The current definition of long bone (see below) needs to be broadened to apply across vertebrates that have them. From discussions with Paul, only mammals have epiphyseal plates (growth plates), cancellous bone is not present in all vertebrates, and can't claim that they have cartilage at the end, because in birds, some long bones connect to tendons.
Here's a draft definition for the time being:
*Long bone is a limb bone that is subcylindrical and has a shaft with periosteum separating the ends of the bones. Long bones are present only in the limbs.
name: long bone
def: "those that are longer than they are wide, and grow primarily by elongation of the diaphysis, with an epiphysis at the ends of the growing bone. The ends of epiphyses are covered with a hyaline cartilage ('articular cartilage'). The longitudinal growth of long bones is a result of endochondral ossification at the epiphyseal plate. Bone growth in length is stimulated by the production of growth hormone (GH), a secretion of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The long bones include the femurs, tibias, and fibulas of the legs, the humeri, radii, and ulnas of the arms, metacarpals and metatarsals of the hands and feet, and the phalanges of the fingers and toes. The long bones of the human leg comprise nearly half of adult height. The other primary skeletal component of height is the spine and skull. The outside of the bone consists of a layer of connective tissue called the periosteum. Additionally, the outer shell of the long bone is compact bone, then a deeper layer of cancellous bone (spongy bone) which contains red bone marrow. The interior part of the long bone is the medullary cavity with the inner core of the bone cavity being composed of (in adults) of yellow marrow. There are five general classifications of bones: (1) Long bones, (2) Short bones, (3) Flat bones, (4) Irregular bones, and (5) Sesamoid bones[WP]." [Wikipedia:Long_bone]
comment: Endochondral_ossification is an essential process during the rudimentary formation of long bones, with the exception of the clavicle[Wikipedia:Endochondral_ossification]. The medial and and lateral ends undergo EO, the mid-portion is formed by a process with features of EO & IO (the process is shared by the mandible)[ISBN:9780397517251]
is_a: UBERON:0001474 ! bone
relationship: part_of UBERON:0002091 ! appendicular skeleton
Thanks for pointing out the problems.
New def sounds good. Do you have citation handy? "Long bones are present only in the limbs". Does limb here mean free limb, or free limb + girdle? The FMA considers the clavicle a long bone.
If I understand correctly, in a long bone the periosteum does not cover the ends?
Maybe something like: "Bone that has a long subcylindrical peresoteum-covered shaft separating the two ends"
Here is the FMA's classification, which seems fairly standard:
is_a FMA:5018 ! Bone organ
is_a FMA:7474 ! Long bone ***
is_a FMA:7475 ! Short bone
is_a FMA:7476 ! Flat bone
is_a FMA:7477 ! Irregular bone
No definitions though. I have seen phalanges classified as short bones but I think it's more standard to consider them as long bones. I'm not sure what the def of short bone would be that allows this or if it's more a case of a hardcoded grouping.
fixed in git, going with this for now
def: "Long bone is a limb bone that is subcylindrical and has a shaft with periosteum separating the ends of the bones. Long bones are present only in the limbs[VAO]." [VAO:wd, Wikipedia:Long_bone]