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pragma solidity ^0.4.18;
contract SecretBallot {
// The address of the account that created this ballot.
address public ballotCreator;
// Is voting finished? The ballot creator determines when to set this flag.
bool public votingEnded;
// Candidate names
bytes32[] public candidateNames;
// Keep track of which addresses have voted already to prevent multiple votes.
mapping (address => bool) public hasVoted;
// Tallies for each candidate
mapping (bytes32 => uint256) private votesReceived;
// The total number of votes cast so far. Revealed before voting has ended.
uint256 public totalVotes;
constructor(bytes32[] _candidateNames) public {
ballotCreator = msg.sender;
candidateNames = _candidateNames;
function voteForCandidate(bytes32 candidate) public {
// can only vote during voting period
// candidate must be part of the ballot
// one vote per address (not sybil resistant)
// prevent overflow
require(votesReceived[candidate] < ~uint256(0));
require(totalVotes < ~uint256(0));
votesReceived[candidate] += 1;
hasVoted[msg.sender] = true;
totalVotes += 1;
function endVoting() public returns (bool) {
require(msg.sender == ballotCreator); // Only ballot creator can end the vote.
votingEnded = true;
return true;
function totalVotesFor(bytes32 candidate) view public returns (uint256) {
require(votingEnded); // Don't reveal votes until voting has ended
return votesReceived[candidate];
function numCandidates() view public returns(uint count) {
return candidateNames.length;
function validCandidate(bytes32 candidate) view public returns (bool) {
for(uint i = 0; i < candidateNames.length; i++) {
if (candidateNames[i] == candidate) {
return true;
return false;
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