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;;; Ontology of Geography ;;;
;; Access to and use of these products is governed by the GNU General Public
;; License <>.
;; By using these products, you agree to be bound by the terms
;; of the GPL.
;; Contact Adam Pease (apease [at]
;; We ask that people using or referencing this work cite our primary paper:
;; Niles, I., and Pease, A. 2001. Towards a Standard Upper Ontology. In
;; Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Formal Ontology in
;; Information Systems (FOIS-2001), Chris Welty and Barry Smith, eds,
;; Ogunquit, Maine, October 17-19, 2001. See also
;; Authors: Deborah Nichols
;; Part I incorporates some material by Doug Wulf.
;; Part II incorporates some material from earlier Terrain.kif
;; by Olga Babko-Malaya.
;; Ontology dependencies for Geography.kif: Merge.txt, elements.kif
;; Outline
;; I. Geography Terms for the CIA World Fact Book
;; A. Location
;; B. Geographic coordinates
;; C. Map references
;; D. Area
;; E. Area - comparative
;; F. Land boundaries
;; G. Coastline
;; H. Maritime claims
;; I. Climate
;; J. Terrain
;; K. Elevation extremes
;; L. Natural resources
;; M. Land use
;; N. Irrigated land
;; O. Natural hazards
;; P. Environment - current issues
;; Q. Environment - international agreements
;; R. Geography - note
;; II. General Geography Terms and Background
;; A. Planet Geography & Astronomical Bodies
;; B. Directions and Distances
;; C. Land Forms
;; D. Water Areas
;; 1. Oceans & Seas
;; 2. Tides & Currents
;; 3. Water Subregions
;; 4. Fresh Water Areas
;; E. Coastal and Shoreline Areas
;; F. Air and Atmosphere
;; G. Weather & Climate
;; H. Vegetation and Biomes
;; I. Natural Disasters
;; J. Environmental Areas of Concern
;; I. Geography Terms for the CIA World Fact Book
;; A. Location
;; Identifies regional location of a country, neighbors & adjacent waters.
; Regions used by 2002 CIA WFB to describe country locations:
(instance CentralAfrica GeographicArea)
(instance EasternAfrica GeographicArea)
(instance NorthernAfrica GeographicArea)
(instance SouthernAfrica GeographicArea)
(instance WesternAfrica GeographicArea)
(instance MiddleEastRegion GeographicArea)
(instance CentralEurope GeographicArea)
(instance EasternEurope GeographicArea)
(instance NorthernEurope GeographicArea)
(instance SouthernEurope GeographicArea)
(instance WesternEurope GeographicArea)
(instance SoutheasternEurope GeographicArea)
(instance SouthwesternEurope GeographicArea)
(instance NorthAmerica GeographicArea)
(instance NorthernNorthAmerica GeographicArea)
(instance CaribbeanRegion GeographicArea)
(instance MiddleAmerica GeographicArea)
(instance CentralSouthAmerica GeographicArea)
(instance EasternSouthAmerica GeographicArea)
(instance NorthernSouthAmerica GeographicArea)
(instance SouthernSouthAmerica GeographicArea)
(instance WesternSouthAmerica GeographicArea)
(instance CentralAsia GeographicArea)
(instance EasternAsia GeographicArea)
(instance NorthernAsia GeographicArea)
(instance SouthernAsia GeographicArea)
(instance SoutheasternAsia GeographicArea)
(instance SouthwesternAsia GeographicArea)
(instance Oceania GeographicArea)
(names "Central Africa" CentralAfrica)
(names "Eastern Africa" EasternAfrica)
(names "Northern Africa" NorthernAfrica)
(names "Southern Africa" SouthernAfrica)
(names "Western Africa" WesternAfrica)
(names "Middle East" MiddleEastRegion)
(names "Central Europe" CentralEurope)
(names "Eastern Europe" EasternEurope)
(names "Northern Europe" NorthernEurope)
(names "Southern Europe" SouthernEurope)
(names "Western Europe" WesternEurope)
(names "Southeastern Europe" SoutheasternEurope)
(names "Southwestern Europe" SouthwesternEurope)
(names "North America" NorthAmerica)
(names "Northern North America" NorthernNorthAmerica)
(names "Caribbean Region" CaribbeanRegion)
(names "Caribbean" CaribbeanRegion)
(names "Middle America" MiddleAmerica)
(names "Central South America" CentralSouthAmerica)
(names "Eastern South America" EasternSouthAmerica)
(names "Northern South America" NorthernSouthAmerica)
(names "Southern South America" SouthernSouthAmerica)
(names "Western South America" WesternSouthAmerica)
(names "Central Asia" CentralAsia)
(names "Eastern Asia" EasternAsia)
(names "Northern Asia" NorthernAsia)
(names "Southern Asia" SouthernAsia)
(names "Southeastern Asia" SoutheasternAsia)
(names "Southwestern Asia" SouthwesternAsia)
(names "Oceania" Oceania)
(geographicSubregion CentralAfrica Africa)
(geographicSubregion EasternAfrica Africa)
(geographicSubregion NorthernAfrica Africa)
(geographicSubregion SouthernAfrica Africa)
(geographicSubregion WesternAfrica Africa)
(instance MiddleEastRegion GeopoliticalArea)
(overlapsSpatially MiddleEastRegion Asia)
(documentation MiddleEastRegion EnglishLanguage "&%MiddleEastRegion is a
&%GeopoliticalArea that comprises countries of Southwestern &%Asia
and (in some definitions) Northwestern &%Africa. Here this term is
defined as in the CIA World Fact Book, in which the Middle East
includes: Bahrain, Cyprus, the Gaza Strip, Iran, Iraq, Israel,
Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United
Arab Emirates, the West Bank, and Yemen.")
(geographicSubregion CentralEurope Europe)
(geographicSubregion EasternEurope Europe)
(geographicSubregion NorthernEurope Europe)
(geographicSubregion SouthernEurope Europe)
(geographicSubregion WesternEurope Europe)
(geographicSubregion SoutheasternEurope Europe)
(geographicSubregion SouthwesternEurope Europe)
(geographicSubregion NorthernNorthAmerica NorthAmerica)
(overlapsSpatially CaribbeanRegion SouthAmerica)
(overlapsSpatially CaribbeanRegion NorthAmerica)
(overlapsSpatially MiddleAmerica NorthAmerica)
(overlapsSpatially MiddleAmerica SouthAmerica)
(geographicSubregion CentralSouthAmerica SouthAmerica)
(geographicSubregion EasternSouthAmerica SouthAmerica)
(geographicSubregion NorthernSouthAmerica SouthAmerica)
(geographicSubregion SouthernSouthAmerica SouthAmerica)
(geographicSubregion WesternSouthAmerica SouthAmerica)
(geographicSubregion CentralAsia Asia)
(geographicSubregion EasternAsia Asia)
(geographicSubregion NorthernAsia Asia)
(geographicSubregion NorthernAsia NorthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion SouthernAsia Asia)
(geographicSubregion SoutheasternAsia Asia)
(geographicSubregion SouthwesternAsia Asia)
(geographicSubregion CentralAfrica EasternHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially CentralAfrica NorthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially CentralAfrica SouthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion EasternAfrica EasternHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially EasternAfrica NorthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially EasternAfrica SouthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially NorthernAfrica EasternHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially NorthernAfrica WesternHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion NorthernAfrica NorthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion SouthernAfrica EasternHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion SouthernAfrica SouthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially WesternAfrica EasternHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially WesternAfrica WesternHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially WesternAfrica NorthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially WesternAfrica SouthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion MiddleEastRegion EasternHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion MiddleEastRegion WesternHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion EasternEurope EasternHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion EasternEurope NorthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion CentralEurope EasternHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion CentralEurope NorthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion NorthernEurope EasternHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion NorthernEurope NorthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion SouthernEurope EasternHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion SouthernEurope NorthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially WesternEurope EasternHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially WesternEurope WesternHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion WesternEurope NorthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion SoutheasternEurope EasternHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion SoutheasternEurope NorthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially SouthwesternEurope EasternHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially SouthwesternEurope WesternHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion SouthwesternEurope NorthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion CaribbeanRegion NorthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion CaribbeanRegion WesternHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion MiddleAmerica NorthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion MiddleAmerica WesternHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion CentralSouthAmerica WesternHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion CentralSouthAmerica SouthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion EasternSouthAmerica WesternHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially EasternSouthAmerica NorthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially EasternSouthAmerica SouthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion NorthernSouthAmerica WesternHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially NorthernSouthAmerica NorthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially NorthernSouthAmerica SouthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion SouthernSouthAmerica WesternHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion SouthernSouthAmerica SouthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion WesternSouthAmerica WesternHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially WesternSouthAmerica NorthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially WesternSouthAmerica SouthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion CentralAsia EasternHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion CentralAsia NorthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion EasternAsia EasternHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion EasternAsia NorthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion NorthernAsia EasternHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion SouthernAsia EasternHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially SouthernAsia NorthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially SouthernAsia SouthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion SoutheasternAsia EasternHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially SoutheasternAsia NorthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially SoutheasternAsia SouthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion SouthwesternAsia EasternHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion SouthwesternAsia NorthernHemisphere)
(orientation Europe Africa North)
(orientation Europe Asia West)
(orientation Europe NorthAmerica East)
(orientation NorthAmerica SouthAmerica North)
(orientation NorthAmerica Asia East)
(orientation Africa SouthAmerica Northeast)
(orientation Asia Oceania Northwest)
(orientation Africa NorthAmerica Southeast)
(orientation Europe SouthAmerica Northeast)
(orientation Oceania NorthAmerica Southwest)
(orientation MiddleEastRegion Asia Southwest)
(orientation MiddleEastRegion Africa Northeast)
(orientation MiddleAmerica SouthAmerica North)
(orientation MiddleAmerica NorthAmerica South)
(orientation CaribbeanRegion SouthAmerica North)
(orientation CaribbeanRegion NorthAmerica South)
(instance ?LAND Continent)
(not (equal ?LAND Antarctica)))
(orientation Antarctica ?LAND South))
;; B. Geographic coordinates
(subclass Latitude Region)
(names "latitude" Latitude)
(names "parallel" Latitude)
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Latitude "latitude")
(documentation Latitude EnglishLanguage "&%Latitude is the class of &%Regions,
associated with areas on the Earth's surface, which are parallels
measured in &%PlaneAngleDegrees from the &%Equator.")
