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from __future__ import division, absolute_import, print_function
import sys
import os
import re
import itertools
import warnings
import weakref
from operator import itemgetter
import numpy as np
from . import format
from ._datasource import DataSource
from numpy.core.multiarray import packbits, unpackbits
from ._iotools import (
LineSplitter, NameValidator, StringConverter, ConverterError,
ConverterLockError, ConversionWarning, _is_string_like, has_nested_fields,
flatten_dtype, easy_dtype, _bytes_to_name
)
from numpy.compat import (
asbytes, asstr, asbytes_nested, bytes, basestring, unicode
)
if sys.version_info[0] >= 3:
import pickle
else:
import cPickle as pickle
from future_builtins import map
loads = pickle.loads
__all__ = [
'savetxt', 'loadtxt', 'genfromtxt', 'ndfromtxt', 'mafromtxt',
'recfromtxt', 'recfromcsv', 'load', 'loads', 'save', 'savez',
'savez_compressed', 'packbits', 'unpackbits', 'fromregex', 'DataSource'
]
def seek_gzip_factory(f):
"""Use this factory to produce the class so that we can do a lazy
import on gzip.
"""
import gzip
class GzipFile(gzip.GzipFile):
def seek(self, offset, whence=0):
# figure out new position (we can only seek forwards)
if whence == 1:
offset = self.offset + offset
if whence not in [0, 1]:
raise IOError("Illegal argument")
if offset < self.offset:
# for negative seek, rewind and do positive seek
self.rewind()
count = offset - self.offset
for i in range(count // 1024):
self.read(1024)
self.read(count % 1024)
def tell(self):
return self.offset
if isinstance(f, str):
f = GzipFile(f)
elif isinstance(f, gzip.GzipFile):
# cast to our GzipFile if its already a gzip.GzipFile
try:
name = f.name
except AttributeError:
# Backward compatibility for <= 2.5
name = f.filename
mode = f.mode
f = GzipFile(fileobj=f.fileobj, filename=name)
f.mode = mode
return f
class BagObj(object):
"""
BagObj(obj)
Convert attribute look-ups to getitems on the object passed in.
Parameters
----------
obj : class instance
Object on which attribute look-up is performed.
Examples
--------
>>> from numpy.lib.npyio import BagObj as BO
>>> class BagDemo(object):
... def __getitem__(self, key): # An instance of BagObj(BagDemo)
... # will call this method when any
... # attribute look-up is required
... result = "Doesn't matter what you want, "
... return result + "you're gonna get this"
...
>>> demo_obj = BagDemo()
>>> bagobj = BO(demo_obj)
>>> bagobj.hello_there
"Doesn't matter what you want, you're gonna get this"
>>> bagobj.I_can_be_anything
"Doesn't matter what you want, you're gonna get this"
"""
def __init__(self, obj):
# Use weakref to make NpzFile objects collectable by refcount
self._obj = weakref.proxy(obj)
def __getattribute__(self, key):
try:
return object.__getattribute__(self, '_obj')[key]
except KeyError:
raise AttributeError(key)
def __dir__(self):
"""
Enables dir(bagobj) to list the files in an NpzFile.
This also enables tab-completion in an interpreter or IPython.
"""
return object.__getattribute__(self, '_obj').keys()
def zipfile_factory(*args, **kwargs):
import zipfile
kwargs['allowZip64'] = True
return zipfile.ZipFile(*args, **kwargs)
class NpzFile(object):
"""
NpzFile(fid)
A dictionary-like object with lazy-loading of files in the zipped
archive provided on construction.
`NpzFile` is used to load files in the NumPy ``.npz`` data archive
format. It assumes that files in the archive have a ``.npy`` extension,
other files are ignored.
The arrays and file strings are lazily loaded on either
getitem access using ``obj['key']`` or attribute lookup using
``obj.f.key``. A list of all files (without ``.npy`` extensions) can
be obtained with ``obj.files`` and the ZipFile object itself using
``obj.zip``.
Attributes
----------
files : list of str
List of all files in the archive with a ``.npy`` extension.
zip : ZipFile instance
The ZipFile object initialized with the zipped archive.
f : BagObj instance
An object on which attribute can be performed as an alternative
to getitem access on the `NpzFile` instance itself.
allow_pickle : bool, optional
Allow loading pickled data. Default: True
pickle_kwargs : dict, optional
Additional keyword arguments to pass on to pickle.load.
These are only useful when loading object arrays saved on
Python 2 when using Python 3.
Parameters
----------
fid : file or str
The zipped archive to open. This is either a file-like object
or a string containing the path to the archive.
own_fid : bool, optional
Whether NpzFile should close the file handle.
Requires that `fid` is a file-like object.
Examples
--------
>>> from tempfile import TemporaryFile
>>> outfile = TemporaryFile()
>>> x = np.arange(10)
>>> y = np.sin(x)
>>> np.savez(outfile, x=x, y=y)
>>> outfile.seek(0)
>>> npz = np.load(outfile)
>>> isinstance(npz, np.lib.io.NpzFile)
True
>>> npz.files
['y', 'x']
>>> npz['x'] # getitem access
array([0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9])
>>> npz.f.x # attribute lookup
array([0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9])
"""
def __init__(self, fid, own_fid=False, allow_pickle=True,
pickle_kwargs=None):
# Import is postponed to here since zipfile depends on gzip, an
# optional component of the so-called standard library.
_zip = zipfile_factory(fid)
self._files = _zip.namelist()
self.files = []
self.allow_pickle = allow_pickle
self.pickle_kwargs = pickle_kwargs
for x in self._files:
if x.endswith('.npy'):
self.files.append(x[:-4])
else:
self.files.append(x)
self.zip = _zip
self.f = BagObj(self)
if own_fid:
self.fid = fid
else:
self.fid = None
def __enter__(self):
return self
def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, traceback):
self.close()
def close(self):
"""
Close the file.
"""
if self.zip is not None:
self.zip.close()
self.zip = None
if self.fid is not None:
self.fid.close()
self.fid = None
self.f = None # break reference cycle
def __del__(self):
self.close()
def __getitem__(self, key):
# FIXME: This seems like it will copy strings around
# more than is strictly necessary. The zipfile
# will read the string and then
# the format.read_array will copy the string
# to another place in memory.
# It would be better if the zipfile could read
# (or at least uncompress) the data
# directly into the array memory.
member = 0
if key in self._files:
member = 1
elif key in self.files:
member = 1
key += '.npy'
if member:
bytes = self.zip.open(key)
magic = bytes.read(len(format.MAGIC_PREFIX))
bytes.close()
if magic == format.MAGIC_PREFIX:
bytes = self.zip.open(key)
return format.read_array(bytes,
allow_pickle=self.allow_pickle,
pickle_kwargs=self.pickle_kwargs)
else:
return self.zip.read(key)
else:
raise KeyError("%s is not a file in the archive" % key)
def __iter__(self):
return iter(self.files)
def items(self):
"""
Return a list of tuples, with each tuple (filename, array in file).
"""
return [(f, self[f]) for f in self.files]
def iteritems(self):
"""Generator that returns tuples (filename, array in file)."""
for f in self.files:
yield (f, self[f])
def keys(self):
"""Return files in the archive with a ``.npy`` extension."""
return self.files
def iterkeys(self):
"""Return an iterator over the files in the archive."""
return self.__iter__()
def __contains__(self, key):
return self.files.__contains__(key)
def load(file, mmap_mode=None, allow_pickle=True, fix_imports=True,
encoding='ASCII'):
"""
Load arrays or pickled objects from ``.npy``, ``.npz`` or pickled files.
