
return False
# If the version number is None, then we couldn't find the MSVC runtime at
# all, because we are running on a Python distribution which is customed
# compiled; trust that the compiler is the same as the one available to us
# now, and that it is capable of linking with the correct runtime without
# any extra options.
msvcr_ver = msvc_runtime_major()
if msvcr_ver is None:
log.debug('Skip building import library: '
'Runtime is not compiled with MSVC')
return False
# Skip using a custom library for versions < MSVC 8.0
if msvcr_ver < 80:
log.debug('Skip building msvcr library:'
' custom functionality not present')
return False
msvcr_name = msvc_runtime_library()
if debug:
msvcr_name += 'd'
# Skip if custom library already exists
out_name = "lib%s.a" % msvcr_name
out_file = os.path.join(sys.prefix, 'libs', out_name)
if os.path.isfile(out_file):
log.debug('Skip building msvcr library: "%s" exists' %
return True
# Find the msvcr dll
msvcr_dll_name = msvcr_name + '.dll'
dll_file = find_dll(msvcr_dll_name)
if not dll_file:
log.warn('Cannot build msvcr library: "%s" not found' %
return False
def_name = "lib%s.def" % msvcr_name
def_file = os.path.join(sys.prefix, 'libs', def_name)'Building msvcr library: "%s" (from %s)' \
% (out_file, dll_file))
# Generate a symbol definition file from the msvcr dll
generate_def(dll_file, def_file)
# Create a custom mingw library for the given symbol definitions
cmd = ['dlltool', '-d', def_file, '-l', out_file]
retcode =
# Clean up symbol definitions
return (not retcode)
def build_import_library():
if != 'nt':
arch = get_build_architecture()
if arch == 'AMD64':
return _build_import_library_amd64()
elif arch == 'Intel':
return _build_import_library_x86()
raise ValueError("Unhandled arch %s" % arch)
def _check_for_import_lib():
"""Check if an import library for the Python runtime already exists."""
major_version, minor_version = tuple(sys.version_info[:2])
# patterns for the file name of the library itself
patterns = ['libpython%d%d.a',
# directory trees that may contain the library
stems = [sys.prefix]
if hasattr(sys, 'base_prefix') and sys.base_prefix != sys.prefix:
elif hasattr(sys, 'real_prefix') and sys.real_prefix != sys.prefix:
# possible subdirectories within those trees where it is placed
sub_dirs = ['libs', 'lib']
# generate a list of candidate locations
candidates = []
for pat in patterns:
filename = pat % (major_version, minor_version)
for stem_dir in stems:
for folder in sub_dirs:
candidates.append(os.path.join(stem_dir, folder, filename))
# test the filesystem to see if we can find any of these
for fullname in candidates:
if os.path.isfile(fullname):
# already exists, in location given
return (True, fullname)
# needs to be built, preferred location given first
return (False, candidates[0])
def _build_import_library_amd64():
out_exists, out_file = _check_for_import_lib()
if out_exists:
log.debug('Skip building import library: "%s" exists', out_file)
# get the runtime dll for which we are building import library
dll_file = find_python_dll()'Building import library (arch=AMD64): "%s" (from %s)' %
(out_file, dll_file))
# generate symbol list from this library
def_name = "python%d%d.def" % tuple(sys.version_info[:2])
def_file = os.path.join(sys.prefix, 'libs', def_name)
generate_def(dll_file, def_file)
# generate import library from this symbol list
cmd = ['dlltool', '-d', def_file, '-l', out_file]
def _build_import_library_x86():
""" Build the import libraries for Mingw32-gcc on Windows
out_exists, out_file = _check_for_import_lib()
if out_exists:
log.debug('Skip building import library: "%s" exists', out_file)
lib_name = "python%d%d.lib" % tuple(sys.version_info[:2])
lib_file = os.path.join(sys.prefix, 'libs', lib_name)
if not os.path.isfile(lib_file):
# didn't find library file in virtualenv, try base distribution, too,
# and use that instead if found there. for Python 2.7 venvs, the base
# directory is in attribute real_prefix instead of base_prefix.
if hasattr(sys, 'base_prefix'):
base_lib = os.path.join(sys.base_prefix, 'libs', lib_name)
elif hasattr(sys, 'real_prefix'):
base_lib = os.path.join(sys.real_prefix, 'libs', lib_name)
base_lib = '' # os.path.isfile('') == False
if os.path.isfile(base_lib):
lib_file = base_lib
log.warn('Cannot build import library: "%s" not found', lib_file)
return'Building import library (ARCH=x86): "%s"', out_file)
from numpy.distutils import lib2def
def_name = "python%d%d.def" % tuple(sys.version_info[:2])
def_file = os.path.join(sys.prefix, 'libs', def_name)
nm_cmd = '%s %s' % (lib2def.DEFAULT_NM, lib_file)
nm_output = lib2def.getnm(nm_cmd)
dlist, flist = lib2def.parse_nm(nm_output)
lib2def.output_def(dlist, flist, lib2def.DEF_HEADER, open(def_file, 'w'))
dll_name = find_python_dll ()
args = (dll_name, def_file, out_file)
cmd = 'dlltool --dllname "%s" --def "%s" --output-lib "%s"' % args
status = os.system(cmd)
# for now, fail silently
if status:
log.warn('Failed to build import library for gcc. Linking will fail.')