(subclass Longitude Region)
(names "longitude" Longitude)
(names "meridian" Longitude)
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Longitude "longitude")
(documentation Longitude EnglishLanguage "&%Longitude is the class of &%Regions,
associated with areas on the Earth's surface, which are meridians
measured in &%PlaneAngleDegrees from the &%PrimeMeridian through
(instance GreenwichEnglandUK City)
(instance objectGeographicCoordinates TernaryPredicate)
(domain objectGeographicCoordinates 1 Object)
(domain objectGeographicCoordinates 2 Latitude)
(domain objectGeographicCoordinates 3 Longitude)
(documentation objectGeographicCoordinates EnglishLanguage
"(&%objectGeographicCoordinates ?OBJECT ?LAT ?LONG) means that
the &%Object ?OBJECT is found at the geographic coordinates
?LAT and ?LONG.")
(instance GeographicCenterFn UnaryFunction)
(names "geographic center" GeographicCenterFn)
(domain GeographicCenterFn 1 GeographicArea)
(range GeographicCenterFn GeographicArea)
(documentation GeographicCenterFn EnglishLanguage
"(&%GeographicCenterFn ?REGION) denotes the geographical center
of the &%GeographicArea ?REGION.")
(instance ?REGION GeographicArea)
(instance (GeographicCenterFn ?REGION) GeographicArea))
(geographicSubregion (GeographicCenterFn ?REGION) ?REGION))
(instance ?REGION GeographicArea)
(GeographicCenterFn ?REGION) ?LAT ?LONG))
(objectGeographicCoordinates ?REGION ?LAT ?LONG))
;; See Merge.kif for definitions of &%PlaneAngleMeasure and &%AngularDegree
;; Additional assertions for &%AngularDegree:
(measure ?ANGLE (MeasureFn ?NUMBER AngularDegree))
(greaterThanOrEqualTo ?NUMBER 0))
(measure ?ANGLE (MeasureFn ?NUMBER AngularDegree))
(lessThanOrEqualTo ?NUMBER 360))
(instance ArcMinute UnitOfAngularMeasure)
(documentation ArcMinute EnglishLanguage "&%ArcMinute represents a &%UnitOfMeasure
equivalent to 1/60th of an &%AngularDegree.")
(measure ?ANGLE (MeasureFn ?NUMBER ArcMinute))
(greaterThanOrEqualTo ?NUMBER 0))
(measure ?ANGLE (MeasureFn ?NUMBER ArcMinute))
(lessThanOrEqualTo ?NUMBER 60))
(measure ?OBJ (MeasureFn ?DEG AngularDegree))
(measure ?OBJ (MeasureFn (MultiplicationFn 60 ?DEG) ArcMinute)))
(equal (MeasureFn 1 AngularDegree) (MeasureFn 60 ArcMinute))
(equal (MeasureFn ?NUM AngularDegree) (MeasureFn (MultiplicationFn 60 ?NUM) ArcMinute))
(instance ArcSecond UnitOfAngularMeasure)
(documentation ArcSecond EnglishLanguage "&%ArcSecond represents a &%UnitOfMeasure
equivalent to 1/60th of an &%ArcMinute.")
(measure ?ANGLE (MeasureFn ?NUMBER ArcSecond))
(greaterThanOrEqualTo ?NUMBER 0))
(measure ?ANGLE (MeasureFn ?NUMBER ArcSecond))
(lessThanOrEqualTo ?NUMBER 60))
(measure ?OBJ (MeasureFn ?DEG ArcMinute))
(measure ?OBJ (MeasureFn (MultiplicationFn 60 ?DEG) ArcSecond)))
(equal (MeasureFn 1 ArcMinute) (MeasureFn 60 ArcSecond))
(equal (MeasureFn ?DEG ArcMinute) (MeasureFn (MultiplicationFn 60 ?DEG) ArcSecond))
(instance LatitudeFn VariableArityRelation)
(instance LatitudeFn Function)
(domain LatitudeFn 1 DirectionalAttribute)
(domain LatitudeFn 2 AngleMeasure)
(domain LatitudeFn 3 AngleMeasure)
(domain LatitudeFn 4 AngleMeasure)
(range LatitudeFn Region)
(termFormat EnglishLanguage LatitudeFn "Latitude")
(documentation LatitudeFn EnglishLanguage "&%LatitudeFn is a &%VariableArityRelation
used to denote a parallel of latitude. Examples:
(&%LatitudeFn &%North (&%MeasureFn 38 &%AngularDegree)), (&%LatitudeFn
&%South (&%MeasureFn 23 &%AngularDegree) (&%MeasureFn 30 &%ArcMinute)),
(&%LatitudeFn &%South (&%MeasureFn 60 &%AngularDegree) (&%MeasureFn 0 &%ArcMinute)
(&%MeasureFn 0 &%ArcSecond)), (&%LatitudeFn &%North
(&%MeasureFn 42 &%AngularDegree) (&%MeasureFn 7.89 &%ArcMinute)).")
(instance (LatitudeFn ?DIRECTION @ROW) Region)
(equal ?DIRECTION North)
(equal ?DIRECTION South)))
(instance (LatitudeFn ?DIRECTION @ROW) Region)
(equal (ListOrderFn (ListFn @ROW) 1) (MeasureFn ?NUM AngularDegree)))
(lessThanOrEqualTo ?NUM 90))
(equal ?DIRECTION North)
(equal ?DIRECTION South))
(LatitudeFn ?DIRECTION
(MeasureFn 0 AngularDegree) (MeasureFn 1 ArcMinute) (MeasureFn 0 ArcSecond))
(MeasureFn 1 NauticalMile)))
(instance LongitudeFn Function)
(instance LongitudeFn VariableArityRelation)
(domain LongitudeFn 1 DirectionalAttribute)
(domain LongitudeFn 2 AngleMeasure)
(domain LongitudeFn 3 AngleMeasure)
(domain LongitudeFn 4 AngleMeasure)
(range LongitudeFn GeographicArea)
(termFormat EnglishLanguage LongitudeFn "Longitude")
(documentation LongitudeFn EnglishLanguage "(&%LongitudeFn ?DIRECTION @ROW)
denotes a meridian of longitude. Note that &%LongitudeFn is
a &%VariableArityRelation. Examples:
(&%LongitudeFn &%East (&%MeasureFn 180 &%AngularDegree)), (&%LongitudeFn
&%West (&%MeasureFn 122 &%AngularDegree) (&%MeasureFn 24 &%ArcMinute)),
(&%LongitudeFn &%East (&%MeasureFn 121 &%AngularDegree)
(&%MeasureFn 0 &%ArcMinute) (&%MeasureFn 15 &%ArcSecond)),
(&%LongitudeFn &%West (&%MeasureFn 80 &%AngularDegree)
(&%MeasureFn 6.78 &%ArcMinute)).")
(instance (LongitudeFn ?DIRECTION @ROW) Region)
(equal ?DIRECTION East)
(equal ?DIRECTION West)))
(instance (LongitudeFn ?DIRECTION @ROW) Region)
(equal (ListOrderFn (ListFn @ROW) 1)(MeasureFn ?NUM AngularDegree)))
(lessThanOrEqualTo ?NUM 180))
(instance DirectionalSubregionFn BinaryFunction)
(domain DirectionalSubregionFn 1 DirectionalAttribute)
(domain DirectionalSubregionFn 2 GeographicArea)
(range DirectionalSubregionFn GeographicArea)
(documentation DirectionalSubregionFn EnglishLanguage
"(&%DirectionalSubregionFn ?DIRECTION ?AREA) denotes the part
of &%GeographicArea ?AREA that lies in ?DIRECTION from the
geographic center of ?AREA. For example,
(&%DirectionalSubregionFn &%Iraq &%North) denotes the Northern
part of &%Iraq. Such subregions are defined purely by geographical
points of reference, not by sociological ones. For example,
(&%DirectionalSubregionFn &%UnitedStatesOfAmerica &%South) denotes
the Southern half of the United States, it does not denote the
American South as distinguished for historical, literary, or
cultural purposes.")
