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Project Layout and Metadata Specification

A typical dune project will have a dune-project and one or more <package>.opam file at toplevel as well as dune files wherever interesting things are: libraries, executables, tests, documents to install, etc...

It is recommended to organize your project so that you have exactly one library per directory. You can have several executables in the same directory, as long as they share the same build configuration. If you'd like to have multiple executables with different configurations in the same directory, you will have to make an explicit module list for every executable using modules.

The next sections describe the format of dune metadata files.

Note that the dune metadata format is versioned in order to ensure forward compatibility. There is currently only one version available, but to be future proof, you should still specify it in your dune files. If no version is specified, the latest one will be used.

Metadata format

All configuration files read by Dune are using a syntax similar to the one of S-expressions, which is very simple. The Dune language can represent three kinds of values: atoms, strings and lists. By combining these, it is possible to construct arbitrarily complex project descriptions.

A Dune configuration file is a sequence of atoms, strings or lists separated by spaces, newlines and comments. The other sections of this manual describe how each configuration file is interpreted. We describe below the syntax of the language.

Comments

The Dune language only has end of line comments. End of line comments are introduced with a semicolon and span up to the end of the end of the current line. Everything from the semicolon to the end of the line is ignored. For instance:

; This is a comment

Atoms

An atom is a non-empty contiguous sequences of character other than special characters. Special characters are:

  • spaces, horizontal tabs, newlines and form feed
  • opening and closing parenthesis
  • double quotes
  • semicolons

For instance hello or + are valid atoms.

Note that backslashes inside atoms have no special meaning are always interpreted as plain backslashes characters.

Strings

A string is a sequence of characters surrounded by double quotes. A string represent the exact text between the double quotes, except for escape sequences. Escape sequence are introduced by the a backslash character. Dune recognizes and interprets the following escape sequences:

  • \n to represent a newline character
  • \r to represent a carriage return (character with ASCII code 13)
  • \b to represent ASCII character 8
  • \t to represent a horizontal tab
  • \NNN, a backslash followed by three decimal characters to represent the character with ASCII code NNN
  • \xHH, a backslash followed by two hexadecimal characters to represent the character with ASCII code HH in hexadecimal
  • \\, a double backslash to represent a single backslash
  • \%{ to represent %{ (see :ref:`variables-project`)

Additionally, a backslash that comes just before the end of the line is used to skip the newline up to the next non-space character. For instance the following two strings represent the same text:

"abcdef"
"abc\
   def"

In most places where Dune expect a string, it will also accept an atom. As a result it possible to write most Dune configuration file using very few double quotes. This is very convenient in practice.

End of line strings

End of line strings are another way to write strings. The are a convenient way to write blocks of text inside a Dune file.

End of line strings are introduced by "\| or "\> and span up the end of the current line. If the next line starts as well by "\| or "\> it is the continuation of the same string. For readability, it is necessary that the text that follows the delimiter is either empty or starts with a space that is ignored.

For instance:

"\| this is a block
"\| of text

represent the same text as the string "this is a block\nof text".

Escape sequences are interpreted in text that follows "\| but not in text that follows "\>. Both delimiters can be mixed inside the same block of text.

Lists

Lists are sequences of values enclosed by parentheses. For instance (x y z) is a list containing the three atoms x, y and z. Lists can be empty, for instance: ().

Lists can be nested, allowing to represent arbitrarily complex descriptions. For instance:

(html
 (head (title "Hello world!"))
 (body
   This is a simple example of using S-expressions))

Variables

Dune allows variables in a few places. Their interpretation often depend on the context in which they appear.

The syntax of variables is as follow:

%{var}

or, for more complex forms that take an argument:

%{fun:arg}

In order to write a plain %{, you need to write \%{ in a string.

dune-project files

These files are used to mark the root of projects as well as define project-wide parameters. These files are required to have a lang which controls the names and contents of all configuration files read by Dune. The lang stanza looks like:

(lang dune 1.0)

Additionally, they can contains the following stanzas.

name

Sets the name of the project. This is used by :ref:`dune subst <dune-subst>` and error messages.

(name <name>)

version

Sets the version of the project:

(version <version>)

<package>.opam files

When a <package>.opam file is present, dune will know that the package named <package> exists. It will know how to construct a <package>.install file in the same directory to handle installation via opam. Dune also defines the recursive install alias, which depends on all the buildable <package>.install files in the workspace. So for instance to build everything that is installable in a workspace, run at the root:

$ dune build @install

Declaring a package this way will allow you to add elements such as libraries, executables, documentation, ... to your package by declaring them in dune files.

Such elements can only be declared in the scope defined by the corresponding <package>.opam file. Typically, your <package>.opam files should be at the root of your project, since this is where opam pin ... will look for them.

Note that <package> must be non-empty, so in particular .opam files are ignored.

Scopes

Any directory containing at least one <package>.opam file defines a scope. This scope is the sub-tree starting from this directory, excluding any other scopes rooted in sub-direcotries.

Typically, any given project will define a single scope. Libraries and executables that are not meant to be installed will be visible inside this scope only.

Because scopes are exclusive, if you wish to include the dependencies of the project you are currently working on into your workspace, you may copy them in a vendor directory, or any other name of your choice. Dune will look for them there rather than in the installed world and there will be no overlap between the various scopes.

Package version

Note that dune will try to determine the version number of packages defined in the workspace. While dune itself makes no use of version numbers, it can be use by external tools such as ocamlfind.

Dune determines the version of a package by trying the following methods in order:

  • it looks in the <package>.opam file for a version variable
  • it looks for a <package>.version file in the same directory and reads the first line
  • it looks for the version specified in the dune-project if present
  • it looks for a version file and reads the first line
  • it looks for a VERSION file and reads the first line

<package>.version, version and VERSION files may be generated.

If the version can't be determined, dune just won't assign one.

Odig conventions

Dune follows the odig conventions and automatically installs any README*, CHANGE*, HISTORY* and LICENSE* files in the same directory as the <package>.opam file to a location where odig will find them.

Note that this includes files present in the source tree as well as generated files. So for instance a changelog generated by a user rule will be automatically installed as well.

jbuild-ignore (deprecated)

jbuild-ignore files are deprecated and replaced by :ref:`dune-subdirs` stanzas in dune files.