# Dealing with Visual Studio MANIFESTS
# Functions to deal with visual studio manifests. Manifest are a mechanism to
# enforce strong DLL versioning on windows, and has nothing to do with
# distutils MANIFEST. manifests are XML files with version info, and used by
# the OS loader; they are necessary when linking against a DLL not in the
# system path; in particular, official python 2.6 binary is built against the
# MS runtime 9 (the one from VS 2008), which is not available on most windows
# systems; python 2.6 installer does install it in the Win SxS (Side by side)
# directory, but this requires the manifest for this to work. This is a big
# mess, thanks MS for a wonderful system.
# XXX: ideally, we should use exactly the same version as used by python. I
# submitted a patch to get this version, but it was only included for python
# 2.6.1 and above. So for versions below, we use a "best guess".
if sys.platform == 'win32':
import msvcrt
# I took one version in my SxS directory: no idea if it is the good
# one, and we can't retrieve it from python
_MSVCRVER_TO_FULLVER['80'] = "8.0.50727.42"
_MSVCRVER_TO_FULLVER['90'] = "9.0.21022.8"
# Value from msvcrt.CRT_ASSEMBLY_VERSION under Python 3.3.0
# on Windows XP:
_MSVCRVER_TO_FULLVER['100'] = "10.0.30319.460"
if hasattr(msvcrt, "CRT_ASSEMBLY_VERSION"):
major, minor, rest = msvcrt.CRT_ASSEMBLY_VERSION.split(".", 2)
del major, minor, rest
except ImportError:
# If we are here, means python was not built with MSVC. Not sure what
# to do in that case: manifest building will fail, but it should not be
# used in that case anyway
log.warn('Cannot import msvcrt: using manifest will not be possible')
def msvc_manifest_xml(maj, min):
"""Given a major and minor version of the MSVCR, returns the
corresponding XML file."""
fullver = _MSVCRVER_TO_FULLVER[str(maj * 10 + min)]
except KeyError:
raise ValueError("Version %d,%d of MSVCRT not supported yet" %
(maj, min))
# Don't be fooled, it looks like an XML, but it is not. In particular, it
# should not have any space before starting, and its size should be
# divisible by 4, most likely for alignment constraints when the xml is
# embedded in the binary...
# This template was copied directly from the python 2.6 binary (using
# strings.exe from mingw on python.exe).
template = """\
<assembly xmlns="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:asm.v1" manifestVersion="1.0">
<trustInfo xmlns="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:asm.v3">
<requestedExecutionLevel level="asInvoker" uiAccess="false"></requestedExecutionLevel>
<assemblyIdentity type="win32" name="Microsoft.VC%(maj)d%(min)d.CRT" version="%(fullver)s" processorArchitecture="*" publicKeyToken="1fc8b3b9a1e18e3b"></assemblyIdentity>
return template % {'fullver': fullver, 'maj': maj, 'min': min}
def manifest_rc(name, type='dll'):
"""Return the rc file used to generate the res file which will be embedded
as manifest for given manifest file name, of given type ('dll' or
name : str
name of the manifest file to embed
type : str {'dll', 'exe'}
type of the binary which will embed the manifest
if type == 'dll':
rctype = 2
elif type == 'exe':
rctype = 1
raise ValueError("Type %s not supported" % type)
return """\
#include "winuser.h"
%d RT_MANIFEST %s""" % (rctype, name)
def check_embedded_msvcr_match_linked(msver):
"""msver is the ms runtime version used for the MANIFEST."""
# check msvcr major version are the same for linking and
# embedding
maj = msvc_runtime_major()
if maj:
if not maj == int(msver):
raise ValueError(
"Discrepancy between linked msvcr " \
"(%d) and the one about to be embedded " \
"(%d)" % (int(msver), maj))
def configtest_name(config):
base = os.path.basename(config._gen_temp_sourcefile("yo", [], "c"))
return os.path.splitext(base)[0]
def manifest_name(config):
# Get configest name (including suffix)
root = configtest_name(config)
exext = config.compiler.exe_extension
return root + exext + ".manifest"
def rc_name(config):
# Get configtest name (including suffix)
root = configtest_name(config)
return root + ".rc"
def generate_manifest(config):
msver = get_build_msvc_version()
if msver is not None:
if msver >= 8:
ma = int(msver)
mi = int((msver - ma) * 10)
# Write the manifest file
manxml = msvc_manifest_xml(ma, mi)
man = open(manifest_name(config), "w")