(instance ?DIRECTION DirectionalAttribute)
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(instance (DirectionalSubregionFn ?DIRECTION ?AREA) GeographicArea))
(geographicSubregion (DirectionalSubregionFn ?DIRECTION ?AREA) ?AREA))
(instance ?DIRECTION DirectionalAttribute)
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(instance (DirectionalSubregionFn ?DIRECTION ?AREA) GeographicArea))
(orientation (DirectionalSubregionFn ?DIRECTION ?AREA) (GeographicCenterFn ?AREA) ?DIRECTION))
(partlyLocated ?PLACE ?SUBAREA)
(instance ?SUBAREA GeographicArea)
(geographicSubregion ?SUBAREA ?AREA))
(partlyLocated ?PLACE ?AREA))
(connected ?X ?Y)
(part ?Y ?Z))
(connected ?X ?Z))
;; C. Map references
;; This section simply indicates on which specific maps the country
;; may be found.
(instance mapOfArea BinaryPredicate)
(domain mapOfArea 1 Region)
(domain mapOfArea 2 SymbolicString)
(documentation mapOfArea EnglishLanguage "(&%mapOfArea ?AREA ?POINTER) means that a map
of the &%Region ?AREA can be found at the location ?POINTER.")
;; D. Area
(instance totalArea BinaryPredicate)
(domain totalArea 1 Region)
(domain totalArea 2 AreaMeasure)
(documentation totalArea EnglishLanguage "(&%totalArea ?REGION ?AMOUNT) means that
the total area of ?REGION is the &%AreaMeasure ?AMOUNT.")
(instance landAreaOnly BinaryPredicate)
(domain landAreaOnly 1 GeographicArea)
(domain landAreaOnly 2 AreaMeasure)
(documentation landAreaOnly EnglishLanguage "(&%landAreaOnly ?REGION ?MEASURE) means
that the total area(s) of solid ground within the &%GeographicArea
?REGION has the &%AreaMeasure ?AMOUNT. The pieces of solid ground need
not be continuous within the region.")
(instance waterAreaOnly BinaryPredicate)
(domain waterAreaOnly 1 GeographicArea)
(domain waterAreaOnly 2 AreaMeasure)
(documentation waterAreaOnly EnglishLanguage "(&%waterAreaOnly ?REGION ?MEASURE) means
that the total area(s) of surface water within the &%GeographicArea
?REGION has the &%AreaMeasure ?AMOUNT. The pieces of water need not be
continuous within the region.")
(instance ?UNIT UnitOfArea)
(landAreaOnly ?AREA (MeasureFn ?LAND ?UNIT))
(waterAreaOnly ?AREA (MeasureFn ?WATER ?UNIT)))
(totalArea ?AREA (MeasureFn (AdditionFn ?LAND ?WATER) ?UNIT)))
(subclass SurfaceGroundArea GeographicArea)
(documentation SurfaceGroundArea EnglishLanguage "&%SurfaceGroundArea is a subclass of
&%GeographicArea that is restricted to regions whose surface is solid
ground. A &%SurfaceGroundArea may be a discontinuous region overlapping
a larger, continuous &%GeographicArea but excluding any &%WaterAreas
enclosed therein. Rivers, lakes, reservoirs and other surface water areas
are not part of any &%SurfaceGroundArea.")
(instance ?EXCLUSIVELANDAREA SurfaceGroundArea)
(exists (?WATERAREA)
(instance ?WATERAREA WaterArea)
(landAreaOnly ?AREA ?MEASURE)
(exists (?LAND)
(instance ?LAND SurfaceGroundArea)
(part ?LAND ?AREA)
(totalArea ?LAND ?MEASURE))))
(subclass WaterOnlyArea GeographicArea)
(documentation WaterOnlyArea EnglishLanguage "&%WaterOnlyArea is a subclass of
&%GeographicArea that is restricted to regions whose surface is water.
A &%WaterOnlyArea may be a discontinuous region overlapping a larger,
continuous &%GeographicArea but excluding any &%LandAreas enclosed therein.
Dry land areas, including islands, are not part of any &%WaterOnlyArea.")
(instance ?EXCLUSIVEWATERAREA WaterOnlyArea)
(exists (?LANDAREA)
(instance ?LANDAREA LandArea)
(waterAreaOnly ?AREA ?MEASURE)
(exists (?WATER)
(instance ?WATER WaterOnlyArea)
(part ?WATER ?AREA)
(totalArea ?WATER ?MEASURE))))
(instance SquareKilometer UnitOfArea)
(documentation SquareKilometer EnglishLanguage "&%SquareKilometer represents a
&%UnitOfMeasure equal to one square kilometer.")
(equal (MeasureFn 1 SquareKilometer)
(MultiplicationFn (MeasureFn 1 (KiloFn Meter))(MeasureFn 1 (KiloFn Meter))))
(equal ?NUM (MultiplicationFn 1 ?NUM))
(equal (MeasureFn ?NUM SquareKilometer)
(MeasureFn (MultiplicationFn ?NUM 1000000) SquareMeter)))
;; E. Area - comparative
;; This section compares the area of a country to some state or other
;; part of the United States.
;; This is a bit of a hack, but the easiest solution since IntersectionFn
;; is only used here in a domain statement
(subclass BinaryRelationExtendedToQuantities RelationExtendedToQuantities)
(subclass BinaryRelationExtendedToQuantities BinaryPredicate)
(instance comparativeArea QuaternaryPredicate)
(domain comparativeArea 1 GeographicArea)
; (domain comparativeArea 2 (IntersectionFn RelationExtendedToQuantities BinaryPredicate))
(domain comparativeArea 2 BinaryRelationExtendedToQuantities)
(domain comparativeArea 3 PositiveRealNumber)
(domain comparativeArea 4 GeographicArea)
(documentation comparativeArea EnglishLanguage
"(&%comparativeArea ?REGION1 ?RELATION ?FACTOR ?REGION2) means that
the total area of &%GeographicArea ?REGION1 has the relation ?RELATION
to the total area of &%GeographicArea ?REGION2 times ?FACTOR. For
example, that France is (slightly) less than twice the size of Colorado
is represented by (&%comparativeArea &%France &%lessThan 2 &%Colorado).")
(instance ?UNIT UnitOfArea)
(measure ?REGION1 (MeasureFn ?NUM1 ?UNIT))
(measure ?REGION2 (MeasureFn ?NUM2 ?UNIT)))
(?RELATION (MeasureFn ?NUM1 ?UNIT) (MeasureFn (MultiplicationFn ?FACTOR ?NUM2) ?UNIT)))
;; F. Land boundaries
(instance totalLandBoundary BinaryPredicate)
(domain totalLandBoundary 1 GeographicArea)
(domain totalLandBoundary 2 LengthMeasure)
(documentation totalLandBoundary EnglishLanguage "(&%totalLandBoundary ?REGION ?LENGTH)
means that the &%GeographicArea ?REGION has a total &%LengthMeasure
?LENGTH of land boundaries between it and other countries. Note that
the boundaries included in the total length may be discontinuous, as when
interrupted by stretches of &%Seacoast.")
(instance BorderFn BinaryFunction)
(names "border" BorderFn)
(domain BorderFn 1 GeographicArea)
(domain BorderFn 2 GeographicArea)
(range BorderFn GeographicArea)
(documentation BorderFn EnglishLanguage "(&%BorderFn ?AREA1 ?AREA2) denotes the
border area where the &%GeographicAreas ?AREA1 and ?AREA2 meet.")
(instance (BorderFn ?AREA1 ?AREA2) GeographicArea)
(meetsSpatially ?AREA1 ?AREA2))
(instance ?OBJ1 GeographicArea)
(instance ?OBJ2 GeographicArea))
(equal (BorderFn ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2) (BorderFn ?OBJ2 ?OBJ1)))
(instance (BorderFn ?COUNTRY1 ?COUNTRY2) GeographicArea)
(instance ?COUNTRY1 Nation)
(instance ?COUNTRY2 Nation))
(instance (BorderFn ?COUNTRY1 ?COUNTRY2) InternationalBorder))
(instance (BorderFn ?AREA1 ?AREA2) GeographicArea)
(orientation ?AREA1 ?AREA2 Adjacent))
(orientation ?ONE ?TWO Adjacent)
(orientation ?TWO ?ONE Adjacent))
(orientation ?ONE ?TWO Near)
(orientation ?TWO ?ONE Near))
(meetsSpatially ?AREA1 ?AREA2)
(not (overlapsSpatially ?AREA1 ?AREA2)))
(subclass InternationalBorder GeographicArea)
(documentation InternationalBorder EnglishLanguage "&%InternationalBorder is the
subclass of &%GeographicAreas where the areas of two &%Nations meet.")
