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In the field of SRL, PropBank is one of the studies widely recognized by the computational linguistics communities. PropBank is the bank of propositions where predicate- argument information of the corpora is annotated, and the semantic roles or arguments that each verb can take are posited.

Each verb has a frame file, which contains arguments applicable to that verb. Frame files may include more than one roleset with respect to the senses of the given verb. In the roleset of a verb sense, argument labels Arg0 to Arg5 are described according to the meaning of the verb. For the example below, the predicate is “announce” from PropBank, Arg0 is “announcer”, Arg1 is “entity announced”, and ArgM- TMP is “time attribute”.

[ARG0 Türk Hava Yolları] [ARG1 indirimli satışlarını] [ARGM-TMP bu Pazartesi] [PREDICATE açıkladı].

[ARG0 Turkish Airlines] [PREDICATE announced] [ARG1 its discounted fares] [ARGM-TMP this Monday].

The following Table shows typical semantic role types. Only Arg0 and Arg1 indicate the same thematic roles across different verbs: Arg0 stands for the Agent or Causer and Arg1 is the Patient or Theme. The rest of the thematic roles can vary across different verbs. They can stand for Instrument, Start point, End point, Beneficiary, or Attribute. Moreover, PropBank uses ArgM’s as modifier labels indicating time, location, temporal, goal, cause etc., where the role is not specific to a single verb group; it generalizes over the entire corpus instead.

Tag Meaning
Arg0 Agent or Causer
ArgM-EXT Extent
Arg1 Patient or Theme
ArgM-LOC Locatives
Arg2 Instrument, start point, end point, beneficiary, or attribute
ArgM-CAU Cause
ArgM-MNR Manner
ArgM-DIS Discourse
ArgM-ADV Adverbials
ArgM-DIR Directionals
ArgM-PNC Purpose
ArgM-TMP Temporals
  • Directional modifiers give information regarding the path of motion in the sentence. Directional modifiers may be mistakenly tagged as locatives.
  • Locatives are used for the place where the action takes place.
  • Manners define how the action is performed.
  • Extent markers represent the amount of change that occurs in the action.
  • Temporal modifiers keep the time of the action.
  • Reciprocals are reflexives that refer to other arguments, like “himself,” “itself,” “together,” “each other,” and “both.”
  • Secondary predication markers are used for adjuncts of the predicate, which holds predicate structure.
  • Purpose clauses show the motivation for the action. Cause clauses simply show the reason for an action.
  • Discourse markers connect the sentence to the previous sentence, such as “also,” “however,” “as well,” and “but.”
  • Adverbials are used for syntactic elements that modify the sentence and are not labeled with one of the modifier tags stated above.
  • “Will,” “may,” “can,” “must,” “shall,” “might,” “should,” “could,” “would,” and also “going (to),” “have (to),” and “used (to)” are modality adjuncts of the predicate and tagged as modal in PropBank.
  • Negation is used to tag negative markers of the sentences.

Data Format

The structure of a sample frameset is as follows:

<FRAMESET id="0006410">
	<ARG name="ARG0">Açan</ARG>
	<ARG name="ARG1">Açılan şey</ARG>
	<ARG name="ARGMTMP">Açılma zamanı</ARG>

Each entry in the frame file is enclosed by and tags. id shows the unique identifier given to the frameset, which is the same ID in the synset file of the corresponding verb sense. tags denote the semantic roles of the corresponding frame.

For Developers



To check if you have a compatible version of Java installed, use the following command:

java -version

If you don't have a compatible version, you can download either Oracle JDK or OpenJDK


To check if you have Maven installed, use the following command:

mvn --version

To install Maven, you can follow the instructions here.


Install the latest version of Git.

Download Code

In order to work on code, create a fork from GitHub page. Use Git for cloning the code to your local or below line for Ubuntu:

git clone <your-fork-git-link>

A directory called PropBank will be created. Or you can use below link for exploring the code:

git clone

Open project with IntelliJ IDEA

Steps for opening the cloned project:

  • Start IDE
  • Select File | Open from main menu
  • Choose PropBank/pom.xml file
  • Select open as project option
  • Couple of seconds, dependencies with Maven will be downloaded.


From IDE

After being done with the downloading and Maven indexing, select Build Project option from Build menu. After compilation process, user can run PropBank.

From Console

Go to PropBank directory and compile with

 mvn compile 

Generating jar files

From IDE

Use package of 'Lifecycle' from maven window on the right and from PropBank root module.

From Console

Use below line to generate jar file:

 mvn install


Maven Usage

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