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Fast Independent Vector Extraction by Iterative SINR Maximization

This repository provides implementations and code to reproduce the results of the paper

R. Scheibler and N. Ono, "Fast Independent Vector Extraction by Iterative SINR Maximization," 2019.

Speech samples are available here.


We propose fast independent vector extraction (FIVE), a new algorithm that blindly extracts a single non-Gaussian source from a Gaussian background. The algorithm iteratively computes beamforming weights maximizing the signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio for an approximate noise covariance matrix. We demonstrate that this procedure minimizes the negative log-likelihood of the input data according to a well-defined probabilistic model. The minimization is carried out via the auxiliary function technique whereas, unlike related methods, the auxiliary function is globally minimized at every iteration. Numerical experiments are carried out to assess the performance of FIVE. We find that it is vastly superior to competing methods in terms of convergence speed, and has high potential for real-time applications.


Robin Scheibler and Nobutaka Ono are with the Faculty of Systems Design at Tokyo Metropolitan University.


Robin Scheibler (robin[at]tmu[dot]ac[dot]jp)
6-6 Asahigaoka
Hino, Tokyo
191-0065 Japan


The preferred way to run the code is using anaconda. An environment.yml file is provided to install the required dependencies.

# create the minimal environment
conda env create -f environment.yml

# switch to new environment
conda activate 2019_scheibler_five


Samples are available [here


The algorithm can be tested and compared to others using the sample script It can be run as follows.

$ python ./ --help
The samples directory ./samples seems to exist already. Delete if re-download is needed.
usage: [-h] [--no_cb] [-b BLOCK]
                  [-a {auxiva,auxiva_pca,overiva,five,ogive}]
                  [-d {laplace,gauss}] [-i {eye,eig,ogive}] [-m MICS]
                  [-s SRCS] [-n N_ITER] [--gui] [--save]

Demonstration of blind source extraction using FIVE.

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  --no_cb               Removes callback function
  -b BLOCK, --block BLOCK
                        STFT block size
  -a {auxiva,auxiva_pca,overiva,five,ogive}, --algo {auxiva,auxiva_pca,overiva,five,ogive}
                        Chooses BSS method to run
  -d {laplace,gauss}, --dist {laplace,gauss}
                        IVA model distribution
  -i {eye,eig,ogive}, --init {eye,eig,ogive}
                        Initialization, eye: identity, eig: principal
  -m MICS, --mics MICS  Number of mics
  -n N_ITER, --n_iter N_ITER
                        Number of iterations
  --gui                 Creates a small GUI for easy playback of the sound
  --save                Saves the output of the separation to wav files

For example, we can run FIVE with 4 microphones.

python ./ -a five -m 4

Reproduce the Results

The code can be run serially, or using multiple parallel workers via ipyparallel. Moreover, it is possible to only run a few loops to test whether the code is running or not.

  1. Run test loops serially

     python ./ ./paper_sim_config.json -t -s
  2. Run test loops in parallel

     # start workers in the background
     # N is the number of parallel process, often "# threads - 1"
     ipcluster start --daemonize -n N
     # run the simulation
     python ./ ./paper_sim_config.json -t
     # stop the workers
     ipcluster stop
  3. Run the whole simulation

     # start workers in the background
     # N is the number of parallel process, often "# threads - 1"
     ipcluster start --daemonize -n N
     # run the simulation
     python ./ ./paper_sim_config.json
     # stop the workers
     ipcluster stop

The results are saved in a new folder data/<data>-<time>_five_sim_<flag_or_hash> containing the following files

parameters.json  # the list of global parameters of the simulation
arguments.json  # the list of all combinations of arguments simulated
data.json  # the results of the simulation

Figure 1., 2., 3., and 4. from the paper are produced then by running

python ./ data/<data>-<time>_five_sim_<flag_or_hash>


For the experiment, we concatenated utterances from the CMU ARCTIC speech corpus to obtain samples of at least 15 seconds long. The dataset thus created was stored on zenodo with DOI 10.5281/zenodo.3066488. The data is automatically retrieved upon running the scripts, but can also be manually downloaded with the script.

python ./

It is stored in the samples directory.


Our implementation of the proposed FIVE algorithm lives in the file It can be used simply like this.

from five import five

# STFT tensor, a numpy.ndarray with shape (frames, frequencies, channels)
X = ...

# perform separation, output Y has the same shape as X
Y = five(X)

The function comes with docstrings.

five(X, n_iter=3, proj_back=True, W0=None, model="laplace", init_eig=False,
    return_filters=False, callback=None, callback_checkpoints=[],

This algorithm extracts one source independent from a minimum energy background.
The separation is done in the time-frequency domain and the FFT length
should be approximately equal to the reverberation time. The residual
energy in the background is minimized.

Two different statistical models (Laplace or time-varying Gauss) can
be used by specifying the keyword argument `model`. The performance of Gauss
model is higher in good conditions (few sources, low noise), but Laplace
(the default) is more robust in general.

X: ndarray (nframes, nfrequencies, nchannels)
    STFT representation of the signal
n_iter: int, optional
    The number of iterations (default 3)
proj_back: bool, optional
    Scaling on first mic by back projection (default True)
W0: ndarray (nfrequencies, nsrc, nchannels), optional
    Initial value for demixing matrix
model: str
    The model of source distribution 'gauss' or 'laplace' (default)
init_eig: bool, optional (default ``False``)
    If ``True``, and if ``W0 is None``, then the weights are initialized
    using the principal eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the input
    data. When ``False``, the demixing matrices are initialized with identity
return_filters: bool
    If true, the function will return the demixing matrix too
callback: func
    A callback function called every 10 iterations, allows to monitor
callback_checkpoints: list of int
    A list of epoch number when the callback should be called
cost_callback: func
    When this callback function is specified, it will be called with
    the value of the cost function as argument

Returns an (nframes, nfrequencies, 1) array. Also returns
the demixing matrix (nfrequencies, nchannels, nsources)
if ``return_values`` keyword is True.

Summary of the Files in this Repo

environment.yml  # anaconda environment file  # implementation of AuxIVA with PCA dim reduction step  # implementation of the proposed FIVE algorithm  # script that gets the data necessary for the experiment  # implementation of orthogonally constrained independent vector extraction (OGIVE)  # Implementation of OverIVA  # The random room generator used in the simulation  # contains a bunch of helper routines for the simulation  # test file for source separation, with audible output  # script to run exhaustive simulation, used for the paper
paper_sim_config.json  # simulation configuration file  # plots the figures from the paper  # plots all the output of  # create sample separated signals

data  # directory containing simulation results
rrtools  # tools for parallel simulation


Fast Independent Vector Extraction: Code and data to reproduce the results from the paper.






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