(subclass Checkpoint GeographicArea)
(documentation Checkpoint EnglishLanguage "An area on or very near a border, usually along
a road connecting two regions, where &%MilitaryPersons or &%PoliceOfficers
restrict the flow of traffic in order to extract tarrifs, deny movement to
certain kinds of people or goods, or other enforement actions. Because of
the power relationship involved, such areas are often the site of &%Illegal
activities conducted by the officials in order to extract favors or
(instance ?X Checkpoint)
(exists (?ROAD)
(instance ?ROAD Road)
(orientation ?ROAD ?X Near)))
(exists (?REG1 ?REG2)
(orientation (BorderFn ?REG1 ?REG2) ?X Near))))
(documentation sharedBorderLength EnglishLanguage "The &%length of the boundary
between two &%GeographicRegions.")
(instance sharedBorderLength TernaryPredicate)
(domain sharedBorderLength 1 GeographicArea)
(domain sharedBorderLength 2 GeographicArea)
(domain sharedBorderLength 3 LengthMeasure)
(sharedBorderLength ?N1 ?N2 ?M)
(length (BorderFn ?N1 ?N2) ?M))
(subclass PerimeterArea Region)
(documentation PerimeterArea EnglishLanguage "A &%PerimeterArea is a region that
extends outward from a boundary with another region, surrounding or
partially surrounding it, but which is not part of that other region.
See &%BorderFn and &%PerimeterAreaFn.")
(instance PerimeterAreaFn UnaryFunction)
(domain PerimeterAreaFn 1 Region)
(rangeSubclass PerimeterAreaFn PerimeterArea)
(documentation PerimeterAreaFn EnglishLanguage "(&%PerimeterAreaFn ?REGION) denotes a
class including any peripheral zones extending outward from the &%Region
(instance ?zone (PerimeterAreaFn ?region))
(meetsSpatially ?zone ?region))
(instance MaritimeClaimsTerritorialSeaFn UnaryFunction)
(domain MaritimeClaimsTerritorialSeaFn 1 Region)
(range MaritimeClaimsTerritorialSeaFn PerimeterArea)
(documentation MaritimeClaimsTerritorialSeaFn EnglishLanguage "(&%MaritimeClaimsTerritorialSeaFn ?REGION) denotes a
peripheral zones of maritime control extending outward from the &%Region
(instance ?region GeopoliticalArea)
(instance (MaritimeClaimsTerritorialSeaFn ?region) (PerimeterAreaFn ?region)))
(instance ?region GeopoliticalArea)
(instance (MaritimeClaimsTerritorialSeaFn ?region) UniformPerimeterArea))
(instance InnerBoundaryFn UnaryFunction)
(domain InnerBoundaryFn 1 Region) ;; a PerimeterArea or general class of oriented areas?
(range InnerBoundaryFn Region)
(documentation InnerBoundaryFn EnglishLanguage "(&%InnerBoundaryFn ?REGION) denotes the
inner boundary of the &%Region ?REGION, where ?REGION has an inner and
outer &%orientation with respect to another object.")
(instance ?REGION Region)
(superficialPart (InnerBoundaryFn ?REGION) ?REGION))
(instance OuterBoundaryFn UnaryFunction)
(domain OuterBoundaryFn 1 Region) ;; a PerimeterArea or general class of oriented areas
(range OuterBoundaryFn Region)
(documentation OuterBoundaryFn EnglishLanguage "(&%OuterBoundaryFn ?REGION) denotes the
outer boundary of the &%Region ?REGION, where ?REGION has an inner and
outer &%orientation with respect to another object.")
(instance ?REGION Region)
(superficialPart (OuterBoundaryFn ?REGION) ?REGION))
(subclass UniformPerimeterArea PerimeterArea)
(documentation UniformPerimeterArea EnglishLanguage "A &%UniformPerimeterArea is one
that has a defined uniform &%width.")
(instance ?AREA UniformPerimeterArea)
(exists (?WIDTH)
(distance (InnerBoundaryFn ?AREA) (OuterBoundaryFn ?AREA) ?WIDTH)))
(instance ?ZONE UniformPerimeterArea)
(exists (?WIDTH)
(instance ?WIDTH LengthMeasure)
(width ?ZONE ?WIDTH))))
(instance ?ZONE UniformPerimeterArea)
(part ?INNER (InnerBoundaryFn ?ZONE)))
(exists (?OUTER)
(part ?OUTER (OuterBoundaryFn ?ZONE))
(distance ?INNER ?OUTER ?WIDTH))))
(orientation ?OBJ ?REGION Outside)
(instance ?ZONE (PerimeterAreaFn ?REGION))
(instance ?ZONE UniformPerimeterArea)
(width ?ZONE (MeasureFn ?LIMIT ?UNIT))
(distance ?OBJ ?REGION (MeasureFn ?FAR ?UNIT))
(instance ?UNIT UnitOfMeasure)
(lessThanOrEqualTo (SubtractionFn ?FAR ?LIMIT) 0))
(located ?OBJ ?ZONE))
(orientation ?OBJ ?REGION Outside)
(instance ?ZONE (PerimeterAreaFn ?REGION))
(instance ?ZONE UniformPerimeterArea)
(width ?ZONE (MeasureFn ?LIMIT ?UNIT))
(distance ?OBJ ?REGION (MeasureFn ?FAR ?UNIT))
(instance ?UNIT UnitOfMeasure)
(greaterThan (SubtractionFn ?FAR ?LIMIT) 0))
(not (located ?OBJ ?ZONE)))
(instance ?AREA (MaritimeClaimsTerritorialSeaFn ?PLACE))
(width ?AREA (MeasureFn ?WIDTH ?UNIT))
(distance ?OBJ ?PLACE (MeasureFn ?DISTANCE ?UNIT))
(lessThanOrEqualTo ?DISTANCE ?WIDTH))
(located ?OBJ ?AREA))
;; G. Coastline
(instance totalCoastline BinaryPredicate)
(domain totalCoastline 1 GeographicArea)
(domain totalCoastline 2 LengthMeasure)
(documentation totalCoastline EnglishLanguage "(&%totalCoastline ?AREA ?COASTLENGTH)
means that the total length of all boundaries between the &%GeographicArea
?AREA and the ocean is the &%LengthMeasure ?COASTLENGTH. The coastline
counted may be discontinuous and may even be along different oceans (as
in &%Columbia). A &%totalCoastline of zero indicates a &%LandlockedArea.
Note that only &%Ocean coastlines are counted, not any shores with inland
(subclass LandlockedArea LandArea)
(documentation LandlockedArea EnglishLanguage "&%LandlockedArea is the class of
&%LandAreas that lack access to an &%Ocean or to a &%Waterway
providing a link to the ocean.")
(instance ?AREA LandlockedArea)
(exists (?COAST)
(instance ?COAST Seacoast)
(part ?COAST ?AREA)))))
(instance ?AREA LandlockedArea)
(instance ?UNIT UnitOfLength))
(totalCoastline ?AREA (MeasureFn 0 ?UNIT)))
(instance ?UNIT UnitOfLength)
(totalCoastline ?AREA (MeasureFn 0 ?UNIT)))
(instance ?AREA LandlockedArea))
(instance ?AREA LandlockedArea)
(instance ?AREA GeopoliticalArea))
(exists (?CLAIM)
(instance ?CLAIM MaritimeClaimArea)
(claimedTerritory ?CLAIM ?AREA)))))
(instance ?AREA LandlockedArea)
(exists (?WATER)
(instance ?WATER Ocean)
(meetsSpatially ?AREA ?WATER)))))
(instance ?AREA LandlockedArea)
(exists (?WATER)
(instance ?WATER SaltWaterArea)
(part ?WATER ?SEA)
(instance ?SEA Ocean)
(meetsSpatially ?AREA ?WATER)))))
(instance ?AREA LandlockedArea)
(exists (?LAND)
(instance ?LAND LandArea)
(meetsSpatially ?AREA ?LAND))))
;; H. Maritime claims
(instance claimedTerritory BinaryPredicate)
(domain claimedTerritory 1 GeographicArea)
(domain claimedTerritory 2 Agent)
(subrelation dependentGeopoliticalArea claimedTerritory)
(documentation claimedTerritory EnglishLanguage "(&%claimedTerritory ?AREA ?POLITY)
means that some right over the &%GeographicArea ?AREA is claimed by
the &%Agent or &%GeopoliticalArea ?POLITY. If two politically independent
states or agents claim the same area, that area is a 'disputed
(instance maritimeClaimType BinaryPredicate)
(instance maritimeClaimType AsymmetricRelation)
(domain maritimeClaimType 1 GeopoliticalArea)
(domainSubclass maritimeClaimType 2 MaritimeClaimArea)
(documentation maritimeClaimType EnglishLanguage "(&%maritimeClaimType ?POLITY ?TYPE)
means that the &%GeopoliticalArea ?POLITY claims rights over a
&%MaritimeClaimArea of ?TYPE.")