Parameters
----------
file : file-like object or string
The file to read. File-like objects must support the
``seek()`` and ``read()`` methods. Pickled files require that the
file-like object support the ``readline()`` method as well.
mmap_mode : {None, 'r+', 'r', 'w+', 'c'}, optional
If not None, then memory-map the file, using the given mode (see
`numpy.memmap` for a detailed description of the modes). A
memory-mapped array is kept on disk. However, it can be accessed
and sliced like any ndarray. Memory mapping is especially useful
for accessing small fragments of large files without reading the
entire file into memory.
allow_pickle : bool, optional
Allow loading pickled object arrays stored in npy files. Reasons for
disallowing pickles include security, as loading pickled data can
execute arbitrary code. If pickles are disallowed, loading object
arrays will fail.
Default: True
fix_imports : bool, optional
Only useful when loading Python 2 generated pickled files on Python 3,
which includes npy/npz files containing object arrays. If `fix_imports`
is True, pickle will try to map the old Python 2 names to the new names
used in Python 3.
encoding : str, optional
What encoding to use when reading Python 2 strings. Only useful when
loading Python 2 generated pickled files on Python 3, which includes
npy/npz files containing object arrays. Values other than 'latin1',
'ASCII', and 'bytes' are not allowed, as they can corrupt numerical
data. Default: 'ASCII'
Returns
-------
result : array, tuple, dict, etc.
Data stored in the file. For ``.npz`` files, the returned instance
of NpzFile class must be closed to avoid leaking file descriptors.
Raises
------
IOError
If the input file does not exist or cannot be read.
ValueError
The file contains an object array, but allow_pickle=False given.
See Also
--------
save, savez, savez_compressed, loadtxt
memmap : Create a memory-map to an array stored in a file on disk.
Notes
-----
- If the file contains pickle data, then whatever object is stored
in the pickle is returned.
- If the file is a ``.npy`` file, then a single array is returned.
- If the file is a ``.npz`` file, then a dictionary-like object is
returned, containing ``{filename: array}`` key-value pairs, one for
each file in the archive.
- If the file is a ``.npz`` file, the returned value supports the
context manager protocol in a similar fashion to the open function::
with load('foo.npz') as data:
a = data['a']
The underlying file descriptor is closed when exiting the 'with'
block.
Examples
--------
Store data to disk, and load it again:
>>> np.save('/tmp/123', np.array([[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]))
>>> np.load('/tmp/123.npy')
array([[1, 2, 3],
[4, 5, 6]])
Store compressed data to disk, and load it again:
>>> a=np.array([[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]])
>>> b=np.array([1, 2])
>>> np.savez('/tmp/123.npz', a=a, b=b)
>>> data = np.load('/tmp/123.npz')
>>> data['a']
array([[1, 2, 3],
[4, 5, 6]])
>>> data['b']
array([1, 2])
>>> data.close()
Mem-map the stored array, and then access the second row
directly from disk:
>>> X = np.load('/tmp/123.npy', mmap_mode='r')
>>> X[1, :]
memmap([4, 5, 6])
"""
import gzip
own_fid = False
if isinstance(file, basestring):
fid = open(file, "rb")
own_fid = True
elif isinstance(file, gzip.GzipFile):
fid = seek_gzip_factory(file)
else:
fid = file
if encoding not in ('ASCII', 'latin1', 'bytes'):
# The 'encoding' value for pickle also affects what encoding
# the serialized binary data of Numpy arrays is loaded
# in. Pickle does not pass on the encoding information to
# Numpy. The unpickling code in numpy.core.multiarray is
# written to assume that unicode data appearing where binary
# should be is in 'latin1'. 'bytes' is also safe, as is 'ASCII'.
#
# Other encoding values can corrupt binary data, and we
# purposefully disallow them. For the same reason, the errors=
# argument is not exposed, as values other than 'strict'
# result can similarly silently corrupt numerical data.
raise ValueError("encoding must be 'ASCII', 'latin1', or 'bytes'")
if sys.version_info[0] >= 3:
pickle_kwargs = dict(encoding=encoding, fix_imports=fix_imports)
else:
# Nothing to do on Python 2
pickle_kwargs = {}
try:
# Code to distinguish from NumPy binary files and pickles.
_ZIP_PREFIX = asbytes('PK\x03\x04')
N = len(format.MAGIC_PREFIX)
magic = fid.read(N)
fid.seek(-N, 1) # back-up
if magic.startswith(_ZIP_PREFIX):
# zip-file (assume .npz)
# Transfer file ownership to NpzFile
tmp = own_fid
own_fid = False
return NpzFile(fid, own_fid=tmp, allow_pickle=allow_pickle,
pickle_kwargs=pickle_kwargs)
elif magic == format.MAGIC_PREFIX:
# .npy file
if mmap_mode:
return format.open_memmap(file, mode=mmap_mode)
else:
return format.read_array(fid, allow_pickle=allow_pickle,
pickle_kwargs=pickle_kwargs)
else:
# Try a pickle
if not allow_pickle:
raise ValueError("allow_pickle=False, but file does not contain "
"non-pickled data")
try:
return pickle.load(fid, **pickle_kwargs)
except:
raise IOError(
"Failed to interpret file %s as a pickle" % repr(file))
finally:
if own_fid:
fid.close()
def save(file, arr, allow_pickle=True, fix_imports=True):
"""
Save an array to a binary file in NumPy ``.npy`` format.
Parameters
----------
file : file or str
File or filename to which the data is saved. If file is a file-object,
then the filename is unchanged. If file is a string, a ``.npy``
extension will be appended to the file name if it does not already
have one.
allow_pickle : bool, optional
Allow saving object arrays using Python pickles. Reasons for disallowing
pickles include security (loading pickled data can execute arbitrary
code) and portability (pickled objects may not be loadable on different
Python installations, for example if the stored objects require libraries
that are not available, and not all pickled data is compatible between
Python 2 and Python 3).
Default: True
fix_imports : bool, optional
Only useful in forcing objects in object arrays on Python 3 to be
pickled in a Python 2 compatible way. If `fix_imports` is True, pickle
will try to map the new Python 3 names to the old module names used in
Python 2, so that the pickle data stream is readable with Python 2.
arr : array_like
Array data to be saved.
See Also
--------
savez : Save several arrays into a ``.npz`` archive
savetxt, load
Notes
-----
For a description of the ``.npy`` format, see the module docstring
of `numpy.lib.format` or the Numpy Enhancement Proposal
http://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/neps/npy-format.html
Examples
--------
>>> from tempfile import TemporaryFile
>>> outfile = TemporaryFile()
>>> x = np.arange(10)
>>> np.save(outfile, x)
>>> outfile.seek(0) # Only needed here to simulate closing & reopening file
>>> np.load(outfile)
array([0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9])
"""
own_fid = False
if isinstance(file, basestring):
if not file.endswith('.npy'):
file = file + '.npy'
fid = open(file, "wb")
own_fid = True
else:
fid = file
if sys.version_info[0] >= 3:
pickle_kwargs = dict(fix_imports=fix_imports)
else:
# Nothing to do on Python 2
pickle_kwargs = None
try:
arr = np.asanyarray(arr)
format.write_array(fid, arr, allow_pickle=allow_pickle,
pickle_kwargs=pickle_kwargs)
finally:
if own_fid:
fid.close()
def savez(file, *args, **kwds):
"""
Save several arrays into a single file in uncompressed ``.npz`` format.
