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A flat file PHP blog engine/CMS system.
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README.md

GainCMS

GainCMS is a simple PHP blog engine for generic websites and blogs, influenced by Jekyll and Grav which are close but not as simple and effective as this. If all you need is a quick and simple CMS/blog with pagination and comments supports or a simple responsive web site, this might be a good base. Not by any means "user-friendly" in the modern dummy end user sense, if you have some dev skills or experience with CLI, GainCMS should be trivial to use and takes only a few minutes to get into.

Feature list

  • Simple and easy to modify
  • Flat file blog CMS
  • Responsive design (Bootstrap)
  • Markdown articles (Parsedown)
  • Disqus comments
  • Pagination
  • Tagging
  • PHP routing
  • Multiple blog support
  • Simple visitor statistics
  • Updates listing for blogs

Sample screenshot from the original author's blog: Screenshot

Requirements and installation

Required software:

  • Either Apache or nginx:
    • Apache 2.2.16 or newer with rewrite module.
    • nginx 1.10 tested, probably works also with earlier versions.
  • PHP 5.6 or newer.
  • For statistics parsing (optional), Python 3 is required.

To get things running:

  1. Install required software. Refer to Web server configuration below for more instructions.
  2. Copy the contents of the repository into your web server root directory (e.g. /var/www).
  3. Configure the CONFIG_URL_BASE variable (and optionally the CONFIG_GITHUB_USER and CONFIG_URL_DISQUS variables) in index.php.

The site should now work correctly. Check file permissions if you get any errors.

Structure explained

Below is a rough example diagram of GainCMS structure, where + denotes a directory and - denotes a file. The first line of the diagram is the root directory.

+ /
 \
 |- .htaccess
 |- index.php
 |+ site/
   \
   |- about.php
   |- blog.php
   |- error.php
   |- home.php
   |- post.php
   |- projects.php
   |+ css/
   |+ files/
   |+ graphics/
   |+ includes/
   |
   |+ posts/
     \
     |- _sort_override
     |+ 2015-08-26_example/
     | \
     | |- article.md
     | |- intro.md
     | |- pic.jpg
     | |- tag_software
     | |- tag_spaces work too
     | |- tag_but_are_converted_anyway
     | |- thumb_pic.jpg
     | |- update_2016-09-01
     | |- update_2018-12-06
     |+ _2015-11_26_unpublished/
       \
       |- article.md

    etc.

The index.php contains the site configuration and works as a router. It breaks down the URL and shows the correct page (about.php, blog.php etc.). All requests are directed to index.php in .htaccess. Adding and removing subpages is therefore straightforward and there's no magic involved. Basically one can write a new page from scratch and it will be shown just like that. The configuration of blogs is also defined here.

In the includes directory there are the common header (which also contains the navigation bar) and footer along with other utilities (e.g. a Parsedown extension). The css, graphics and files directories contain the style definitions, images and icons, and various other files respectively.

Blog articles go to directories configured in index.php, by default to posts. Every article is contained in its own subdirectory, whose name must begin with a date in the YYYY-MM-DD format, with the exception of unpublished articles. Their directories begin with an underscore by default. The directory name of an article is also used as the ID for Disqus comments.

Post order can be forced (for pinned posts, or posts with the same date) using CONFIG_SORT_FILE. The format for the file is two columns: left column post is "more recent" than the right column post. If right column post is "*", the left column post is essentially pinned.

Articles

Each blog article consists of the article itself in article.md, a short intro in intro.md (which is shown in the blog post listing and social media shares), tags, and other files such as images if referred to in the article. The tags are just empty files whose names should begin with tag_ by default. Spaces in tags are supported, but underscores are converted to spaces anyway in hyperlinks.

Updates for changelogs can be done by creating files which begin with update_ by default, and end in a date. A short description of the update should be written in the file.

The paths and glob patterns are customizable in index.php.

There are two special tags to roughly control the layout of the pictures within the article:

  • <br> inside an article paragraph will perform a clear for floating images.
  • <div class="img-highlight"></div> before an image will make it centered and stand out; useful for panorama images.

Visitor statistics

GainCMS has its own simple visitor statistics support so as not to give too much information to big corporations. To enable the visitor statistic, simply create the directory DIR_STATS_BASE, defined in index.php. Statistics may be parsed with the Python script parse_stats.py. You may also ignore IP addresses from the statistics: see CONFIG_STATS_IP_IGNORE_FILE in index.php. List one IPv4 address or IPv6 prefix per line in the file. The addresses mentioned there won't be logged.

Web server configuration

Apache

Enable the rewrite module and PHP, either by module or php-fpm.

nginx

The commands shown here must be run with elevated privileges (root).

  • For secure installation, it is generally recommended to create a new user and a group for the site:
groupadd gaincms
useradd -g gaincms gaincms
  • Create the php-fpm pool config /etc/php/7.0/fpm/pool.d/gaincms.conf (location may vary):
[gaincms]
user = gaincms
group = gaincms
listen = /run/php/php7.0-fpm-gaincms.sock
listen.owner = www-data
listen.group = www-data
pm = dynamic
pm.max_children = 5
pm.start_servers = 2
pm.min_spare_servers = 1
pm.max_spare_servers = 3
chdir = /
php_admin_value[disable_functions] = allow_url_fopen, exec, passthru, popen, proc_open, shell_exec, show_source, system
  • Create the nginx site /etc/nginx/sites-available/gaincms:
server {
    listen 80 default_server;
    listen [::]:80 default_server;
    root /var/www;
    index index.php;
    autoindex off;
    server_name 10.0.1.2;

    location / {
        try_files $uri /index.php$is_args$args;
    }

    location ~ ^/index\.php(/|$) {
        include snippets/fastcgi-php.conf;
        fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php7.0-fpm-gaincms.sock;

        fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.*)$;
        include fastcgi_params;
        fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
        fastcgi_param HTTPS off;

        internal;
    }

    location ~ /\.ht {
        deny all;
    }
}
  • Edit the server_name to something more reasonable, set root to your web server root directory, and enable the site by symlinking:
ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/gaincms /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/
  • Finally, restart the php-fpm and nginx services; e.g. for System V init scripts:
service php7.0-fpm restart
service nginx restart

Permissions

File permissions need to be set correctly. There's a sourceable file called permissions in the site directory which you may use to quickly fix everything file permission related.

Project goals by the original author

I made this CMS to have a simple yet flexible platform to write about things I've wanted to share. Some of these are for a very small audience (Linux audio for example), and some are just for my personal fun. Professionally, I wanted to have some experience on modern responsive web design. This CMS uses Bootstrap along with custom styles (e.g. responsive YouTube-video containers). I also wanted to see how routing works in practice.

License

GainCMS is released under the terms of the GNU General Public License v3. GainCMS uses Parsedown and Bootstrap, which are MIT licensed. The social media share icons are CC by Aha-Soft Team. By default all the articles published with GainCMS have the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Edit the file post.php to change that. If you make modifications to the files, feel free to add credits to you.

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