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Peter Ohler authored Feb 19, 2012
1 # Oj gem
2 A fast JSON parser and Object marshaller as a Ruby gem.
3
4 ## <a name="installation">Installation</a>
5 gem install oj
6
7 ## <a name="source">Source</a>
8
9 *GitHub* *repo*: https://github.com/ohler55/oj
10
11 *RubyGems* *repo*: https://rubygems.org/gems/oj
12
13 ## <a name="build_status">Build Status</a>
14
da0330c getting the travis image to show status
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15 [![Build Status](https://secure.travis-ci.org/ohler55/oj.png?branch=master)](http://travis-ci.org/ohler55/oj)
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16
17 ## <a name="links">Links of Interest</a>
18
e900e8e updated links and home page
Peter Ohler authored Apr 9, 2012
19 [Need for Speed](http://www.ohler.com/dev/need_for_speed/need_for_speed.html) for an overview of how Oj::Doc was designed.
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20
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21 *Fast XML parser and marshaller on RubyGems*: https://rubygems.org/gems/ox
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22
db33462 @MSNexploder fixed ox GitHub link
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23 *Fast XML parser and marshaller on GitHub*: https://github.com/ohler55/ox
57afd74 fixed a few bugs and added options
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24
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25 ## <a name="release">Release Notes</a>
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26
ae5fd3d worked around compile issues with 1.9.3-p0 on CentOS 5.4
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27 ### Release 1.2.4
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Peter Ohler authored Feb 22, 2012
28
ae5fd3d worked around compile issues with 1.9.3-p0 on CentOS 5.4
Peter Ohler authored Apr 13, 2012
29 - Removed all use of math.h to get around CentOS 5.4 compile problem.
100b871 making timespec compatible
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30
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31 ## <a name="description">Description</a>
32
33 Optimized JSON (Oj), as the name implies was written to provide speed
34 optimized JSON handling. It was designed as a faster alternative to Yajl and
35 other the common Ruby JSON parsers. So far is has achieved that at about 2
36 time faster than Yajl for parsing and 3 or more times faster writing JSON.
37
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38 Oj has several dump or serialization modes which control how Objects are
39 converted to JSON. These modes are set with the :effort option in either the
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40 default options or as one of the options to the dump() method.
41
42 - :strict mode will only allow the 7 basic JSON types to be serialized. Any other Object
43 will raise and Exception.
44
45 - :null mode replaces any Object that is not one of the JSON types is replaced by a JSON null.
46
47 - :object mode will dump any Object as a JSON Object with keys that match the
48 Ruby Object's variable names without the '@' character. This is the highest
49 performance mode.
50
51 - :compat mode is is the compatible with other systems. It will serialize any
52 Object but will check to see if the Object implements a to_hash() or to_json()
53 method. If either exists that method is used for serializing the Object. The
54 to_hash() is more flexible and produces more consistent output so it has a
55 preference over the to_json() method. If neither the to_json() or to_hash()
56 methods exist then the Oj internal Object variable encoding is used.
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57
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58 Oj is compatible with Ruby 1.8.7, 1.9.2, 1.9.3, JRuby, and RBX.
59
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60 ## <a name="compare">Comparisons</a>
61
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62 ### Fast Oj::Doc parser comparisons
63
64 The fast Oj::Doc parser is compared to the Yajl and JSON::Pure parsers with
65 strict JSON documents. No object conversions are included, just simple JSON.
66
67 Since the Oj::Doc deviation from the conventional parsers comparisons of not
68 only parsing but data access is also included. These tests use the
69 perf_fast.rb test file. The first benchmark is for just parsing. The second is
70 for doing a get on every leaf value in the JSON data structure. The third
71 fetchs a value from a specific spot in the document. With Yajl and JSON this
72 is done with a set of calls to fetch() for each level in the document. For
73 Oj::Doc a single fetch with a path is used.
74
75 The benchmark results are:
76
77 > perf_fast.rb -g 1 -f
78 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
79 Parse Performance
80 Oj::Doc.parse 100000 times in 0.164 seconds or 609893.696 parse/sec.
81 Yajl.parse 100000 times in 3.168 seconds or 31569.902 parse/sec.
82 JSON::Ext.parse 100000 times in 3.282 seconds or 30464.826 parse/sec.
83
84 Summary:
85 System time (secs) rate (ops/sec)
86 --------- ----------- --------------
87 Oj::Doc 0.164 609893.696
88 Yajl 3.168 31569.902
89 JSON::Ext 3.282 30464.826
90
91 Comparison Matrix
92 (performance factor, 2.0 row is means twice as fast as column)