If arguments are passed in with no keywords, the corresponding variable
names, in the ``.npz`` file, are 'arr_0', 'arr_1', etc. If keyword
arguments are given, the corresponding variable names, in the ``.npz``
file will match the keyword names.
Parameters
----------
file : str or file
Either the file name (string) or an open file (file-like object)
where the data will be saved. If file is a string, the ``.npz``
extension will be appended to the file name if it is not already there.
args : Arguments, optional
Arrays to save to the file. Since it is not possible for Python to
know the names of the arrays outside `savez`, the arrays will be saved
with names "arr_0", "arr_1", and so on. These arguments can be any
expression.
kwds : Keyword arguments, optional
Arrays to save to the file. Arrays will be saved in the file with the
keyword names.
Returns
-------
None
See Also
--------
save : Save a single array to a binary file in NumPy format.
savetxt : Save an array to a file as plain text.
savez_compressed : Save several arrays into a compressed ``.npz`` archive
Notes
-----
The ``.npz`` file format is a zipped archive of files named after the
variables they contain. The archive is not compressed and each file
in the archive contains one variable in ``.npy`` format. For a
description of the ``.npy`` format, see `numpy.lib.format` or the
Numpy Enhancement Proposal
http://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/neps/npy-format.html
When opening the saved ``.npz`` file with `load` a `NpzFile` object is
returned. This is a dictionary-like object which can be queried for
its list of arrays (with the ``.files`` attribute), and for the arrays
themselves.
Examples
--------
>>> from tempfile import TemporaryFile
>>> outfile = TemporaryFile()
>>> x = np.arange(10)
>>> y = np.sin(x)
Using `savez` with \\*args, the arrays are saved with default names.
>>> np.savez(outfile, x, y)
>>> outfile.seek(0) # Only needed here to simulate closing & reopening file
>>> npzfile = np.load(outfile)
>>> npzfile.files
['arr_1', 'arr_0']
>>> npzfile['arr_0']
array([0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9])
Using `savez` with \\**kwds, the arrays are saved with the keyword names.
>>> outfile = TemporaryFile()
>>> np.savez(outfile, x=x, y=y)
>>> outfile.seek(0)
>>> npzfile = np.load(outfile)
>>> npzfile.files
['y', 'x']
>>> npzfile['x']
array([0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9])
"""
_savez(file, args, kwds, False)
def savez_compressed(file, *args, **kwds):
"""
Save several arrays into a single file in compressed ``.npz`` format.
If keyword arguments are given, then filenames are taken from the keywords.
If arguments are passed in with no keywords, then stored file names are
arr_0, arr_1, etc.
Parameters
----------
file : str
File name of ``.npz`` file.
args : Arguments
Function arguments.
kwds : Keyword arguments
Keywords.
See Also
--------
numpy.savez : Save several arrays into an uncompressed ``.npz`` file format
numpy.load : Load the files created by savez_compressed.
"""
_savez(file, args, kwds, True)
def _savez(file, args, kwds, compress, allow_pickle=True, pickle_kwargs=None):
# Import is postponed to here since zipfile depends on gzip, an optional
# component of the so-called standard library.
import zipfile
# Import deferred for startup time improvement
import tempfile
if isinstance(file, basestring):
if not file.endswith('.npz'):
file = file + '.npz'
namedict = kwds
for i, val in enumerate(args):
key = 'arr_%d' % i
if key in namedict.keys():
raise ValueError(
"Cannot use un-named variables and keyword %s" % key)
namedict[key] = val
if compress:
compression = zipfile.ZIP_DEFLATED
else:
compression = zipfile.ZIP_STORED
zipf = zipfile_factory(file, mode="w", compression=compression)
# Stage arrays in a temporary file on disk, before writing to zip.
fd, tmpfile = tempfile.mkstemp(suffix='-numpy.npy')
os.close(fd)
try:
for key, val in namedict.items():
fname = key + '.npy'
fid = open(tmpfile, 'wb')
try:
format.write_array(fid, np.asanyarray(val),
allow_pickle=allow_pickle,
pickle_kwargs=pickle_kwargs)
fid.close()
fid = None
zipf.write(tmpfile, arcname=fname)
finally:
if fid:
fid.close()
finally:
os.remove(tmpfile)
zipf.close()
def _getconv(dtype):
""" Find the correct dtype converter. Adapted from matplotlib """
def floatconv(x):
x.lower()
if b'0x' in x:
return float.fromhex(asstr(x))
return float(x)
typ = dtype.type
if issubclass(typ, np.bool_):
return lambda x: bool(int(x))
if issubclass(typ, np.uint64):
return np.uint64
if issubclass(typ, np.int64):
return np.int64
if issubclass(typ, np.integer):
return lambda x: int(float(x))
elif issubclass(typ, np.floating):
return floatconv
elif issubclass(typ, np.complex):
return lambda x: complex(asstr(x))
elif issubclass(typ, np.bytes_):
return bytes
else:
return str
def loadtxt(fname, dtype=float, comments='#', delimiter=None,
converters=None, skiprows=0, usecols=None, unpack=False,
ndmin=0):
"""
Load data from a text file.
Each row in the text file must have the same number of values.
Parameters
----------
fname : file or str
File, filename, or generator to read. If the filename extension is
``.gz`` or ``.bz2``, the file is first decompressed. Note that
generators should return byte strings for Python 3k.
dtype : data-type, optional
Data-type of the resulting array; default: float. If this is a
structured data-type, the resulting array will be 1-dimensional, and
each row will be interpreted as an element of the array. In this
case, the number of columns used must match the number of fields in
the data-type.
comments : str, optional
The character used to indicate the start of a comment;
default: '#'.
delimiter : str, optional
The string used to separate values. By default, this is any
whitespace.
converters : dict, optional
A dictionary mapping column number to a function that will convert
that column to a float. E.g., if column 0 is a date string:
``converters = {0: datestr2num}``. Converters can also be used to
provide a default value for missing data (but see also `genfromtxt`):
``converters = {3: lambda s: float(s.strip() or 0)}``. Default: None.
skiprows : int, optional
Skip the first `skiprows` lines; default: 0.
usecols : sequence, optional
Which columns to read, with 0 being the first. For example,
``usecols = (1,4,5)`` will extract the 2nd, 5th and 6th columns.
The default, None, results in all columns being read.
unpack : bool, optional
If True, the returned array is transposed, so that arguments may be
unpacked using ``x, y, z = loadtxt(...)``. When used with a structured
data-type, arrays are returned for each field. Default is False.
ndmin : int, optional
The returned array will have at least `ndmin` dimensions.
Otherwise mono-dimensional axes will be squeezed.
Legal values: 0 (default), 1 or 2.
.. versionadded:: 1.6.0
Returns
-------
out : ndarray
Data read from the text file.
See Also
--------
load, fromstring, fromregex
genfromtxt : Load data with missing values handled as specified.
scipy.io.loadmat : reads MATLAB data files
Notes
-----
This function aims to be a fast reader for simply formatted files. The
`genfromtxt` function provides more sophisticated handling of, e.g.,
lines with missing values.
.. versionadded:: 1.10.0
The strings produced by the Python float.hex method can be used as
input for floats.
Examples
--------
>>> from StringIO import StringIO # StringIO behaves like a file object
>>> c = StringIO("0 1\\n2 3")
>>> np.loadtxt(c)
array([[ 0., 1.],
[ 2., 3.]])
