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Building an Impenetrable ZooKeeper

Authors: Katheleen Ting
Time:2:00 pm - 2:50 pm
Session:https://thestrangeloop.com/sessions/building-an-impenetrable-zookeeper
Slides:https://github.com/strangeloop/strangeloop2012/blob/master/slides/Ting-BuildingAnImpenetrableZooKeeper.pdf?raw=true

ZooKeeper is the unsung hero, and a lot of time people don't know that it's there until it's down. Because ZooKeeper is so important, it's important to make it durable.

ZooKeeper is fairly stable, so more often the things that bring ZK down are misconfigurations, not bugs.

ZooKeeper is a coordinator for distributed applications. It is designed to remove the need for custom coordination code/solutions. ZK is used by HBase, HDFS, Solr, Kafka, etc.

Misconfigurations are any diagnostic ticket that require a ZK/config file change. These comprise 44% of tickets at Cloudera [eep!]. Typically ZK is straight forward to set up and operate, and issues tend to be client rather than ZK issues.

A 3 ZK Ensemble consists of three ZK machines: one leader, two followers. All three store a copy of the same data. This full replication ensures durability.

Leader is elected at startup, changes are coordinated through the leader, and clients talk to followers. Changes are accepted when a majority of ZKs agree.

Common Misconfigurations:

  1. Too Many Connections

    • ZK has a limited number of connections; defaults to 60 [per IP?]
    • HBase clients have leaked connections in the past, so they have to be closed manually
  2. Connection Closes Prematurely

    Need to increase wait time for recovery. [Didn't understand this completely.]

  3. Pig Hangs Connecting to HBase

    • Caused by Pig not knowing the location of the ZK quorum.
    • This can be resolved with Pig10
  4. Client Session Time Out

    • ZK defaults session timeout to 40s, while HBase needs a 180s timeout for garbage collection.
    • This will cause them to agree on the shorter session timeout
    • HBase will begin to timeout under IO load, because it needs more time
    • This may also be caused by co-locating ZK with something IO intensive like a DataNode or RegionServer
    • ZK has relatively low IO requirements, but durability requires that changes fsync before reporting as accepted.
  5. Clients Lose Connections

    • The ZK transaction log is optimized for mechanical spindles and sequential IO
    • SSD provides little benefit to ZK, and suffers from latency spikes
  6. Unable to Load Database: Unable to Load Quorum Server

    • If there is disk corruption, ZK will refuse to load
    • If you have two other running ZK instances, you can safely wipe the database and it will replicate from the other two when it comes back up
  7. Unable to Load Database - Unreasonable Length Exception

    • ZK allows a client to set data larger than the server can read from disk
    • ZK includes the metadata when calculating the size
    • Increase the max size to work around
    • This is a bug in ZK which will be fixed in a future release
  8. Failure to Follow Leader

    • If your ZK nodes comes up and is not the leader and can not contact the leader, it will not be able to restart

Because ZK operates by majority, recommend having an odd number of servers in an ensemble: if you have 2 servers in an ensemble, and one goes down, you're down (1 is not a majority of 2). Recommend:

  • 1 if you only want coordination
  • 3 if you want reliability for production environments
  • 5 if you want to be able to take one down for maintenance

But more isn't always better: more servers means you need to wait for more votes in elections. You can use Observers to provide more followers that do not participate in elections.

You can verify the configuration using zk-smoketest.

Best Practices

  • Separate spindles for dataDir and dataLogDir -- improves latency and avoids competition
  • Allocate 3 or 5 servers
  • Run zkCleanup.sh via cron