93 Oj::Doc Yajl JSON::Ext
94 --------- --------- --------- ---------
95 Oj::Doc 1.00 19.32 20.02
96 Yajl 0.05 1.00 1.04
97 JSON::Ext 0.05 0.96 1.00
98
99 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
100 Parse and get all values Performance
101 Oj::Doc.parse 100000 times in 0.417 seconds or 240054.540 parse/sec.
102 Yajl.parse 100000 times in 5.159 seconds or 19384.191 parse/sec.
103 JSON::Ext.parse 100000 times in 5.269 seconds or 18978.638 parse/sec.
104
105 Summary:
106 System time (secs) rate (ops/sec)
107 --------- ----------- --------------
108 Oj::Doc 0.417 240054.540
109 Yajl 5.159 19384.191
110 JSON::Ext 5.269 18978.638
111
112 Comparison Matrix
113 (performance factor, 2.0 row is means twice as fast as column)
114 Oj::Doc Yajl JSON::Ext
115 --------- --------- --------- ---------
116 Oj::Doc 1.00 12.38 12.65
117 Yajl 0.08 1.00 1.02
118 JSON::Ext 0.08 0.98 1.00
119
120 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
121 fetch nested Performance
122 Oj::Doc.fetch 100000 times in 0.094 seconds or 1059995.760 fetch/sec.
123 Ruby.fetch 100000 times in 0.503 seconds or 198851.434 fetch/sec.
124
125 Summary:
126 System time (secs) rate (ops/sec)
127 ------- ----------- --------------
128 Oj::Doc 0.094 1059995.760
129 Ruby 0.503 198851.434
130
131 Comparison Matrix
132 (performance factor, 2.0 row is means twice as fast as column)
133 Oj::Doc Ruby
134 ------- ------- -------
135 Oj::Doc 1.00 5.33
136 Ruby 0.19 1.00
137
138 What the results mean are that for getting just a few values from a JSON
139 document Oj::Doc is 20 times faster than any other parser and for accessing
140 all values it is still over 12 times faster than any other Ruby JSON parser.
141
142 ### Conventional Oj parser comparisons
143
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144 The following table shows the difference is speeds between several
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145 serialization packages compared to the more conventional Oj parser. The tests
146 had to be scaled back due to limitation of some of the gems. I finally gave up
147 trying to get JSON Pure to serialize without errors with Ruby 1.9.3. It had
148 internal errors on anything other than a simple JSON structure. The errors
149 encountered were:
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150
151 - MessagePack fails to convert Bignum to JSON
152
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153 - JSON Pure fails to serialize any numbers or Objects with the to_json() method
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154
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155 Options were added to the test/perf_strict.rb test to run the test without
156 Object encoding and without Bignums.
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157
158 None of the packages except Oj were able to serialize Ruby Objects that did
159 not have a to_json() method or were of the 7 native JSON types.
160
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161 A perf_obj.rb file was added for comparing different Object marshalling
162 packages.
163
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164 It is also worth noting that although Oj is slightly behind MessagePack for
165 parsing, Oj serialization is much faster than MessagePack even though Oj uses
166 human readable JSON vs the binary MessagePack format.
167
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168 Oj supports circular references when in :object mode and when the :circular
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169 flag is true. None of the other gems tested supported circular
170 references. They failed in the following manners when the input included
171 circular references.
172
173 - Yajl core dumps Ruby
174
175 - JSON fails and raises an Exception
176
177 - MessagePack fails and raises an Exception
178
179 The benchmark results are:
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180
181 with Object and Bignum encoding:
182
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183 > perf_strict.rb
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184 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
185 Load/Parse Performance
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186 Oj:compat.load 100000 times in 1.481 seconds or 67513.146 load/sec.
187 Oj.load 100000 times in 1.066 seconds or 93796.400 load/sec.
188 JSON::Ext.parse 100000 times in 3.023 seconds or 33074.875 parse/sec.
189 JSON::Pure.parse 100000 times in 18.908 seconds or 5288.799 parse/sec.
190 Ox.load 100000 times in 1.240 seconds or 80671.900 load/sec.
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191
192 Summary:
193 System time (secs) rate (ops/sec)
194 ---------- ----------- --------------
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195 Oj 1.066 93796.400
196 Ox 1.240 80671.900
197 Oj:compat 1.481 67513.146
198 JSON::Ext 3.023 33074.875
199 JSON::Pure 18.908 5288.799
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200
201 Comparison Matrix
202 (performance factor, 2.0 row is means twice as fast as column)
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203 Oj Ox Oj:compat JSON::Ext JSON::Pure
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204 ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
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205 Oj 1.00 1.16 1.39 2.84 17.73
206 Ox 0.86 1.00 1.19 2.44 15.25
207 Oj:compat 0.72 0.84 1.00 2.04 12.77
208 JSON::Ext 0.35 0.41 0.49 1.00 6.25
209 JSON::Pure 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.16 1.00
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210
211
212 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
213 Dump/Encode/Generate Performance
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214 Oj:compat.dump 100000 times in 0.789 seconds or 126715.249 dump/sec.