>>> d = StringIO("M 21 72\\nF 35 58")
>>> np.loadtxt(d, dtype={'names': ('gender', 'age', 'weight'),
... 'formats': ('S1', 'i4', 'f4')})
array([('M', 21, 72.0), ('F', 35, 58.0)],
dtype=[('gender', '|S1'), ('age', '<i4'), ('weight', '<f4')])
>>> c = StringIO("1,0,2\\n3,0,4")
>>> x, y = np.loadtxt(c, delimiter=',', usecols=(0, 2), unpack=True)
>>> x
array([ 1., 3.])
>>> y
array([ 2., 4.])
"""
# Type conversions for Py3 convenience
if comments is not None:
comments = asbytes(comments)
user_converters = converters
if delimiter is not None:
delimiter = asbytes(delimiter)
if usecols is not None:
usecols = list(usecols)
fown = False
try:
if _is_string_like(fname):
fown = True
if fname.endswith('.gz'):
fh = iter(seek_gzip_factory(fname))
elif fname.endswith('.bz2'):
import bz2
fh = iter(bz2.BZ2File(fname))
elif sys.version_info[0] == 2:
fh = iter(open(fname, 'U'))
else:
fh = iter(open(fname))
else:
fh = iter(fname)
except TypeError:
raise ValueError('fname must be a string, file handle, or generator')
X = []
def flatten_dtype(dt):
"""Unpack a structured data-type, and produce re-packing info."""
if dt.names is None:
# If the dtype is flattened, return.
# If the dtype has a shape, the dtype occurs
# in the list more than once.
shape = dt.shape
if len(shape) == 0:
return ([dt.base], None)
else:
packing = [(shape[-1], list)]
if len(shape) > 1:
for dim in dt.shape[-2::-1]:
packing = [(dim*packing[0][0], packing*dim)]
return ([dt.base] * int(np.prod(dt.shape)), packing)
else:
types = []
packing = []
for field in dt.names:
tp, bytes = dt.fields[field]
flat_dt, flat_packing = flatten_dtype(tp)
types.extend(flat_dt)
# Avoid extra nesting for subarrays
if len(tp.shape) > 0:
packing.extend(flat_packing)
else:
packing.append((len(flat_dt), flat_packing))
return (types, packing)
def pack_items(items, packing):
"""Pack items into nested lists based on re-packing info."""
if packing is None:
return items[0]
elif packing is tuple:
return tuple(items)
elif packing is list:
return list(items)
else:
start = 0
ret = []
for length, subpacking in packing:
ret.append(pack_items(items[start:start+length], subpacking))
start += length
return tuple(ret)
def split_line(line):
"""Chop off comments, strip, and split at delimiter.
Note that although the file is opened as text, this function
returns bytes.
"""
if comments is None:
line = asbytes(line).strip(asbytes('\r\n'))
else:
line = asbytes(line).split(comments)[0].strip(asbytes('\r\n'))
if line:
return line.split(delimiter)
else:
return []
try:
# Make sure we're dealing with a proper dtype
dtype = np.dtype(dtype)
defconv = _getconv(dtype)
# Skip the first `skiprows` lines
for i in range(skiprows):
next(fh)
# Read until we find a line with some values, and use
# it to estimate the number of columns, N.
first_vals = None
try:
while not first_vals:
first_line = next(fh)
first_vals = split_line(first_line)
except StopIteration:
# End of lines reached
first_line = ''
first_vals = []
warnings.warn('loadtxt: Empty input file: "%s"' % fname)
N = len(usecols or first_vals)
dtype_types, packing = flatten_dtype(dtype)
if len(dtype_types) > 1:
# We're dealing with a structured array, each field of
# the dtype matches a column
converters = [_getconv(dt) for dt in dtype_types]
else:
# All fields have the same dtype
converters = [defconv for i in range(N)]
if N > 1:
packing = [(N, tuple)]
# By preference, use the converters specified by the user
for i, conv in (user_converters or {}).items():
if usecols:
try:
i = usecols.index(i)
except ValueError:
# Unused converter specified
continue
converters[i] = conv
# Parse each line, including the first
for i, line in enumerate(itertools.chain([first_line], fh)):
vals = split_line(line)
if len(vals) == 0:
continue
if usecols:
vals = [vals[i] for i in usecols]
if len(vals) != N:
line_num = i + skiprows + 1
raise ValueError("Wrong number of columns at line %d"
% line_num)
# Convert each value according to its column and store
items = [conv(val) for (conv, val) in zip(converters, vals)]
# Then pack it according to the dtype's nesting
items = pack_items(items, packing)
X.append(items)
finally:
if fown:
fh.close()
X = np.array(X, dtype)
# Multicolumn data are returned with shape (1, N, M), i.e.
# (1, 1, M) for a single row - remove the singleton dimension there
if X.ndim == 3 and X.shape[:2] == (1, 1):
X.shape = (1, -1)
# Verify that the array has at least dimensions `ndmin`.
# Check correctness of the values of `ndmin`
if ndmin not in [0, 1, 2]:
raise ValueError('Illegal value of ndmin keyword: %s' % ndmin)
# Tweak the size and shape of the arrays - remove extraneous dimensions
if X.ndim > ndmin:
X = np.squeeze(X)
# and ensure we have the minimum number of dimensions asked for
# - has to be in this order for the odd case ndmin=1, X.squeeze().ndim=0
if X.ndim < ndmin:
if ndmin == 1:
X = np.atleast_1d(X)
elif ndmin == 2:
X = np.atleast_2d(X).T
if unpack:
if len(dtype_types) > 1:
# For structured arrays, return an array for each field.
return [X[field] for field in dtype.names]
else:
return X.T
else:
return X
def savetxt(fname, X, fmt='%.18e', delimiter=' ', newline='\n', header='',
footer='', comments='# '):
"""
Save an array to a text file.
Parameters
----------
fname : filename or file handle
If the filename ends in ``.gz``, the file is automatically saved in
compressed gzip format. `loadtxt` understands gzipped files
transparently.
X : array_like
Data to be saved to a text file.
fmt : str or sequence of strs, optional
A single format (%10.5f), a sequence of formats, or a
multi-format string, e.g. 'Iteration %d -- %10.5f', in which
case `delimiter` is ignored. For complex `X`, the legal options
for `fmt` are:
a) a single specifier, `fmt='%.4e'`, resulting in numbers formatted
like `' (%s+%sj)' % (fmt, fmt)`
b) a full string specifying every real and imaginary part, e.g.
`' %.4e %+.4j %.4e %+.4j %.4e %+.4j'` for 3 columns
c) a list of specifiers, one per column - in this case, the real
and imaginary part must have separate specifiers,
e.g. `['%.3e + %.3ej', '(%.15e%+.15ej)']` for 2 columns
delimiter : str, optional
String or character separating columns.
newline : str, optional
String or character separating lines.
.. versionadded:: 1.5.0
header : str, optional
String that will be written at the beginning of the file.
.. versionadded:: 1.7.0
footer : str, optional
String that will be written at the end of the file.
.. versionadded:: 1.7.0
comments : str, optional
String that will be prepended to the ``header`` and ``footer`` strings,
to mark them as comments. Default: '# ', as expected by e.g.
``numpy.loadtxt``.
