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Peter Ohler authored
1 # Oj gem
2 A fast JSON parser and Object marshaller as a Ruby gem.
3
4 ## <a name="installation">Installation</a>
5 gem install oj
6
7 ## <a name="source">Source</a>
8
9 *GitHub* *repo*: https://github.com/ohler55/oj
10
11 *RubyGems* *repo*: https://rubygems.org/gems/oj
12
13 ## <a name="build_status">Build Status</a>
14
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15 [![Build Status](https://secure.travis-ci.org/ohler55/oj.png?branch=master)](http://travis-ci.org/ohler55/oj)
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16
17 ## <a name="links">Links of Interest</a>
18
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19 [Need for Speed](http://www.ohler.com/software/thoughts/Blog/Entries/2012/3/13_Need_for_Speed.html) for an overview of how Oj::Doc was designed.
20
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21 *Fast XML parser and marshaller on RubyGems*: https://rubygems.org/gems/ox
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22
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23 *Fast XML parser and marshaller on GitHub*: https://github.com/ohler55/ox
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24
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25 ## <a name="release">Release Notes</a>
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26
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27 ### Release 1.1.1
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28
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29 - The encoding option can now be an Encoding Object or a String.
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30
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31 - Fixed Rubinius errors.
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32
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33 ## <a name="description">Description</a>
34
35 Optimized JSON (Oj), as the name implies was written to provide speed
36 optimized JSON handling. It was designed as a faster alternative to Yajl and
37 other the common Ruby JSON parsers. So far is has achieved that at about 2
38 time faster than Yajl for parsing and 3 or more times faster writing JSON.
39
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40 Oj has several dump or serialization modes which control how Objects are
41 converted to JSON. These modes are set with the :effort option in either the
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42 default options or as one of the options to the dump() method.
43
44 - :strict mode will only allow the 7 basic JSON types to be serialized. Any other Object
45 will raise and Exception.
46
47 - :null mode replaces any Object that is not one of the JSON types is replaced by a JSON null.
48
49 - :object mode will dump any Object as a JSON Object with keys that match the
50 Ruby Object's variable names without the '@' character. This is the highest
51 performance mode.
52
53 - :compat mode is is the compatible with other systems. It will serialize any
54 Object but will check to see if the Object implements a to_hash() or to_json()
55 method. If either exists that method is used for serializing the Object. The
56 to_hash() is more flexible and produces more consistent output so it has a
57 preference over the to_json() method. If neither the to_json() or to_hash()
58 methods exist then the Oj internal Object variable encoding is used.
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59
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60 Oj is compatible with Ruby 1.8.7, 1.9.2, 1.9.3, JRuby, and RBX.
61
62 ## <a name="plans">Planned Releases</a>
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63
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64 - Release 1.0.1: Optimize the Oj::Doc dump() method to be native.
65
66 - Release 1.1: A JSON stream parser. Pushed out for the Oj::Doc parser.
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67
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68 ## <a name="compare">Comparisons</a>
69
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70 ### Fast Oj::Doc parser comparisons
71
72 The fast Oj::Doc parser is compared to the Yajl and JSON::Pure parsers with
73 strict JSON documents. No object conversions are included, just simple JSON.
74
75 Since the Oj::Doc deviation from the conventional parsers comparisons of not
76 only parsing but data access is also included. These tests use the
77 perf_fast.rb test file. The first benchmark is for just parsing. The second is
78 for doing a get on every leaf value in the JSON data structure. The third
79 fetchs a value from a specific spot in the document. With Yajl and JSON this
80 is done with a set of calls to fetch() for each level in the document. For
81 Oj::Doc a single fetch with a path is used.
82
83 The benchmark results are:
84
85 > perf_fast.rb -g 1 -f
86 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
87 Parse Performance
88 Oj::Doc.parse 100000 times in 0.164 seconds or 609893.696 parse/sec.
89 Yajl.parse 100000 times in 3.168 seconds or 31569.902 parse/sec.
90 JSON::Ext.parse 100000 times in 3.282 seconds or 30464.826 parse/sec.
91
92 Summary:
93 System time (secs) rate (ops/sec)
94 --------- ----------- --------------
95 Oj::Doc 0.164 609893.696
96 Yajl 3.168 31569.902
97 JSON::Ext 3.282 30464.826
98
99 Comparison Matrix
100 (performance factor, 2.0 row is means twice as fast as column)