215 Oj.dump 100000 times in 0.457 seconds or 218798.751 dump/sec.
216 JSON::Ext.generate 100000 times in 4.371 seconds or 22878.630 generate/sec.
217 Ox.dump 100000 times in 0.501 seconds or 199425.256 dump/sec.
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218
219 Summary:
220 System time (secs) rate (ops/sec)
221 --------- ----------- --------------
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222 Oj 0.457 218798.751
223 Ox 0.501 199425.256
224 Oj:compat 0.789 126715.249
225 JSON::Ext 4.371 22878.630
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226
227 Comparison Matrix
228 (performance factor, 2.0 row is means twice as fast as column)
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229 Oj Ox Oj:compat JSON::Ext
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230 --------- --------- --------- --------- ---------
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231 Oj 1.00 1.10 1.73 9.56
232 Ox 0.91 1.00 1.57 8.72
233 Oj:compat 0.58 0.64 1.00 5.54
234 JSON::Ext 0.10 0.11 0.18 1.00
235
236
237 The following packages were not included for the reason listed
238 ***** MessagePack: RangeError: bignum too big to convert into `unsigned long long'
239 ***** Yajl: RuntimeError: Yajl parse and encode did not return the same object as the original.
240 ***** JSON::Pure: TypeError: wrong argument type JSON::Pure::Generator::State (expected Data)
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241
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242 without Objects or numbers (for JSON Pure, Yajl, and Messagepack) JSON:
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243
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244 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
245 Load/Parse Performance
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246 Oj:compat.load 100000 times in 0.806 seconds or 124051.164 load/sec.
247 Oj.load 100000 times in 0.810 seconds or 123384.587 load/sec.
248 Yajl.parse 100000 times in 1.441 seconds or 69385.996 parse/sec.
249 JSON::Ext.parse 100000 times in 1.567 seconds or 63797.848 parse/sec.
250 JSON::Pure.parse 100000 times in 13.500 seconds or 7407.247 parse/sec.
251 Ox.load 100000 times in 0.954 seconds or 104836.748 load/sec.
252 MessagePack.unpack 100000 times in 0.651 seconds or 153707.817 unpack/sec.
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253
254 Summary:
255 System time (secs) rate (ops/sec)
256 ----------- ----------- --------------
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257 MessagePack 0.651 153707.817
258 Oj:compat 0.806 124051.164
259 Oj 0.810 123384.587
260 Ox 0.954 104836.748
261 Yajl 1.441 69385.996
262 JSON::Ext 1.567 63797.848
263 JSON::Pure 13.500 7407.247
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264
265 Comparison Matrix
266 (performance factor, 2.0 row is means twice as fast as column)
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267 MessagePack Oj:compat Oj Ox Yajl JSON::Ext JSON::Pure
268 ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- -----------
269 MessagePack 1.00 1.24 1.25 1.47 2.22 2.41 20.75
270 Oj:compat 0.81 1.00 1.01 1.18 1.79 1.94 16.75
271 Oj 0.80 0.99 1.00 1.18 1.78 1.93 16.66
272 Ox 0.68 0.85 0.85 1.00 1.51 1.64 14.15
273 Yajl 0.45 0.56 0.56 0.66 1.00 1.09 9.37
274 JSON::Ext 0.42 0.51 0.52 0.61 0.92 1.00 8.61
275 JSON::Pure 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.11 0.12 1.00
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276
277
278 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
279 Dump/Encode/Generate Performance
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280 Oj:compat.dump 100000 times in 0.173 seconds or 578526.262 dump/sec.