.. versionadded:: 1.7.0
See Also
--------
save : Save an array to a binary file in NumPy ``.npy`` format
savez : Save several arrays into an uncompressed ``.npz`` archive
savez_compressed : Save several arrays into a compressed ``.npz`` archive
Notes
-----
Further explanation of the `fmt` parameter
(``%[flag]width[.precision]specifier``):
flags:
``-`` : left justify
``+`` : Forces to precede result with + or -.
``0`` : Left pad the number with zeros instead of space (see width).
width:
Minimum number of characters to be printed. The value is not truncated
if it has more characters.
precision:
- For integer specifiers (eg. ``d,i,o,x``), the minimum number of
digits.
- For ``e, E`` and ``f`` specifiers, the number of digits to print
after the decimal point.
- For ``g`` and ``G``, the maximum number of significant digits.
- For ``s``, the maximum number of characters.
specifiers:
``c`` : character
``d`` or ``i`` : signed decimal integer
``e`` or ``E`` : scientific notation with ``e`` or ``E``.
``f`` : decimal floating point
``g,G`` : use the shorter of ``e,E`` or ``f``
``o`` : signed octal
``s`` : string of characters
``u`` : unsigned decimal integer
``x,X`` : unsigned hexadecimal integer
This explanation of ``fmt`` is not complete, for an exhaustive
specification see [1]_.
References
----------
.. [1] `Format Specification Mini-Language
<http://docs.python.org/library/string.html#
format-specification-mini-language>`_, Python Documentation.
Examples
--------
>>> x = y = z = np.arange(0.0,5.0,1.0)
>>> np.savetxt('test.out', x, delimiter=',') # X is an array
>>> np.savetxt('test.out', (x,y,z)) # x,y,z equal sized 1D arrays
>>> np.savetxt('test.out', x, fmt='%1.4e') # use exponential notation
"""
# Py3 conversions first
if isinstance(fmt, bytes):
fmt = asstr(fmt)
delimiter = asstr(delimiter)
own_fh = False
if _is_string_like(fname):
own_fh = True
if fname.endswith('.gz'):
import gzip
fh = gzip.open(fname, 'wb')
else:
if sys.version_info[0] >= 3:
fh = open(fname, 'wb')
else:
fh = open(fname, 'w')
elif hasattr(fname, 'write'):
fh = fname
else:
raise ValueError('fname must be a string or file handle')
try:
X = np.asarray(X)
# Handle 1-dimensional arrays
if X.ndim == 1:
# Common case -- 1d array of numbers
if X.dtype.names is None:
X = np.atleast_2d(X).T
ncol = 1
# Complex dtype -- each field indicates a separate column
else:
ncol = len(X.dtype.descr)
else:
ncol = X.shape[1]
iscomplex_X = np.iscomplexobj(X)
# `fmt` can be a string with multiple insertion points or a
# list of formats. E.g. '%10.5f\t%10d' or ('%10.5f', '$10d')
if type(fmt) in (list, tuple):
if len(fmt) != ncol:
raise AttributeError('fmt has wrong shape. %s' % str(fmt))
format = asstr(delimiter).join(map(asstr, fmt))
elif isinstance(fmt, str):
n_fmt_chars = fmt.count('%')
error = ValueError('fmt has wrong number of %% formats: %s' % fmt)
if n_fmt_chars == 1:
if iscomplex_X:
fmt = [' (%s+%sj)' % (fmt, fmt), ] * ncol
else:
fmt = [fmt, ] * ncol
format = delimiter.join(fmt)
elif iscomplex_X and n_fmt_chars != (2 * ncol):
raise error
elif ((not iscomplex_X) and n_fmt_chars != ncol):
raise error
else:
format = fmt
else:
raise ValueError('invalid fmt: %r' % (fmt,))
if len(header) > 0:
header = header.replace('\n', '\n' + comments)
fh.write(asbytes(comments + header + newline))
if iscomplex_X:
for row in X:
row2 = []
for number in row:
row2.append(number.real)
row2.append(number.imag)
fh.write(asbytes(format % tuple(row2) + newline))
else:
for row in X:
try:
fh.write(asbytes(format % tuple(row) + newline))
except TypeError:
raise TypeError("Mismatch between array dtype ('%s') and "
"format specifier ('%s')"
% (str(X.dtype), format))
if len(footer) > 0:
footer = footer.replace('\n', '\n' + comments)
fh.write(asbytes(comments + footer + newline))
finally:
if own_fh:
fh.close()
def fromregex(file, regexp, dtype):
"""
Construct an array from a text file, using regular expression parsing.
The returned array is always a structured array, and is constructed from
all matches of the regular expression in the file. Groups in the regular
expression are converted to fields of the structured array.
Parameters
----------
file : str or file
File name or file object to read.
regexp : str or regexp
Regular expression used to parse the file.
Groups in the regular expression correspond to fields in the dtype.
dtype : dtype or list of dtypes
Dtype for the structured array.
Returns
-------
output : ndarray
The output array, containing the part of the content of `file` that
was matched by `regexp`. `output` is always a structured array.
Raises
------
TypeError
When `dtype` is not a valid dtype for a structured array.
See Also
--------
fromstring, loadtxt
Notes
-----
Dtypes for structured arrays can be specified in several forms, but all
forms specify at least the data type and field name. For details see
`doc.structured_arrays`.
Examples
--------
>>> f = open('test.dat', 'w')
>>> f.write("1312 foo\\n1534 bar\\n444 qux")
>>> f.close()
>>> regexp = r"(\\d+)\\s+(...)" # match [digits, whitespace, anything]
>>> output = np.fromregex('test.dat', regexp,
... [('num', np.int64), ('key', 'S3')])
>>> output
array([(1312L, 'foo'), (1534L, 'bar'), (444L, 'qux')],
dtype=[('num', '<i8'), ('key', '|S3')])
>>> output['num']
array([1312, 1534, 444], dtype=int64)
"""
own_fh = False
if not hasattr(file, "read"):
file = open(file, 'rb')
own_fh = True
try:
if not hasattr(regexp, 'match'):
regexp = re.compile(asbytes(regexp))
if not isinstance(dtype, np.dtype):
dtype = np.dtype(dtype)
seq = regexp.findall(file.read())
if seq and not isinstance(seq[0], tuple):
# Only one group is in the regexp.
# Create the new array as a single data-type and then
# re-interpret as a single-field structured array.
newdtype = np.dtype(dtype[dtype.names[0]])
output = np.array(seq, dtype=newdtype)
output.dtype = dtype
else:
output = np.array(seq, dtype=dtype)
return output
finally:
if own_fh:
file.close()
#####--------------------------------------------------------------------------
#---- --- ASCII functions ---
#####--------------------------------------------------------------------------
def genfromtxt(fname, dtype=float, comments='#', delimiter=None,
skiprows=0, skip_header=0, skip_footer=0, converters=None,
missing='', missing_values=None, filling_values=None,
usecols=None, names=None,
excludelist=None, deletechars=None, replace_space='_',
autostrip=False, case_sensitive=True, defaultfmt="f%i",
unpack=None, usemask=False, loose=True, invalid_raise=True,
max_rows=None):
"""
Load data from a text file, with missing values handled as specified.
Each line past the first `skip_header` lines is split at the `delimiter`
character, and characters following the `comments` character are discarded.
Parameters
----------
fname : file or str
File, filename, or generator to read. If the filename extension is
`.gz` or `.bz2`, the file is first decompressed. Note that
generators must return byte strings in Python 3k.
dtype : dtype, optional
Data type of the resulting array.
If None, the dtypes will be determined by the contents of each
column, individually.
comments : str, optional
The character used to indicate the start of a comment.