101 Oj::Doc Yajl JSON::Ext
102 --------- --------- --------- ---------
103 Oj::Doc 1.00 19.32 20.02
104 Yajl 0.05 1.00 1.04
105 JSON::Ext 0.05 0.96 1.00
106
107 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
108 Parse and get all values Performance
109 Oj::Doc.parse 100000 times in 0.417 seconds or 240054.540 parse/sec.
110 Yajl.parse 100000 times in 5.159 seconds or 19384.191 parse/sec.
111 JSON::Ext.parse 100000 times in 5.269 seconds or 18978.638 parse/sec.
112
113 Summary:
114 System time (secs) rate (ops/sec)
115 --------- ----------- --------------
116 Oj::Doc 0.417 240054.540
117 Yajl 5.159 19384.191
118 JSON::Ext 5.269 18978.638
119
120 Comparison Matrix
121 (performance factor, 2.0 row is means twice as fast as column)
122 Oj::Doc Yajl JSON::Ext
123 --------- --------- --------- ---------
124 Oj::Doc 1.00 12.38 12.65
125 Yajl 0.08 1.00 1.02
126 JSON::Ext 0.08 0.98 1.00
127
128 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
129 fetch nested Performance
130 Oj::Doc.fetch 100000 times in 0.094 seconds or 1059995.760 fetch/sec.
131 Ruby.fetch 100000 times in 0.503 seconds or 198851.434 fetch/sec.
132
133 Summary:
134 System time (secs) rate (ops/sec)
135 ------- ----------- --------------
136 Oj::Doc 0.094 1059995.760
137 Ruby 0.503 198851.434
138
139 Comparison Matrix
140 (performance factor, 2.0 row is means twice as fast as column)
141 Oj::Doc Ruby
142 ------- ------- -------
143 Oj::Doc 1.00 5.33
144 Ruby 0.19 1.00
145
146 What the results mean are that for getting just a few values from a JSON
147 document Oj::Doc is 20 times faster than any other parser and for accessing
148 all values it is still over 12 times faster than any other Ruby JSON parser.
149
150 ### Conventional Oj parser comparisons
151
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152 The following table shows the difference is speeds between several
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153 serialization packages compared to the more conventional Oj parser. The tests
154 had to be scaled back due to limitation of some of the gems. I finally gave up
155 trying to get JSON Pure to serialize without errors with Ruby 1.9.3. It had
156 internal errors on anything other than a simple JSON structure. The errors
157 encountered were:
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158
159 - MessagePack fails to convert Bignum to JSON
160
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161 - JSON Pure fails to serialize any numbers or Objects with the to_json() method
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162
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163 Options were added to the test/perf_strict.rb test to run the test without
164 Object encoding and without Bignums.
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165
166 None of the packages except Oj were able to serialize Ruby Objects that did
167 not have a to_json() method or were of the 7 native JSON types.
168
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169 A perf_obj.rb file was added for comparing different Object marshalling
170 packages.
171
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172 It is also worth noting that although Oj is slightly behind MessagePack for
173 parsing, Oj serialization is much faster than MessagePack even though Oj uses
174 human readable JSON vs the binary MessagePack format.
175
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176 Oj supports circular references when in :object mode and when the :circular
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177 flag is true. None of the other gems tested supported circular
178 references. They failed in the following manners when the input included
179 circular references.
180
181 - Yajl core dumps Ruby
182
183 - JSON fails and raises an Exception
184
185 - MessagePack fails and raises an Exception
186
187 The benchmark results are:
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188
189 with Object and Bignum encoding:
190
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191 > perf_strict.rb
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192 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
193 Load/Parse Performance
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194 Oj:compat.load 100000 times in 1.481 seconds or 67513.146 load/sec.
195 Oj.load 100000 times in 1.066 seconds or 93796.400 load/sec.
196 JSON::Ext.parse 100000 times in 3.023 seconds or 33074.875 parse/sec.
197 JSON::Pure.parse 100000 times in 18.908 seconds or 5288.799 parse/sec.
198 Ox.load 100000 times in 1.240 seconds or 80671.900 load/sec.
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199
200 Summary:
201 System time (secs) rate (ops/sec)
202 ---------- ----------- --------------
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203 Oj 1.066 93796.400
204 Ox 1.240 80671.900
205 Oj:compat 1.481 67513.146
206 JSON::Ext 3.023 33074.875
207 JSON::Pure 18.908 5288.799
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208
209 Comparison Matrix
210 (performance factor, 2.0 row is means twice as fast as column)
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211 Oj Ox Oj:compat JSON::Ext JSON::Pure
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212 ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
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213 Oj 1.00 1.16 1.39 2.84 17.73
214 Ox 0.86 1.00 1.19 2.44 15.25
215 Oj:compat 0.72 0.84 1.00 2.04 12.77
216 JSON::Ext 0.35 0.41 0.49 1.00 6.25
217 JSON::Pure 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.16 1.00
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218
219
220 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
221 Dump/Encode/Generate Performance
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222 Oj:compat.dump 100000 times in 0.789 seconds or 126715.249 dump/sec.