(instance ?AREA LandlockedArea)
(subclass ?CLAIM MaritimeClaimArea))
(not (maritimeClaimType ?AREA ?CLAIM)))
(maritimeClaimType ?AREA ?TYPE)
(subclass ?TYPE MaritimeClaimArea))
(exists (?CLAIM)
(instance ?CLAIM ?TYPE)
(claimedTerritory ?CLAIM ?AREA))))
(instance ?AREA ?TYPE)
(subclass ?TYPE MaritimeClaimArea)
(claimedTerritory ?AREA ?POLITY))
(maritimeClaimType ?POLITY ?TYPE))
;; KJN: Moving this to MILO.
;;(instance waterDepth BinaryPredicate)
;;(domain waterDepth 1 WaterArea)
;;(domain waterDepth 2 LengthMeasure)
;;(subrelation waterDepth length)
;;(documentation waterDepth EnglishLanguage "(&%waterDepth ?AREA ?LENGTH) means that the
;;depth of water at the &%Region ?AREA is ?LENGTH.")
;; (waterDepth ?AREA ?DEPTH)
;; (exists (?BOTTOM ?TOP)
;; (and
;; (depth ?TOP ?BOTTOM ?DEPTH)
;; (surface ?TOP ?AREA)
;; (bottom ?BOTTOM ?AREA))))
(subclass MaritimeClaimArea GeographicArea)
(documentation MaritimeClaimArea EnglishLanguage "A &%MaritimeClaimArea is a &%GeographicArea
delimited by a geopolitical state's claim, under the &%LawOfTheSea, of rights
to certain resources, activities, or jurisdiction in the claimed area.
&%MaritimeClaimAreas can pertain to &%WaterAreas, &%SubmergedLandAreas, and &%Airspace.")
;; Types of MaritimeClaimArea:
;; (i) contiguous zone
(subclass MaritimeContiguousZone MaritimeClaimArea)
(subclass MaritimeContiguousZone SaltWaterArea)
(documentation MaritimeContiguousZone EnglishLanguage "&%MaritimeContiguousZone
is the subclass of &%MaritimeClaimArea that includes areas over
which a geopolitical state may exercise some control of activities
beyond the 12-mile zone of its &%TerritorialSea. In general,
the authorized control is for preventing or punishing activities
that would violate laws applying within the 12-mile zone (that is,
authorization to chase and intercept). According to the &%LawOfTheSea,
a &%MaritimeContiguousZone may extend up to 24 nautical miles from the coast.")
(instance MaritimeContiguousZoneFn UnaryFunction)
(domain MaritimeContiguousZoneFn 1 GeopoliticalArea)
(range MaritimeContiguousZoneFn MaritimeContiguousZone)
(documentation MaritimeContiguousZoneFn EnglishLanguage
"(&%MaritimeContiguousZoneFn ?POLITY) denotes the &%MaritimeContiguousZone
that is claimed by the &%GeopoliticalArea ?POLITY.")
(instance ?AREA GeopoliticalArea)
(instance (MaritimeContiguousZoneFn ?AREA) MaritimeContiguousZone))
(claimedTerritory (MaritimeContiguousZoneFn ?AREA) ?AREA))
;; (ii) continental shelf
(subclass MaritimeShelfArea MaritimeClaimArea)
(subclass MaritimeShelfArea SubmergedLandArea)
(documentation MaritimeShelfArea EnglishLanguage "&%MaritimeShelfArea
is a subclass of &%MaritimeClaimArea that covers &%SubmergedLandAreas
claimed by an adjacent geopolitical area. The &%LawOfTheSea defines
the continental shelf as extending up to 200 miles (NM) offshore and
including the resources found therein. The defined claim area does not
correspond exactly to a geological &%ContinentalShelf, but if there is one,
the two areas will overlap spatially.")
(instance ?ZONE MaritimeShelfArea)
(linearExtent ?ZONE ?WIDTH))
(lessThanOrEqualTo ?WIDTH (MeasureFn 200 NauticalMile)))
(instance ?zone MaritimeShelfArea)
(instance ?shelf ContinentalShelf)
(instance ?country Nation)
(meetsSpatially ?shelf ?country)
(claimedTerritory ?zone ?nation))
(overlapsSpatially ?zone ?shelf))
(instance MaritimeShelfAreaFn UnaryFunction)
(domain MaritimeShelfAreaFn 1 GeopoliticalArea)
(range MaritimeShelfAreaFn MaritimeShelfArea)
(documentation MaritimeShelfAreaFn EnglishLanguage
"(&%MaritimeShelfAreaFn ?POLITY) denotes the &%MaritimeShelfArea
that is claimed by the &%GeopoliticalArea ?POLITY.")
(instance ?AREA GeopoliticalArea)
(instance (MaritimeShelfAreaFn ?AREA) MaritimeShelfArea))
(claimedTerritory (MaritimeShelfAreaFn ?AREA) ?AREA))
;; (iii) exclusive economic zone
(subclass MaritimeExclusiveEconomicZone MaritimeClaimArea)
(subclass MaritimeExclusiveEconomicZone SaltWaterArea)
(documentation MaritimeExclusiveEconomicZone EnglishLanguage
"&%MaritimeExclusiveEconomicZone is the subclass of &%MaritimeClaimArea
that represents the offshore area that coastal nations can claim for
fishing and other uses of the ocean water and seabed found there.")
(instance ?ZONE MaritimeExclusiveEconomicZone)
(linearExtent ?ZONE ?WIDTH))
(lessThanOrEqualTo ?WIDTH (MeasureFn 200 NauticalMile)))
(instance MaritimeExclusiveEconomicZoneFn UnaryFunction)
(domain MaritimeExclusiveEconomicZoneFn 1 GeopoliticalArea)
(range MaritimeExclusiveEconomicZoneFn MaritimeExclusiveEconomicZone)
(documentation MaritimeExclusiveEconomicZoneFn EnglishLanguage
"(&%MaritimeExclusiveEconomicZoneFn ?POLITY) denotes the
&%MaritimeExclusiveEconomicZone that is claimed by the
&%GeopoliticalArea ?POLITY.")
(instance ?AREA GeopoliticalArea)
(instance (MaritimeExclusiveEconomicZoneFn ?AREA) MaritimeExclusiveEconomicZone))
(claimedTerritory (MaritimeExclusiveEconomicZoneFn ?AREA) ?AREA))
;; (iv) exclusive fishing zone
(subclass ExclusiveFishingZone MaritimeClaimArea)
(subclass ExclusiveFishingZone SaltWaterArea)
(documentation ExclusiveFishingZone EnglishLanguage "&%ExclusiveFishingZone is the
subclass of &%MaritimeClaimArea including offshore areas over which a
nation claims exclusive jurisdiction only for fishing purposes (cf.
&%MaritimeExclusiveEconomicZone). Zone widths vary up to 200 miles
(instance ?ZONE ExclusiveFishingZone)
(linearExtent ?ZONE ?WIDTH))
(lessThanOrEqualTo ?WIDTH (MeasureFn 200 NauticalMile)))
(instance ExclusiveFishingZoneFn UnaryFunction)
(domain ExclusiveFishingZoneFn 1 GeopoliticalArea)
(range ExclusiveFishingZoneFn ExclusiveFishingZone)
(documentation ExclusiveFishingZoneFn EnglishLanguage
"(&%ExclusiveFishingZoneFn ?POLITY) denotes the
&%ExclusiveFishingZone that is claimed by the
&%GeopoliticalArea ?POLITY.")
(instance ?AREA GeopoliticalArea)
(instance (ExclusiveFishingZoneFn ?AREA) ExclusiveFishingZone))
(claimedTerritory (ExclusiveFishingZoneFn ?AREA) ?AREA))
;; (v) extended fishing zone
(subclass ExtendedFishingZone MaritimeClaimArea)
(subclass ExtendedFishingZone SaltWaterArea)
(documentation ExtendedFishingZone EnglishLanguage
"&%ExtendedFishingZone is the subclass of &%MaritimeClaimArea
that includes offshore areas over which a nation claims fishing rights,
beyond that nation's &%ExclusiveFishingZone. Zone widths vary,
from as little as 12 miles (NM) up to a width of 200 miles (NM).")
(instance ?ZONE ExtendedFishingZone)
(linearExtent ?ZONE ?WIDTH))
(lessThanOrEqualTo ?WIDTH (MeasureFn 200 NauticalMile)))
(instance ExtendedFishingZoneFn UnaryFunction)
(domain ExtendedFishingZoneFn 1 GeopoliticalArea)
(range ExtendedFishingZoneFn ExtendedFishingZone)
(documentation ExtendedFishingZoneFn EnglishLanguage
"(&%ExtendedFishingZoneFn ?POLITY) denotes the
ExtendedFishingZoneFn that is claimed by the
&%GeopoliticalArea ?POLITY, beyond its &%ExclusiveFishingZone.")