All the characters occurring on a line after a comment are discarded
delimiter : str, int, or sequence, optional
The string used to separate values. By default, any consecutive
whitespaces act as delimiter. An integer or sequence of integers
can also be provided as width(s) of each field.
skiprows : int, optional
`skiprows` was deprecated in numpy 1.5, and will be removed in
numpy 2.0. Please use `skip_header` instead.
skip_header : int, optional
The number of lines to skip at the beginning of the file.
skip_footer : int, optional
The number of lines to skip at the end of the file.
converters : variable, optional
The set of functions that convert the data of a column to a value.
The converters can also be used to provide a default value
for missing data: ``converters = {3: lambda s: float(s or 0)}``.
missing : variable, optional
`missing` was deprecated in numpy 1.5, and will be removed in
numpy 2.0. Please use `missing_values` instead.
missing_values : variable, optional
The set of strings corresponding to missing data.
filling_values : variable, optional
The set of values to be used as default when the data are missing.
usecols : sequence, optional
Which columns to read, with 0 being the first. For example,
``usecols = (1, 4, 5)`` will extract the 2nd, 5th and 6th columns.
names : {None, True, str, sequence}, optional
If `names` is True, the field names are read from the first valid line
after the first `skip_header` lines.
If `names` is a sequence or a single-string of comma-separated names,
the names will be used to define the field names in a structured dtype.
If `names` is None, the names of the dtype fields will be used, if any.
excludelist : sequence, optional
A list of names to exclude. This list is appended to the default list
['return','file','print']. Excluded names are appended an underscore:
for example, `file` would become `file_`.
deletechars : str, optional
A string combining invalid characters that must be deleted from the
names.
defaultfmt : str, optional
A format used to define default field names, such as "f%i" or "f_%02i".
autostrip : bool, optional
Whether to automatically strip white spaces from the variables.
replace_space : char, optional
Character(s) used in replacement of white spaces in the variables
names. By default, use a '_'.
case_sensitive : {True, False, 'upper', 'lower'}, optional
If True, field names are case sensitive.
If False or 'upper', field names are converted to upper case.
If 'lower', field names are converted to lower case.
unpack : bool, optional
If True, the returned array is transposed, so that arguments may be
unpacked using ``x, y, z = loadtxt(...)``
usemask : bool, optional
If True, return a masked array.
If False, return a regular array.
loose : bool, optional
If True, do not raise errors for invalid values.
invalid_raise : bool, optional
If True, an exception is raised if an inconsistency is detected in the
number of columns.
If False, a warning is emitted and the offending lines are skipped.
max_rows : int, optional
The maximum number of rows to read. Must not be used with skip_footer
at the same time. If given, the value must be at least 1. Default is
to read the entire file.
.. versionadded:: 1.10.0
Returns
-------
out : ndarray
Data read from the text file. If `usemask` is True, this is a
masked array.
See Also
--------
numpy.loadtxt : equivalent function when no data is missing.
Notes
-----
* When spaces are used as delimiters, or when no delimiter has been given
as input, there should not be any missing data between two fields.
* When the variables are named (either by a flexible dtype or with `names`,
there must not be any header in the file (else a ValueError
exception is raised).
* Individual values are not stripped of spaces by default.
When using a custom converter, make sure the function does remove spaces.
References
----------
.. [1] Numpy User Guide, section `I/O with Numpy
<http://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/user/basics.io.genfromtxt.html>`_.
Examples
---------
>>> from StringIO import StringIO
>>> import numpy as np
Comma delimited file with mixed dtype
>>> s = StringIO("1,1.3,abcde")
>>> data = np.genfromtxt(s, dtype=[('myint','i8'),('myfloat','f8'),
... ('mystring','S5')], delimiter=",")
>>> data
array((1, 1.3, 'abcde'),
dtype=[('myint', '<i8'), ('myfloat', '<f8'), ('mystring', '|S5')])
Using dtype = None
>>> s.seek(0) # needed for StringIO example only
>>> data = np.genfromtxt(s, dtype=None,
... names = ['myint','myfloat','mystring'], delimiter=",")
>>> data
array((1, 1.3, 'abcde'),
dtype=[('myint', '<i8'), ('myfloat', '<f8'), ('mystring', '|S5')])
Specifying dtype and names
>>> s.seek(0)
>>> data = np.genfromtxt(s, dtype="i8,f8,S5",
... names=['myint','myfloat','mystring'], delimiter=",")
>>> data
array((1, 1.3, 'abcde'),
dtype=[('myint', '<i8'), ('myfloat', '<f8'), ('mystring', '|S5')])
An example with fixed-width columns
>>> s = StringIO("11.3abcde")
>>> data = np.genfromtxt(s, dtype=None, names=['intvar','fltvar','strvar'],
... delimiter=[1,3,5])
>>> data
array((1, 1.3, 'abcde'),
dtype=[('intvar', '<i8'), ('fltvar', '<f8'), ('strvar', '|S5')])
"""
if max_rows is not None:
if skip_footer:
raise ValueError(
"The keywords 'skip_footer' and 'max_rows' can not be "
"specified at the same time.")
if max_rows < 1:
raise ValueError("'max_rows' must be at least 1.")
# Py3 data conversions to bytes, for convenience
if comments is not None:
comments = asbytes(comments)
if isinstance(delimiter, unicode):
delimiter = asbytes(delimiter)
if isinstance(missing, unicode):
missing = asbytes(missing)
if isinstance(missing_values, (unicode, list, tuple)):
missing_values = asbytes_nested(missing_values)
#
if usemask:
from numpy.ma import MaskedArray, make_mask_descr
# Check the input dictionary of converters
user_converters = converters or {}
if not isinstance(user_converters, dict):
raise TypeError(
"The input argument 'converter' should be a valid dictionary "
"(got '%s' instead)" % type(user_converters))
# Initialize the filehandle, the LineSplitter and the NameValidator
own_fhd = False
try:
if isinstance(fname, basestring):
if sys.version_info[0] == 2:
fhd = iter(np.lib._datasource.open(fname, 'rbU'))
else:
fhd = iter(np.lib._datasource.open(fname, 'rb'))
own_fhd = True
else:
fhd = iter(fname)
except TypeError:
raise TypeError(
"fname must be a string, filehandle, or generator. "
"(got %s instead)" % type(fname))
split_line = LineSplitter(delimiter=delimiter, comments=comments,
autostrip=autostrip)._handyman
validate_names = NameValidator(excludelist=excludelist,
deletechars=deletechars,
case_sensitive=case_sensitive,
replace_space=replace_space)
# Get the first valid lines after the first skiprows ones ..
if skiprows:
warnings.warn(
"The use of `skiprows` is deprecated, it will be removed in "
"numpy 2.0.\nPlease use `skip_header` instead.",
DeprecationWarning)
skip_header = skiprows
# Skip the first `skip_header` rows
for i in range(skip_header):
next(fhd)
# Keep on until we find the first valid values
first_values = None
try:
while not first_values:
first_line = next(fhd)
if names is True:
if comments in first_line:
first_line = (
asbytes('').join(first_line.split(comments)[1:]))
first_values = split_line(first_line)
except StopIteration:
# return an empty array if the datafile is empty
first_line = asbytes('')
first_values = []
warnings.warn('genfromtxt: Empty input file: "%s"' % fname)