281 Oj.dump 100000 times in 0.179 seconds or 558362.880 dump/sec.
282 Yajl.encode 100000 times in 0.776 seconds or 128794.279 encode/sec.
283 JSON::Ext.generate 100000 times in 3.511 seconds or 28483.812 generate/sec.
284 JSON::Pure.generate 100000 times in 7.389 seconds or 13533.717 generate/sec.
285 Ox.dump 100000 times in 0.196 seconds or 510589.629 dump/sec.
286 MessagePack.pack 100000 times in 0.317 seconds or 315307.220 pack/sec.
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287
288 Summary:
289 System time (secs) rate (ops/sec)
290 ----------- ----------- --------------
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291 Oj:compat 0.173 578526.262
292 Oj 0.179 558362.880
293 Ox 0.196 510589.629
294 MessagePack 0.317 315307.220
295 Yajl 0.776 128794.279
296 JSON::Ext 3.511 28483.812
297 JSON::Pure 7.389 13533.717
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298
299 Comparison Matrix
300 (performance factor, 2.0 row is means twice as fast as column)
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301 Oj:compat Oj Ox MessagePack Yajl JSON::Ext JSON::Pure
302 ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- -----------
303 Oj:compat 1.00 1.04 1.13 1.83 4.49 20.31 42.75
304 Oj 0.97 1.00 1.09 1.77 4.34 19.60 41.26
305 Ox 0.88 0.91 1.00 1.62 3.96 17.93 37.73
306 MessagePack 0.55 0.56 0.62 1.00 2.45 11.07 23.30
307 Yajl 0.22 0.23 0.25 0.41 1.00 4.52 9.52
308 JSON::Ext 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.09 0.22 1.00 2.10
309 JSON::Pure 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.11 0.48 1.00
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310
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311 ### Simple JSON Writing and Parsing:
312
313 require 'oj'
314
315 h = { 'one' => 1, 'array' => [ true, false ] }
316 json = Oj.dump(h)
317
318 # json =
319 # {
320 # "one":1,
321 # "array":[
322 # true,
323 # false
324 # ]
325 # }
326
9b9a86f @sferik Fix typo
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327 h2 = Oj.load(json)
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328 puts "Same? #{h == h2}"
329 # true
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330
331 ### Object JSON format:
332
333 In :object mode Oj generates JSON that follows conventions which allow Class
334 and other information such as Object IDs for circular reference detection. The
335 formating follows the following rules.
336
337 1. JSON native types, true, false, nil, String, Hash, Array, and Number are
338 encoded normally.
339
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340 2. A Symbol is encoded as a JSON string with a preceeding `:` character.
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341
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342 3. The `^` character denotes a special key value when in a JSON Object sequence.
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343
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344 4. A Ruby String that starts with `:` or the sequence `^i` or `^r` are encoded by
345 excaping the first character so that it appears as `\u005e` or `\u003a` instead of
346 `:` or `^`.
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347
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348 5. A `"^c"` JSON Object key indicates the value should be converted to a Ruby
349 class. The sequence `{"^c":"Oj::Bag"}` is read as the Oj::Bag class.
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350
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351 6. A `"^t"` JSON Object key indicates the value should be converted to a Ruby
352 Time. The sequence `{"^t":1325775487.000000}` is read as Jan 5, 2012 at 23:58:07.
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353
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354 87. A `"^o"` JSON Object key indicates the value should be converted to a Ruby
355 Object. The first entry in the JSON Object must be a class with the `"^o"`
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356 key. After that each entry is treated as a variable of the Object where the
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357 key is the variable name without the preceeding `@`. An example is
358 `{"^o":"Oj::Bag","x":58,"y":"marbles"}`.
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359
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360 8. A `"^u"` JSON Object key indicates the value should be converted to a Ruby
361 Struct. The first entry in the JSON Object must be a class with the `"^u"`
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362 key. After that each entry is is given a numeric position in the struct and
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363 that is used as the key in the JSON Object. An example is `{"^u":["Range",1,7,false]}`.
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364
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365 9. When encoding an Object, if the variable name does not begin with an `@`
366 character then the name preceeded by a `~` character. This occurs in the
367 Exception class. An example is `{"^o":"StandardError","~mesg":"A Message","~bt":[".\/tests.rb:345:in `test_exception'"]}`.
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368
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369 10. If a Hash entry has a key that is not a String or Symbol then the entry is
370 encoded with a key of the form `"^#n"` where n is a hex number. The value that
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371 is an Array where the first element is the key in the Hash and the second is
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372 the value. An example is `{"^#3":[2,5]}`.
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373
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374 11. A `"^i"` JSON entry in either an Object or Array is the ID of the Ruby
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375 Object being encoded. It is used when the :circular flag is set. It can appear
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376 in either a JSON Object or in a JSON Array. In an Object the `"^i"` key has a
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377 corresponding reference Fixnum. In an array the sequence will include an
378 embedded reference number. An example is
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379 `{"^o":"Oj::Bag","^i":1,"x":["^i2",true],"me":"^r1"}`.
380
381 12. A `"^r"` JSON entry in an Object is a references to a Object or Array that
382 already appears in the JSON String. It must match up with a previous `"^i"`
383 ID. An example is `{"^o":"Oj::Bag","^i":1,"x":3,"me":"^r1"}`.
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384
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385 13. If an Array element is a String and starts with `"^i"` then the first
386 character, the `^` is encoded as a hex character sequence. An example is
387 `["\u005ei37",3]`.
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388
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389 ### License:
390
391 Copyright (c) 2012, Peter Ohler
392 All rights reserved.
393
394 Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
395 modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
396
397 - Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this
398 list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
399
400 - Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
401 this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
402 and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
403
404 - Neither the name of Peter Ohler nor the names of its contributors may be
405 used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without
406 specific prior written permission.
407
408 THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
409 AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
410 IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
411 DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
412 FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
413 DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
414 SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER
415 CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY,
416 OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
417 OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
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