(instance ?AREA GeopoliticalArea)
(instance (ExtendedFishingZoneFn ?AREA) ExtendedFishingZone))
(claimedTerritory (ExtendedFishingZoneFn ?AREA) ?AREA))
;; (vi) territorial sea
(subclass TerritorialSea MaritimeClaimArea)
(subclass TerritorialSea SaltWaterArea)
(documentation TerritorialSea EnglishLanguage "&%TerritorialSea is the class
of contiguous waters over which a &%GeopoliticalArea claims
jurisdiction in accordance with the United Nations Convention
on the &%LawOfTheSea (LOS), Part II. A territorial sea may be
up to 12 miles (&%NauticalMiles) in breadth. A subclass of
(instance ?ZONE MaritimeContiguousZone)
(claimedTerritory ?ZONE ?AREA)
(instance ?WATER TerritorialSea)
(claimedTerritory ?WATER ?AREA))
(between ?AREA ?WATER ?ZONE))
(instance ?ZONE TerritorialSea)
(linearExtent ?ZONE ?WIDTH))
(lessThanOrEqualTo ?WIDTH (MeasureFn 12 NauticalMile)))
(instance TerritorialSeaFn UnaryFunction)
(domain TerritorialSeaFn 1 GeopoliticalArea)
(range TerritorialSeaFn TerritorialSea)
(documentation TerritorialSeaFn EnglishLanguage "(&%TerritorialSeaFn ?POLITY) denotes
the &%TerritorialSea that is claimed by the &%GeopoliticalArea ?POLITY.")
(instance ?AREA GeopoliticalArea)
(instance (TerritorialSeaFn ?AREA) TerritorialSea))
(claimedTerritory (TerritorialSeaFn ?AREA) ?AREA))
;; (vi) special maritime claims
;; [create instances of &%MaritimeClaimArea as needed for individual countries]
;; I. Climate
;; WFB data interpreted using Koeppen Climate Classification system summary at
(instance climateTypeInArea BinaryPredicate)
(domain climateTypeInArea 1 GeographicArea)
(domainSubclass climateTypeInArea 2 ClimateZone)
(documentation climateTypeInArea EnglishLanguage "(&%climateTypeInArea ?TYPE ?REGION)
means that all or &%part of the &%GeographicArea ?REGION is of the
&%ClimateZone ?TYPE.")
(climateTypeInArea ?AREA ?TYPE)
(exists (?REGION)
(instance ?REGION GeographicArea)
(instance ?REGION ?TYPE)
(part ?REGION ?AREA))))
(instance ?AREA ?TYPE)
(subclass ?TYPE ClimateZone))
(climateTypeInArea ?AREA ?TYPE))
(subclass ClimateZone GeographicArea)
(documentation ClimateZone EnglishLanguage
"&ClimateZone is a subclass of &%GeographicArea in which regions
are classified according to their long-term weather conditions.
The subclasses of &%ClimateZone are based on the Koeppen Climate
Classification system. In the Koeppen system, climate zones are
distinguished based on temperatures and rainfall.")
(subclass TropicalClimateZone ClimateZone)
(documentation TropicalClimateZone EnglishLanguage "&%TropicalClimateZone is a
subclass of &%ClimateZone in which the average temperature of the
coldest month is greater than 18 degrees Celsius. This is Class
'A' in the Koeppen climate classification system.")
(instance ?AREA TropicalClimateZone)
(subclass ?MO Month)
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(averageTemperatureForPeriod ?AREA ?MO ?TEMP))
(greaterThan ?TEMP (MeasureFn 18 CelsiusDegree)))
(instance averageRainfallForPeriod TernaryPredicate)
(documentation averageRainfallForPeriod EnglishLanguage "(averageRainfallForPeriod ?AREA ?MO ?AMOUNT)
means that ?AREA receives ?AMOUNT of rain in month ?MO in an average
year. Note that ?AMOUNT is a linear measure indicating the depth of water that
would accumulate over ?AREA if all water were captured.")
(domain averageRainfallForPeriod 1 GeographicArea)
(domain averageRainfallForPeriod 2 Month)
(domain averageRainfallForPeriod 3 LengthMeasure)
(subclass WetTropicalClimateZone TropicalClimateZone)
(documentation WetTropicalClimateZone EnglishLanguage "&%WetTropicalClimateZone is
the subclass of &%TropicalClimateZone that is characterized by having
no dry months. At least 60 mm of rainfall occur in the driest month.
This is subtype 'Af' in the Koeppen climate system.")
(instance ?AREA TropicalClimateZone)
(forall (?MO ?AMOUNT)
(averageRainfallForPeriod ?AREA ?MO ?AMOUNT)
(greaterThanOrEqualTo ?AMOUNT (MeasureFn 60 (MilliFn Meter))))))
(instance ?AREA WetTropicalClimateZone))
(instance ?AREA WetTropicalClimateZone)
(forall (?MO ?AMOUNT)
(averageRainfallForPeriod ?AREA ?MO ?AMOUNT)
(greaterThanOrEqualTo ?AMOUNT (MeasureFn 60 (MilliFn Meter))))))
(subclass MonsoonClimateZone TropicalClimateZone)
(documentation MonsoonClimateZone EnglishLanguage "&%MonsoonClimateZone is the class
of &%TropicalClimateZones in which there is a short dry season between
rains heavy enough to keep the ground wet all through the year. This
is Koeppen climate system subtype 'Aw'.")
(instance ?AREA MonsoonClimateZone)
(exists (?INTERVAL) (rainySeasonInArea ?AREA ?INTERVAL)))
(subclass AridClimateZone ClimateZone)
(documentation AridClimateZone EnglishLanguage "&%AridClimateZone is the
class of regions in which the climate is characterized by
a distinct dry season. Annual rate of moisture evaporation
exceeds annual rate of precipitation. This is Class B in the
Koeppen climate system.")
(subclass SteppeClimateZone AridClimateZone)
(documentation SteppeClimateZone EnglishLanguage "&%SteppeClimateZone
is the class of &%AridClimateZones where the dominant
vegetation type is grasses, with no trees. Koeppen
system 'BS'.")
(subclass DesertClimateZone AridClimateZone)
(documentation DesertClimateZone EnglishLanguage "DesertClimateZone
is the class of &%AridClimateZones characterized by
sparse, desert vegetation. Koeppen system 'BW'.")
(subclass SubtropicalDesertClimateZone DesertClimateZone)
(documentation SubtropicalDesertClimateZone EnglishLanguage
"&%SubtropicalDesertClimateZone is a subclass of &%DesertClimateZone
that is characterized by an average temperature greater than 18
degrees Celsius, as well as very low rainfall. This is Koeppen
system 'BWh'.")
(instance ?AREA DesertClimateZone)
(subclass ?MO Month)
(averageTemperatureForPeriod ?AREA ?MO ?TEMP)
(greaterThan ?TEMP (MeasureFn 18 CelsiusDegree)))
(instance ?AREA SubtropicalDesertClimateZone))
(instance ?AREA SubtropicalDesertClimateZone)
(subclass ?MO Month)
(averageTemperatureForPeriod ?AREA ?MO ?TEMP))
(greaterThan ?TEMP (MeasureFn 18 CelsiusDegree)))
(subclass MiddleLatitudeDesertClimateZone DesertClimateZone)
(documentation MiddleLatitudeDesertClimateZone EnglishLanguage
"&%MiddleLatitudeDesertClimateZone is the subclass of
&%DesertClimateZone characterized by a cool dry climate
typical of middle latitude deserts. This is subtype 'BWk'
in the Keoppen climate system.")
(subclass SemiaridClimateZone ClimateZone)
(subclass TemperateClimateZone ClimateZone)
(documentation TemperateClimateZone EnglishLanguage "&%TemperateClimateZone is the
subclass of &%ClimateZone whose warmest month has an average
temperature greater than 10 degrees Celsius and whose coolest month
has an average temperature between 18 degrees and -3 degrees Celsius.
This is Class C in the Koeppen climate system.")
(instance ?AREA TemperateClimateZone)
(exists (?MO ?AMOUNT)
(subclass ?MO Month)
(averageTemperatureForPeriod ?AREA ?MO ?AMOUNT)
(greaterThan ?AMOUNT (MeasureFn 10 CelsiusDegree)))))
(instance ?AREA TemperateClimateZone)
(subclass ?MO Month)
(averageTemperatureForPeriod ?AREA ?MO ?TEMP))
(greaterThanOrEqualTo ?TEMP (MeasureFn -3 CelsiusDegree)))
(instance ?AREA TemperateClimateZone)
(exists (?MO ?AMOUNT)
(subclass ?MO Month)
(averageTemperatureForPeriod ?AREA ?MO ?AMOUNT)
(greaterThanOrEqualTo ?AMOUNT (MeasureFn -3 CelsiusDegree))
(lessThanOrEqualTo ?AMOUNT (MeasureFn 18 CelsiusDegree)))))
(subclass MediterraneanClimateZone TemperateClimateZone)
(documentation MediterraneanClimateZone EnglishLanguage "&%MediterraneanClimateZone
is a subclass of &%TemperateClimateZone that is characterized by
mild, cool, wet winters and warm dry summers. Mediterranean shores
are the archetype, but the Mediterranean climate is also found elsewhere.")