# Should we take the first values as names ?
if names is True:
fval = first_values[0].strip()
if fval in comments:
del first_values[0]
# Check the columns to use: make sure `usecols` is a list
if usecols is not None:
try:
usecols = [_.strip() for _ in usecols.split(",")]
except AttributeError:
try:
usecols = list(usecols)
except TypeError:
usecols = [usecols, ]
nbcols = len(usecols or first_values)
# Check the names and overwrite the dtype.names if needed
if names is True:
names = validate_names([_bytes_to_name(_.strip())
for _ in first_values])
first_line = asbytes('')
elif _is_string_like(names):
names = validate_names([_.strip() for _ in names.split(',')])
elif names:
names = validate_names(names)
# Get the dtype
if dtype is not None:
dtype = easy_dtype(dtype, defaultfmt=defaultfmt, names=names,
excludelist=excludelist,
deletechars=deletechars,
case_sensitive=case_sensitive,
replace_space=replace_space)
# Make sure the names is a list (for 2.5)
if names is not None:
names = list(names)
if usecols:
for (i, current) in enumerate(usecols):
# if usecols is a list of names, convert to a list of indices
if _is_string_like(current):
usecols[i] = names.index(current)
elif current < 0:
usecols[i] = current + len(first_values)
# If the dtype is not None, make sure we update it
if (dtype is not None) and (len(dtype) > nbcols):
descr = dtype.descr
dtype = np.dtype([descr[_] for _ in usecols])
names = list(dtype.names)
# If `names` is not None, update the names
elif (names is not None) and (len(names) > nbcols):
names = [names[_] for _ in usecols]
elif (names is not None) and (dtype is not None):
names = list(dtype.names)
# Process the missing values ...............................
# Rename missing_values for convenience
user_missing_values = missing_values or ()
# Define the list of missing_values (one column: one list)
missing_values = [list([asbytes('')]) for _ in range(nbcols)]
# We have a dictionary: process it field by field
if isinstance(user_missing_values, dict):
# Loop on the items
for (key, val) in user_missing_values.items():
# Is the key a string ?
if _is_string_like(key):
try:
# Transform it into an integer
key = names.index(key)
except ValueError:
# We couldn't find it: the name must have been dropped
continue
# Redefine the key as needed if it's a column number
if usecols:
try:
key = usecols.index(key)
except ValueError:
pass
# Transform the value as a list of string
if isinstance(val, (list, tuple)):
val = [str(_) for _ in val]
else:
val = [str(val), ]
# Add the value(s) to the current list of missing
if key is None:
# None acts as default
for miss in missing_values:
miss.extend(val)
else:
missing_values[key].extend(val)
# We have a sequence : each item matches a column
elif isinstance(user_missing_values, (list, tuple)):
for (value, entry) in zip(user_missing_values, missing_values):
value = str(value)
if value not in entry:
entry.append(value)
# We have a string : apply it to all entries
elif isinstance(user_missing_values, bytes):
user_value = user_missing_values.split(asbytes(","))
for entry in missing_values:
entry.extend(user_value)
# We have something else: apply it to all entries
else:
for entry in missing_values:
entry.extend([str(user_missing_values)])
# Process the deprecated `missing`
if missing != asbytes(''):
warnings.warn(
"The use of `missing` is deprecated, it will be removed in "
"Numpy 2.0.\nPlease use `missing_values` instead.",
DeprecationWarning)
values = [str(_) for _ in missing.split(asbytes(","))]
for entry in missing_values:
entry.extend(values)
# Process the filling_values ...............................
# Rename the input for convenience
user_filling_values = filling_values
if user_filling_values is None:
user_filling_values = []
# Define the default
filling_values = [None] * nbcols
# We have a dictionary : update each entry individually
if isinstance(user_filling_values, dict):
for (key, val) in user_filling_values.items():
if _is_string_like(key):
try:
# Transform it into an integer
key = names.index(key)
except ValueError:
# We couldn't find it: the name must have been dropped,
continue
# Redefine the key if it's a column number and usecols is defined
if usecols:
try:
key = usecols.index(key)
except ValueError:
pass
# Add the value to the list
filling_values[key] = val
# We have a sequence : update on a one-to-one basis
elif isinstance(user_filling_values, (list, tuple)):
n = len(user_filling_values)
if (n <= nbcols):
filling_values[:n] = user_filling_values
else:
filling_values = user_filling_values[:nbcols]
# We have something else : use it for all entries
else:
filling_values = [user_filling_values] * nbcols
# Initialize the converters ................................
if dtype is None:
# Note: we can't use a [...]*nbcols, as we would have 3 times the same
# ... converter, instead of 3 different converters.
converters = [StringConverter(None, missing_values=miss, default=fill)
for (miss, fill) in zip(missing_values, filling_values)]
else:
dtype_flat = flatten_dtype(dtype, flatten_base=True)
# Initialize the converters
if len(dtype_flat) > 1:
# Flexible type : get a converter from each dtype
zipit = zip(dtype_flat, missing_values, filling_values)
converters = [StringConverter(dt, locked=True,
missing_values=miss, default=fill)
for (dt, miss, fill) in zipit]
else:
# Set to a default converter (but w/ different missing values)
zipit = zip(missing_values, filling_values)
converters = [StringConverter(dtype, locked=True,
missing_values=miss, default=fill)
for (miss, fill) in zipit]
# Update the converters to use the user-defined ones
uc_update = []
for (j, conv) in user_converters.items():
# If the converter is specified by column names, use the index instead
if _is_string_like(j):
try:
j = names.index(j)
i = j
except ValueError:
continue
elif usecols:
try:
i = usecols.index(j)
except ValueError:
# Unused converter specified
continue
else:
i = j
# Find the value to test - first_line is not filtered by usecols:
if len(first_line):
testing_value = first_values[j]
else:
testing_value = None
converters[i].update(conv, locked=True,
testing_value=testing_value,
default=filling_values[i],
missing_values=missing_values[i],)
uc_update.append((i, conv))
# Make sure we have the corrected keys in user_converters...
user_converters.update(uc_update)
# Fixme: possible error as following variable never used.
#miss_chars = [_.missing_values for _ in converters]
# Initialize the output lists ...
# ... rows
rows = []
append_to_rows = rows.append
# ... masks
if usemask:
masks = []
append_to_masks = masks.append
# ... invalid
invalid = []
append_to_invalid = invalid.append
# Parse each line
for (i, line) in enumerate(itertools.chain([first_line, ], fhd)):
values = split_line(line)
nbvalues = len(values)
# Skip an empty line
if nbvalues == 0:
continue
if usecols:
# Select only the columns we need
try:
values = [values[_] for _ in usecols]
except IndexError:
append_to_invalid((i + skip_header + 1, nbvalues))
continue
elif nbvalues != nbcols:
append_to_invalid((i + skip_header + 1, nbvalues))
continue
# Store the values
append_to_rows(tuple(values))
if usemask:
append_to_masks(tuple([v.strip() in m
for (v, m) in zip(values,
missing_values)]))
if len(rows) == max_rows:
break
if own_fhd:
fhd.close()
# Upgrade the converters (if needed)
if dtype is None:
for (i, converter) in enumerate(converters):
current_column = [itemgetter(i)(_m) for _m in rows]
try:
converter.iterupgrade(current_column)
except ConverterLockError:
errmsg = "Converter #%i is locked and cannot be upgraded: " % i
current_column = map(itemgetter(i), rows)
for (j, value) in enumerate(current_column):
try:
converter.upgrade(value)
except (ConverterError, ValueError):
errmsg += "(occurred line #%i for value '%s')"
errmsg %= (j + 1 + skip_header, value)
raise ConverterError(errmsg)
# Check that we don't have invalid values
nbinvalid = len(invalid)
if nbinvalid > 0:
nbrows = len(rows) + nbinvalid - skip_footer
# Construct the error message
template = " Line #%%i (got %%i columns instead of %i)" % nbcols
if skip_footer > 0:
nbinvalid_skipped = len([_ for _ in invalid
if _[0] > nbrows + skip_header])
invalid = invalid[:nbinvalid - nbinvalid_skipped]
skip_footer -= nbinvalid_skipped
#
# nbrows -= skip_footer
# errmsg = [template % (i, nb)
# for (i, nb) in invalid if i < nbrows]
# else:
errmsg = [template % (i, nb)
for (i, nb) in invalid]
if len(errmsg):
errmsg.insert(0, "Some errors were detected !")