223 Oj.dump 100000 times in 0.457 seconds or 218798.751 dump/sec.
224 JSON::Ext.generate 100000 times in 4.371 seconds or 22878.630 generate/sec.
225 Ox.dump 100000 times in 0.501 seconds or 199425.256 dump/sec.
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226
227 Summary:
228 System time (secs) rate (ops/sec)
229 --------- ----------- --------------
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230 Oj 0.457 218798.751
231 Ox 0.501 199425.256
232 Oj:compat 0.789 126715.249
233 JSON::Ext 4.371 22878.630
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234
235 Comparison Matrix
236 (performance factor, 2.0 row is means twice as fast as column)
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237 Oj Ox Oj:compat JSON::Ext
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238 --------- --------- --------- --------- ---------
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239 Oj 1.00 1.10 1.73 9.56
240 Ox 0.91 1.00 1.57 8.72
241 Oj:compat 0.58 0.64 1.00 5.54
242 JSON::Ext 0.10 0.11 0.18 1.00
243
244
245 The following packages were not included for the reason listed
246 ***** MessagePack: RangeError: bignum too big to convert into `unsigned long long'
247 ***** Yajl: RuntimeError: Yajl parse and encode did not return the same object as the original.
248 ***** JSON::Pure: TypeError: wrong argument type JSON::Pure::Generator::State (expected Data)
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249
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250 without Objects or numbers (for JSON Pure, Yajl, and Messagepack) JSON:
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251
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252 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
253 Load/Parse Performance
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254 Oj:compat.load 100000 times in 0.806 seconds or 124051.164 load/sec.
255 Oj.load 100000 times in 0.810 seconds or 123384.587 load/sec.
256 Yajl.parse 100000 times in 1.441 seconds or 69385.996 parse/sec.
257 JSON::Ext.parse 100000 times in 1.567 seconds or 63797.848 parse/sec.
258 JSON::Pure.parse 100000 times in 13.500 seconds or 7407.247 parse/sec.
259 Ox.load 100000 times in 0.954 seconds or 104836.748 load/sec.
260 MessagePack.unpack 100000 times in 0.651 seconds or 153707.817 unpack/sec.
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261
262 Summary:
263 System time (secs) rate (ops/sec)
264 ----------- ----------- --------------
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265 MessagePack 0.651 153707.817
266 Oj:compat 0.806 124051.164
267 Oj 0.810 123384.587
268 Ox 0.954 104836.748
269 Yajl 1.441 69385.996
270 JSON::Ext 1.567 63797.848
271 JSON::Pure 13.500 7407.247
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272
273 Comparison Matrix
274 (performance factor, 2.0 row is means twice as fast as column)
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275 MessagePack Oj:compat Oj Ox Yajl JSON::Ext JSON::Pure
276 ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- -----------
277 MessagePack 1.00 1.24 1.25 1.47 2.22 2.41 20.75
278 Oj:compat 0.81 1.00 1.01 1.18 1.79 1.94 16.75
279 Oj 0.80 0.99 1.00 1.18 1.78 1.93 16.66
280 Ox 0.68 0.85 0.85 1.00 1.51 1.64 14.15
281 Yajl 0.45 0.56 0.56 0.66 1.00 1.09 9.37
282 JSON::Ext 0.42 0.51 0.52 0.61 0.92 1.00 8.61
283 JSON::Pure 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.11 0.12 1.00
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284
285
286 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
287 Dump/Encode/Generate Performance
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288 Oj:compat.dump 100000 times in 0.173 seconds or 578526.262 dump/sec.