(instance ?AREA MediterraneanClimateZone)
(coolSeasonInArea ?AREA WinterSeason))
(instance ?AREA MediterraneanClimateZone)
(warmSeasonInArea ?AREA SummerSeason))
(instance ?AREA MediterraneanClimateZone)
(rainySeasonInArea ?AREA WinterSeason))
(instance ?AREA MediterraneanClimateZone)
(drySeasonInArea ?AREA SummerSeason))
(subclass ContinentalClimateZone TemperateClimateZone)
(documentation ContinentalClimateZone EnglishLanguage
"&%ContinentalClimateZone is a subclass of &%TemperateClimateZone that is
characterized by cold winters and hot summers.")
(instance ?AREA ContinentalClimateZone)
(coldSeasonInArea ?AREA WinterSeason))
(instance ?AREA ContinentalClimateZone)
(hotSeasonInArea ?AREA SummerSeason))
(subclass MidlatitudeContinentalClimateZone ClimateZone)
(documentation MidlatitudeContinentalClimateZone EnglishLanguage
"&%MidlatitudeContinentalClimateZone is a subclass of
&%TemperateClimateZone that is characterized by cool winters
and hot summers.")
(instance ?AREA MidlatitudeContinentalClimateZone)
(coolSeasonInArea ?AREA WinterSeason))
(instance ?AREA MidlatitudeContinentalClimateZone)
(hotSeasonInArea ?AREA SummerSeason))
(subclass TemperateWinterDryClimateZone TemperateClimateZone)
(documentation TemperateWinterDryClimateZone EnglishLanguage
"&%TemperateWinterDryClimateZone is a subclass of &%TemperateClimateZone
characterized by having at least 10 times as much precipitation in the
wettest summer month as in the driest winter month. Koeppen climate
system type 'Cw'.")
(subclass TemperateSummerDryClimateZone TemperateClimateZone)
(documentation TemperateSummerDryClimateZone EnglishLanguage
"&%TemperateSummerDryClimateZone is the subclass of &%TemperateClimateZone
that is characterized by dry summers, and in which the wettest winter month
has at least three times the moisture of the driest summer month. The
driest month has less than an average of 30 mm of precipitation. Koeppen
climate system type 'Cs'.")
(subclass ColdClimateZone ClimateZone)
(documentation ColdClimateZone EnglishLanguage "&%ColdClimateZone is the subclass
of &%ClimateZone that is characterized by a warmest month with average
temperature less than 10 degrees Celsius and a coldest month with
average temperature less than -3 degrees Celsius. This is Koeppen climate
system Type D.")
(instance ?AREA ColdClimateZone)
(subclass ?MO Month)
(averageTemperatureForPeriod ?AREA ?MO ?TEMP))
(greaterThan (MeasureFn 10 CelsiusDegree) ?TEMP))
(instance ?AREA ColdClimateZone)
(exists (?MO ?AMOUNT)
(subclass ?MO Month)
(averageTemperatureForPeriod ?AREA ?MO ?AMOUNT)
(lessThan ?AMOUNT (MeasureFn -3 CelsiusDegree)))))
(subclass ColdDampClimateZone ColdClimateZone)
(documentation ColdDampClimateZone EnglishLanguage "&%ColdDampClimateZone is the
subclass of &%ColdClimateZone that is characterized by having more
than 30 mm of precipitation in the driest month. This is subtype
'Df' in the Koeppen climate system.")
(subclass DryWinterColdClimateZone ColdClimateZone)
(documentation DryWinterColdClimateZone EnglishLanguage "&%DryWinterColdClimateZone
is a subclass of &%ColdClimateZone that is characterized by having
at least ten times as much precipitation in the wettest summer month
as in the driest winter month. This is Koeppen climate system subtype
(subclass PolarClimateZone ClimateZone)
(documentation PolarClimateZone EnglishLanguage "&%PolarClimateZone is a subclass of
&%ClimateZone characterized by having an average temperature less than
10 degrees Celsius in the warmest month. This is Koeppen climate system
Type E. No agriculture is supported in polar climates.")
(instance ?AREA PolarClimateZone)
(subclass ?MO Month)
(averageTemperatureForPeriod ?AREA ?MO ?TEMP))
(greaterThan (MeasureFn 10 CelsiusDegree) ?TEMP))
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(subclass ?MO Month)
(averageTemperatureForPeriod ?AREA ?MO ?TEMP)
(greaterThan (MeasureFn 10 CelsiusDegree) ?TEMP))
(instance ?AREA PolarClimateZone))
(subclass TundraClimateZone PolarClimateZone)
(documentation TundraClimateZone EnglishLanguage "TundraClimateZone is a subclass of
&%PolarClimateZone characterized by having an average temperature
above zero degrees Celsius (but below 10 degrees) in the warmest month.
Koeppen subtype 'ET'.")
(subclass PolarTypeFClimateZone PolarClimateZone)
(documentation PolarTypeFClimateZone EnglishLanguage "&%PolarTypeFClimateZone is a
subclass of &%PolarClimateZone characterized by having no month in
which the temperature rises to 10 degrees Celsius or above.")
(instance ?AREA PolarTypeFClimateZone)
(instance ?TIME TimePosition)
(holdsDuring ?TIME (airTemperature ?AREA ?TEMP)))
(holdsDuring ?TIME (greaterThan (MeasureFn 10 CelsiusDegree) ?TEMP)))
(instance rainySeasonInArea BinaryPredicate)
(instance rainySeasonInArea AsymmetricRelation)
(domain rainySeasonInArea 1 GeographicArea)
(domainSubclass rainySeasonInArea 2 TimeInterval)
(documentation rainySeasonInArea EnglishLanguage "(&%rainySeasonInArea ?AREA ?INTERVAL)
means that in the &%GeographicArea ?AREA, the rainy or wet season occurs
during the &%TimeInterval ?INTERVAL. For example, (&%rainySeasonInArea
&%Angola (&%RecurringTimeIntervalFn &%November &%April)).")
(instance warmSeasonInArea BinaryPredicate)
(instance warmSeasonInArea AsymmetricRelation)
(domain warmSeasonInArea 1 GeographicArea)
(domainSubclass warmSeasonInArea 2 TimeInterval)
(documentation warmSeasonInArea EnglishLanguage "(&%warmSeasonInArea ?AREA ?INTERVAL)
means that in the &%GeographicArea ?AREA, the warm season occurs
during the &%TimeInterval ?INTERVAL.")
(instance drySeasonInArea BinaryPredicate)
(instance drySeasonInArea AsymmetricRelation)
(domain drySeasonInArea 1 GeographicArea)
(domainSubclass drySeasonInArea 2 TimeInterval)
(documentation drySeasonInArea EnglishLanguage "(&%drySeasonInArea ?AREA ?INTERVAL)
means that in the &%GeographicArea ?AREA, the dry season occurs
during the &%TimeInterval ?INTERVAL. For example, (&%drySeasonInArea
&%Angola (&%RecurringTimeIntervalFn &%May &%October)).")
(instance coolSeasonInArea BinaryPredicate)
(instance coolSeasonInArea AsymmetricRelation)
(domain coolSeasonInArea 1 GeographicArea)
(domainSubclass coolSeasonInArea 2 TimeInterval)
(documentation coolSeasonInArea EnglishLanguage "(&%coolSeasonInArea ?AREA ?INTERVAL)
means that in the &%GeographicArea ?AREA, the cool season occurs
during the &%TimeInterval ?INTERVAL. For example, (&%coolSeasonInArea
&%Angola (&%RecurringTimeIntervalFn &%May &%October")
(instance hotSeasonInArea BinaryPredicate)
(instance hotSeasonInArea AsymmetricRelation)
(domain hotSeasonInArea 1 GeographicArea)
(domainSubclass hotSeasonInArea 2 TimeInterval)
(documentation hotSeasonInArea EnglishLanguage "(&%hotSeasonInArea ?AREA ?INTERVAL)
means that in the &%GeographicArea ?AREA, the hot season occurs
during the &%TimeInterval ?INTERVAL. For example, (&%hotSeasonInArea
&%Angola (&%RecurringTimeIntervalFn &%November &%April)).")
(instance coldSeasonInArea BinaryPredicate)
(instance coldSeasonInArea AsymmetricRelation)
(domain coldSeasonInArea 1 GeographicArea)
(domainSubclass coldSeasonInArea 2 TimeInterval)
(documentation coldSeasonInArea EnglishLanguage "(&%coldSeasonInArea ?AREA ?INTERVAL)
means that in the &%GeographicArea ?AREA, the cold season occurs
during the &%TimeInterval ?INTERVAL.")
