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Elixir CI Status

Kalevala

Kalevala logo

Kalevala is a world building toolkit for text based games, written in Elixir.

Example Game

There is an example game, Kantele, in the example/ folder.

To start the game:

cd example/
mix deps.get
mix compile
cd assets/
yarn install
yarn build
cd ..
mix run --no-halt

A telnet listener will start on port 4444 and a TLS listener will start on port 4443 with a self signed cert. A web client will start on port 4500, visit http://localhost:4500/ to view it in your browser.

Components of Kalevala

Foreman

When you connect, a new Kalevala.Character.Foreman process is started. This process handles incoming text from the player, sending out going text and events, and other orchestration.

Conn

A Kalevala.Character.Conn is the context token for controllers and commands. This is similar to a Plug.Conn. The main difference being it bundles up multiple renders and events to fire all at once, instead of being used for a single request.

The foreman will generate new Conns before each event or incoming text. After processing the Conn, it is processed by sending text to the player and events sent to their router (more on this in a bit).

Controllers

A Kalevala.Character.Controller is the largest building block of handling texting. When starting the foreman, an initial controller is given. This controller is initialized and used from then on. The callbacks required will be called at the appropriate time with a new Conn.

Controllers act as a simple state machine, only allowing transitioning to the next one you set in the Conn. For instance, you can contain all login logic in a LoginController, and handle game commands in its own controller, any paging can be handled in a PagerController which can suppress any outgoing text to prevent scrolling while reading, etc.

defmodule Kantele.Character.CommandController do
  use Kalevala.Character.Controller

  require Logger

  alias Kantele.Character.Commands
  alias Kantele.Character.CommandView

  @impl true
  def init(conn), do: prompt(conn, CommandView, "prompt", %{})

  @impl true
  def recv(conn, ""), do: conn

  def recv(conn, data) do
    Logger.info("Received - #{inspect(data)}")

    case Commands.call(conn, data) do
      {:error, :unknown} ->
        conn
        |> render(CommandView, "unknown", %{})
        |> prompt(CommandView, "prompt", %{})

      conn ->
      prompt(conn, CommandView, "prompt", %{})
    end
  end
end

Commands

A Kalevala.Character.Command is similar to a Controller, but should be called from a Controller through a Command.Router. Incoming text can be pattern matched in the router and be processed.

In the example below, you can Kantele.Character.Commands.call(conn, "say hello") to run the SayCommand.run/2 function.

defmodule Kantele.Character.Commands do
  use Kalevala.Character.Commands.Router, scope: Kantele

  module(SayCommand) do
    parse("say", :run, fn command ->
      command |> spaces() |> text(:message)
    end)
  end
end

defmodule Kantele.Character.SayCommand do
  use Kalevala.Character.Command

  def run(conn, params) do
    params = %{
      "name" => character(conn).name,
      "message" => params["message"]
    }

    conn
    |> render(SayView, "echo", params)
    |> event("room/say", params)
  end
end

Views

A Kalevala.Character.View renders text and out of band events to the player. These are strings, IO data lists, or Kalevala.Character.Conn.Event structs (which are used for GMCP in telnet.)

The sigil ~i keeps a string as an IO data list, which is faster for processing and should be used if any interpolation is needed. Larger views can use the sigil ~E to use EEx.

defmodule Kantele.Character.SayView do
  use Kalevala.Character.View

  import IO.ANSI, only: [reset: 0, white: 0]

  def render("echo", %{"message" => message}) do
    ~i(You say, "\e[32m#{message}\e[0m"\n)
  end

  def render("listen", %{"character_name" => character_name, "message" => message}) do
    ~i(#{white()}#{character_name}#{reset()} says, "\e[32m#{message}\e[0m"\n)
  end
end

Events

A Kalevala.Event is an internal event passed between processes. Events have three fields, which pid is generating the event, the topic (e.g. room/say), and a map of data. Controllers and commands can generate events which will get sent to an event router process, which is typically the room they are in.

The Kalevala.World.Room process handles the event by running the event through a similar router to command processing. The Foreman process handles events with its own event router.

In the example below, you can call the event router with an event of topic room/say to run the Kantele.World.Room.NotifyEvent.call/2 function.

defmodule Kantele.World.Room.Events do
  @moduledoc false

  use Kalevala.Event.Router

  scope(Kantele.World.Room) do
    module(NotifyEvent) do
      event("room/say", :call)
    end
  end
end

defmodule Kantele.World.Room.NotifyEvent do
  import Kalevala.World.Room.Context

  def call(context, event) do
    Enum.reduce(context.characters, context, fn character, context ->
      event(context, character.pid, event.from_pid, event.topic, event.data)
    end)
  end
end

Actions

A Kalevala.Character.Action is a small set of functionality that a character can perform. Think of this as an "atom" building block that you can piece together other commands and the behavior tree below together with.

Actions have a single function run/2. They accept a conn and params as commands and controllers do.

The example below bundles together what it means to speak into a channel, e.g. the room your character is in.

defmodule Kantele.Character.SayAction do
  @moduledoc """
  Action to speak in a channel (e.g. a room)
  """

  use Kalevala.Character.Action

  alias Kantele.Character.SayView

  @impl true
  def run(conn, params) do
    conn
    |> assign(:text, params["text"])
    |> render(SayView, "echo")
    |> publish_message(params["channel_name"], params["text"], [], &publish_error/2)
  end

  def publish_error(conn, _error), do: conn
end

Character "Brains" - Behavior Tree

In order to create non-player characters, you can equip them with a brain of sorts. This comes in the form of a simple behavior tree. The tree evaluates an incoming event and checks to see which branches/leaves trigger.

Selectors

  • FirstSelector, starts at the top and tries each node, continuing until the first node succeeds
  • ConditionalSelector, starts at the top and tries each node, continuing as long as nodes succeed
  • RandomSelector, selects a random node to process
  • Sequence, starts at the top and runs each node, ignoring failing nodes

Leaves

  • Condition, a node that evaluates the condition, if the condition is false, then the node fails, generally this is matched with a ConditionalSelector at the start to fail the actions below it
  • Action, a node that will append an action to the conn to be performed, optionally delayed
  • NullNode, a no-op node that can be used as an empty brain to skip node operation

Conditions

  • MessageMatch, built-in condition to match a Kalevala.Event.Message event
  • EventMatch, built-in condition to match a base Kalevala.Event event

Communication & Channels

A Kalevala.Communication.Channel is a pub/sub for sending chat messages between characters. Channels are registered with a callback module, allowing for callbacks before subscriptions/unsubscriptions/publishes.

For instance, rooms can register a channel for themselves, and as characters move around they can change room subscriptions. A say command can then publish to this room, with every other character in the room receiving the event via their subscription. Another example might be a global channel that all characters are subscribed to, or one for a set of characters.

By default, the use macro will fill in default implementations that allow all.

defmodule Kantele.Communication.BroadcastChannel do
  use Kalevala.Communication.Channel
end

defmodule Kantele.Communication do
  @moduledoc false

  use Kalevala.Communication

  @impl true
  def initial_channels() do
    [{"general", Kantele.Communication.BroadcastChannel, []}]
  end
end

The World

The world in Kalevala consists of Kalevala.World.Zones and Kalevala.World.Rooms. A zone contains many rooms, and rooms are the basic block of traversing the world. Rooms also act as the primary point of work (processing events) as all events will go through the room that characters are in.

The example game boots the world from flat files, but world data can come from any source as long as the structures can be created. For instance, you might load a simple zone struct with a database ID and hydrate the zone after the process started.

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A world builder's toolkit in Elixir

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