289 Oj.dump 100000 times in 0.179 seconds or 558362.880 dump/sec.
290 Yajl.encode 100000 times in 0.776 seconds or 128794.279 encode/sec.
291 JSON::Ext.generate 100000 times in 3.511 seconds or 28483.812 generate/sec.
292 JSON::Pure.generate 100000 times in 7.389 seconds or 13533.717 generate/sec.
293 Ox.dump 100000 times in 0.196 seconds or 510589.629 dump/sec.
294 MessagePack.pack 100000 times in 0.317 seconds or 315307.220 pack/sec.
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295
296 Summary:
297 System time (secs) rate (ops/sec)
298 ----------- ----------- --------------
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299 Oj:compat 0.173 578526.262
300 Oj 0.179 558362.880
301 Ox 0.196 510589.629
302 MessagePack 0.317 315307.220
303 Yajl 0.776 128794.279
304 JSON::Ext 3.511 28483.812
305 JSON::Pure 7.389 13533.717
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306
307 Comparison Matrix
308 (performance factor, 2.0 row is means twice as fast as column)
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309 Oj:compat Oj Ox MessagePack Yajl JSON::Ext JSON::Pure
310 ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- -----------
311 Oj:compat 1.00 1.04 1.13 1.83 4.49 20.31 42.75
312 Oj 0.97 1.00 1.09 1.77 4.34 19.60 41.26
313 Ox 0.88 0.91 1.00 1.62 3.96 17.93 37.73
314 MessagePack 0.55 0.56 0.62 1.00 2.45 11.07 23.30
315 Yajl 0.22 0.23 0.25 0.41 1.00 4.52 9.52
316 JSON::Ext 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.09 0.22 1.00 2.10
317 JSON::Pure 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.11 0.48 1.00
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318
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319 ### Simple JSON Writing and Parsing:
320
321 require 'oj'
322
323 h = { 'one' => 1, 'array' => [ true, false ] }
324 json = Oj.dump(h)
325
326 # json =
327 # {
328 # "one":1,
329 # "array":[
330 # true,
331 # false
332 # ]
333 # }
334
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335 h2 = Oj.load(json)
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336 puts "Same? #{h == h2}"
337 # true
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338
339 ### Object JSON format:
340
341 In :object mode Oj generates JSON that follows conventions which allow Class
342 and other information such as Object IDs for circular reference detection. The
343 formating follows the following rules.
344
345 1. JSON native types, true, false, nil, String, Hash, Array, and Number are
346 encoded normally.
347
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348 2. A Symbol is encoded as a JSON string with a preceeding `:` character.
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349
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350 3. The `^` character denotes a special key value when in a JSON Object sequence.
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351
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352 4. A Ruby String that starts with `:` or the sequence `^i` or `^r` are encoded by
353 excaping the first character so that it appears as `\u005e` or `\u003a` instead of
354 `:` or `^`.
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355
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356 5. A `"^c"` JSON Object key indicates the value should be converted to a Ruby
357 class. The sequence `{"^c":"Oj::Bag"}` is read as the Oj::Bag class.
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358
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359 6. A `"^t"` JSON Object key indicates the value should be converted to a Ruby
360 Time. The sequence `{"^t":1325775487.000000}` is read as Jan 5, 2012 at 23:58:07.
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361
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362 87. A `"^o"` JSON Object key indicates the value should be converted to a Ruby
363 Object. The first entry in the JSON Object must be a class with the `"^o"`
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364 key. After that each entry is treated as a variable of the Object where the
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365 key is the variable name without the preceeding `@`. An example is
366 `{"^o":"Oj::Bag","x":58,"y":"marbles"}`.
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367
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368 8. A `"^u"` JSON Object key indicates the value should be converted to a Ruby
369 Struct. The first entry in the JSON Object must be a class with the `"^u"`
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370 key. After that each entry is is given a numeric position in the struct and
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371 that is used as the key in the JSON Object. An example is `{"^u":["Range",1,7,false]}`.
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372
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373 9. When encoding an Object, if the variable name does not begin with an `@`
374 character then the name preceeded by a `~` character. This occurs in the
375 Exception class. An example is `{"^o":"StandardError","~mesg":"A Message","~bt":[".\/tests.rb:345:in `test_exception'"]}`.
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376
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377 10. If a Hash entry has a key that is not a String or Symbol then the entry is
378 encoded with a key of the form `"^#n"` where n is a hex number. The value that
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379 is an Array where the first element is the key in the Hash and the second is
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380 the value. An example is `{"^#3":[2,5]}`.
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381
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382 11. A `"^i"` JSON entry in either an Object or Array is the ID of the Ruby
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383 Object being encoded. It is used when the :circular flag is set. It can appear
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384 in either a JSON Object or in a JSON Array. In an Object the `"^i"` key has a
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385 corresponding reference Fixnum. In an array the sequence will include an
386 embedded reference number. An example is
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387 `{"^o":"Oj::Bag","^i":1,"x":["^i2",true],"me":"^r1"}`.
388
389 12. A `"^r"` JSON entry in an Object is a references to a Object or Array that
390 already appears in the JSON String. It must match up with a previous `"^i"`
391 ID. An example is `{"^o":"Oj::Bag","^i":1,"x":3,"me":"^r1"}`.
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392
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393 13. If an Array element is a String and starts with `"^i"` then the first
394 character, the `^` is encoded as a hex character sequence. An example is
395 `["\u005ei37",3]`.
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396
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397 ### License:
398
399 Copyright (c) 2012, Peter Ohler
400 All rights reserved.
401
402 Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
403 modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
404
405 - Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this
406 list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
407
408 - Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
409 this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
410 and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
411
412 - Neither the name of Peter Ohler nor the names of its contributors may be
413 used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without
414 specific prior written permission.
415
416 THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
417 AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
418 IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
419 DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
420 FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
421 DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
422 SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER
423 CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY,
424 OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
425 OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
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