errmsg = "\n".join(errmsg)
# Raise an exception ?
if invalid_raise:
raise ValueError(errmsg)
# Issue a warning ?
else:
warnings.warn(errmsg, ConversionWarning)
# Strip the last skip_footer data
if skip_footer > 0:
rows = rows[:-skip_footer]
if usemask:
masks = masks[:-skip_footer]
# Convert each value according to the converter:
# We want to modify the list in place to avoid creating a new one...
if loose:
rows = list(
zip(*[[conv._loose_call(_r) for _r in map(itemgetter(i), rows)]
for (i, conv) in enumerate(converters)]))
else:
rows = list(
zip(*[[conv._strict_call(_r) for _r in map(itemgetter(i), rows)]
for (i, conv) in enumerate(converters)]))
# Reset the dtype
data = rows
if dtype is None:
# Get the dtypes from the types of the converters
column_types = [conv.type for conv in converters]
# Find the columns with strings...
strcolidx = [i for (i, v) in enumerate(column_types)
if v in (type('S'), np.string_)]
# ... and take the largest number of chars.
for i in strcolidx:
column_types[i] = "|S%i" % max(len(row[i]) for row in data)
#
if names is None:
# If the dtype is uniform, don't define names, else use ''
base = set([c.type for c in converters if c._checked])
if len(base) == 1:
(ddtype, mdtype) = (list(base)[0], np.bool)
else:
ddtype = [(defaultfmt % i, dt)
for (i, dt) in enumerate(column_types)]
if usemask:
mdtype = [(defaultfmt % i, np.bool)
for (i, dt) in enumerate(column_types)]
else:
ddtype = list(zip(names, column_types))
mdtype = list(zip(names, [np.bool] * len(column_types)))
output = np.array(data, dtype=ddtype)
if usemask:
outputmask = np.array(masks, dtype=mdtype)
else:
# Overwrite the initial dtype names if needed
if names and dtype.names:
dtype.names = names
# Case 1. We have a structured type
if len(dtype_flat) > 1:
# Nested dtype, eg [('a', int), ('b', [('b0', int), ('b1', 'f4')])]
# First, create the array using a flattened dtype:
# [('a', int), ('b1', int), ('b2', float)]
# Then, view the array using the specified dtype.
if 'O' in (_.char for _ in dtype_flat):
if has_nested_fields(dtype):
raise NotImplementedError(
"Nested fields involving objects are not supported...")
else:
output = np.array(data, dtype=dtype)
else:
rows = np.array(data, dtype=[('', _) for _ in dtype_flat])
output = rows.view(dtype)
# Now, process the rowmasks the same way
if usemask:
rowmasks = np.array(
masks, dtype=np.dtype([('', np.bool) for t in dtype_flat]))
# Construct the new dtype
mdtype = make_mask_descr(dtype)
outputmask = rowmasks.view(mdtype)
# Case #2. We have a basic dtype
else:
# We used some user-defined converters
if user_converters:
ishomogeneous = True
descr = []
for i, ttype in enumerate([conv.type for conv in converters]):
# Keep the dtype of the current converter
if i in user_converters:
ishomogeneous &= (ttype == dtype.type)
if ttype == np.string_:
ttype = "|S%i" % max(len(row[i]) for row in data)
descr.append(('', ttype))
else:
descr.append(('', dtype))
# So we changed the dtype ?
if not ishomogeneous:
# We have more than one field
if len(descr) > 1:
dtype = np.dtype(descr)
# We have only one field: drop the name if not needed.
else:
dtype = np.dtype(ttype)
#
output = np.array(data, dtype)
if usemask:
if dtype.names:
mdtype = [(_, np.bool) for _ in dtype.names]
else:
mdtype = np.bool
outputmask = np.array(masks, dtype=mdtype)
# Try to take care of the missing data we missed
names = output.dtype.names
if usemask and names:
for (name, conv) in zip(names or (), converters):
missing_values = [conv(_) for _ in conv.missing_values
if _ != asbytes('')]
for mval in missing_values:
outputmask[name] |= (output[name] == mval)
# Construct the final array
if usemask:
output = output.view(MaskedArray)
output._mask = outputmask
if unpack:
return output.squeeze().T
return output.squeeze()
def ndfromtxt(fname, **kwargs):
"""
Load ASCII data stored in a file and return it as a single array.
Parameters
----------
fname, kwargs : For a description of input parameters, see `genfromtxt`.
See Also
--------
numpy.genfromtxt : generic function.
"""
kwargs['usemask'] = False
return genfromtxt(fname, **kwargs)
def mafromtxt(fname, **kwargs):
"""
Load ASCII data stored in a text file and return a masked array.
Parameters
----------
fname, kwargs : For a description of input parameters, see `genfromtxt`.
See Also
--------
numpy.genfromtxt : generic function to load ASCII data.
"""
kwargs['usemask'] = True
return genfromtxt(fname, **kwargs)
def recfromtxt(fname, **kwargs):
"""
Load ASCII data from a file and return it in a record array.
If ``usemask=False`` a standard `recarray` is returned,
if ``usemask=True`` a MaskedRecords array is returned.
Parameters
----------
fname, kwargs : For a description of input parameters, see `genfromtxt`.
See Also
--------
numpy.genfromtxt : generic function
Notes
-----
By default, `dtype` is None, which means that the data-type of the output
array will be determined from the data.
"""
kwargs.setdefault("dtype", None)
usemask = kwargs.get('usemask', False)
output = genfromtxt(fname, **kwargs)
if usemask:
from numpy.ma.mrecords import MaskedRecords
output = output.view(MaskedRecords)
else:
output = output.view(np.recarray)
return output
def recfromcsv(fname, **kwargs):
"""
Load ASCII data stored in a comma-separated file.
The returned array is a record array (if ``usemask=False``, see
`recarray`) or a masked record array (if ``usemask=True``,
see `ma.mrecords.MaskedRecords`).
Parameters
----------
fname, kwargs : For a description of input parameters, see `genfromtxt`.
See Also
--------
numpy.genfromtxt : generic function to load ASCII data.
Notes
-----
By default, `dtype` is None, which means that the data-type of the output
array will be determined from the data.
"""
# Set default kwargs for genfromtxt as relevant to csv import.
kwargs.setdefault("case_sensitive", "lower")
kwargs.setdefault("names", True)
kwargs.setdefault("delimiter", ",")
kwargs.setdefault("dtype", None)
output = genfromtxt(fname, **kwargs)
usemask = kwargs.get("usemask", False)
if usemask:
from numpy.ma.mrecords import MaskedRecords
output = output.view(MaskedRecords)
else:
output = output.view(np.recarray)
return output
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