(equal SpringSeason (RecurrentTimeIntervalFn March May))
(equal SummerSeason (RecurrentTimeIntervalFn June August))
(equal FallSeason (RecurrentTimeIntervalFn September November))
(equal WinterSeason (RecurrentTimeIntervalFn December February))
;; J. Terrain
(instance slopeGradient BinaryPredicate)
(domain slopeGradient 1 LandArea)
(domain slopeGradient 2 NonnegativeRealNumber)
(documentation slopeGradient EnglishLanguage "(&%slopeGradient ?AREA ?SLOPE) means that
in the &%LandArea ?AREA there is an incline of ?slope, where ?SLOPE is
the percent of vertical rise over horizontal distance. &%slopeGradient
gives an approximate value for nonzero slope over ?AREA, without regard
to orientation. For example, (&%slopeGradient ?AREA 0.10) means that
there is a 10% incline across the area, without specifying the
orientation in which the land rises or falls. Also see
(instance slopeGradientTowardsOrientation TernaryPredicate)
(domain slopeGradientTowardsOrientation 1 LandArea)
(domain slopeGradientTowardsOrientation 2 DirectionalAttribute)
(domain slopeGradientTowardsOrientation 3 RationalNumber)
(documentation slopeGradientTowardsOrientation EnglishLanguage
"(&%slopeGradientTowardsOrientation ?AREA ?DIRECTION ?SLOPE) means that
in the &%LandArea ?AREA, there is an incline of ?SLOPE towards the
&%DirectionalAttribute ?DIRECTION. ?SLOPE is a &%RationalNumber
representing the percent of vertical rise over horizontal distance.")
(instance Uphill PositionalAttribute)
(documentation Uphill EnglishLanguage "&%Uphill is a &%PositionalAttribute that
describes the relation between two things, one of which is located
up a slope from the other.")
(instance Downhill PositionalAttribute)
(contraryAttribute Uphill Downhill)
(documentation Downhill EnglishLanguage "&%Downhill is a &%PositionalAttribute that
describes the relation between two things, one of which is located
down a slope from the other.")
(instance terrainInArea BinaryPredicate)
(instance terrainInArea AsymmetricRelation)
(domain terrainInArea 1 GeographicArea)
(domain terrainInArea 2 TerrainAttribute)
(documentation terrainInArea EnglishLanguage "(&%terrainInArea ?AREA ?ATTRIBUTE)
means that the &%GeographicArea ?AREA is or includes a region with
the features of &%TerrainArea ?ATTRIBUTE.")
(terrainInArea ?AREA ?ATTRIBUTE)
(exists (?REGION)
(instance ?REGION GeographicArea)
(attribute ?REGION ?ATTRIBUTE)
(partlyLocated ?REGION ?AREA))))
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(attribute ?REGION ?ATTRIBUTE)
(instance ?ATTRIBUTE TerrainAttribute)
(partlyLocated ?REGION ?AREA))
(terrainInArea ?AREA ?ATTRIBUTE))
;; Terrain attributes:
(subclass TerrainAttribute InternalAttribute)
(documentation TerrainAttribute EnglishLanguage "&%TerrainAttribute is a class of
&%Attributes that describe terrain.")
(instance ?ATT TerrainAttribute)
(attribute ?OBJECT ?ATT))
(instance ?OBJECT LandArea))
(instance FlatTerrain TerrainAttribute)
(documentation FlatTerrain EnglishLanguage "&%FlatTerrain is a &%TerrainAttribute
describing regions within which there is very little variation in
(attribute ?AREA FlatTerrain)
(part ?ZONE ?AREA)
(slopeGradient ?ZONE ?SLOPE))
(greaterThan 0.005 ?SLOPE))
(instance LowTerrain TerrainAttribute)
(documentation LowTerrain EnglishLanguage "&%LowTerrain is terrain in which the slope
is less than 3%.")
(attribute ?AREA LowTerrain)
(part ?ZONE ?AREA)
(slopeGradient ?ZONE ?SLOPE))
(greaterThan 0.03 ?SLOPE))
(instance SteepTerrain TerrainAttribute)
(documentation SteepTerrain EnglishLanguage "A &%TerrainAttribute of a region in
which there is a wide variation in &%elevation and &%slopeGradients
of more than 10%.")
(attribute ?AREA SteepTerrain)
(exists (?ZONE)
(part ?ZONE ?AREA)
(slopeGradient ?ZONE ?SLOPE)
(greaterThan ?SLOPE 0.1))))
(instance MountainousTerrain TerrainAttribute)
(subAttribute MountainousTerrain SteepTerrain)
(documentation MountainousTerrain EnglishLanguage "An area of &%MountainousTerrain
is an area of rugged terrain in which there are many mountains.")
(attribute ?AREA MountainousTerrain)
(instance ?AREA LandArea))
(attribute ?AREA MountainousTerrain)
(instance ?AREA UplandArea))
(attribute ?AREA MountainousTerrain)
(exists (?MTN)
(instance ?MTN Mountain)
(part ?MTN ?AREA))))
(attribute ?AREA MountainousTerrain)
(exists (?MTN)
(instance ?MTN Mountain)
(located ?MTN ?AREA))))
(instance ?AREA MountainRange)
(attribute ?AREA MountainousTerrain))
(instance FertileTerrain TerrainAttribute)
(documentation FertileTerrain EnglishLanguage "&%FertileTerrain describes an area
that has the type of soil and climate conditions needed to produce
good quality crops.")
(instance ?area GeographicArea)
(groundSurfaceType ?area Rock))
(not (attribute ?area FertileTerrain)))
(attribute ?AREA FertileTerrain)
(capability Agriculture eventLocated ?AREA)) ;; located not a CaseRole
(instance ?SOIL Soil)
(attribute ?SOIL Yellow)
(instance ?AREA LandArea)
(component ?SOIL ?AREA))
(not (attribute ?AREA FertileTerrain)))
(instance ?SOIL Soil)
(attribute ?SOIL Red)
(instance ?AREA LandArea)
(component ?SOIL ?AREA))
(attribute ?AREA FertileTerrain))
(instance GeologicallyStable TerrainAttribute)
(documentation GeologicallyStable EnglishLanguage "&%GeologicallyStable is a
&%TerrainAttribute of a &%GeographicArea in which the geological
substructure is stable, i.e., there are no active &%Volcanoes,
no major fault lines, no blasting or other destabilizing activity.")
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(instance ?CONE Volcano)
(attribute ?CONE VolcanicallyActive))
(not (attribute ?AREA GeologicallyStable)))
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(instance ?BLOW VolcanicEruption)
(eventLocated ?BLOW ?AREA))
(not (attribute ?AREA GeologicallyStable)))
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(instance ?SHAKING EarthTremor)
(eventLocated ?SHAKING ?AREA))
(not (attribute ?AREA GeologicallyStable)))
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(instance ?FAULT GeologicalFault)
(located ?FAULT ?AREA))
(not (attribute ?AREA GeologicallyStable)))
;; K. Elevation extremes
(instance elevation BinaryPredicate)
(domain elevation 1 Object)
(domain elevation 2 LengthMeasure)
(documentation elevation EnglishLanguage "(&%elevation ?OBJECT ?HEIGHT) means that the
physical &%Object ?OBJECT is located on the surface of &%PlanetEarth
at the vertical distance ?HEIGHT above (or below, for a negative
quantity) &%SeaLevel. ?OBJECT may be a &%superficialPart of Earth's
surface, such as a &%GeographicArea. Elevation is measured from
&%SeaLevel to the vertical top of the object.")
(elevation ?OBJECT ?HEIGHT)
(exists (?PLACE)
(instance ?PLACE GeographicArea)
(located ?OBJECT ?PLACE))))
(elevation ?OBJECT ?HEIGHT)
(located ?OBJECT ?PLACE)
(instance ?PLACE GeographicArea))
(superficialPart ?PLACE PlanetEarth))
(elevation ?OBJECT ?HEIGHT)
(exists (?DATUM)
(properPart ?DATUM SeaLevel)
(orientation ?OBJECT ?DATUM Vertical)
(distance ?OBJECT ?DATUM ?HEIGHT))))
(elevation ?OBJECT (MeasureFn ?NUM ?UNIT))
(instance ?UNIT UnitOfLength)
(instance ?OBJECT LandForm))
(exists (?HIGHPOINT)
(distance ?HIGHPOINT SeaLevel (MeasureFn ?NUM ?UNIT)))))
(instance ElevationLowPointFn UnaryFunction)
(domain ElevationLowPointFn 1 GeographicArea)
(range ElevationLowPointFn GeographicArea)
(documentation ElevationLowPointFn EnglishLanguage "(&%ElevationLowPointFn ?AREA)
denotes the area within the &%GeographicArea ?AREA that has the
lowest &%elevation.")
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(geographicSubregion (ElevationLowPointFn ?AREA) ?AREA)
(elevation (ElevationLowPointFn ?AREA) ?ELEV1))
(exists (?OTHER ?ELEV2)
(geographicSubregion ?OTHER ?AREA)
(not (equal ?OTHER (ElevationLowPointFn ?AREA)))
(elevation ?OTHER ?ELEV2)
(lessThan ?ELEV2 ?ELEV1)))))
(instance ElevationHighPointFn UnaryFunction)
(domain ElevationHighPointFn 1 GeographicArea)
(range ElevationHighPointFn GeographicArea)
(documentation ElevationHighPointFn EnglishLanguage "(&%ElevationHighPointFn ?AREA)
denotes the area within the &%GeographicArea ?AREA that has the
highest &%elevation.")
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(geographicSubregion (ElevationHighPointFn ?AREA) ?AREA)
(elevation (ElevationHighPointFn ?AREA) ?ELEV1))
(exists (?OTHER ?ELEV2)
(geographicSubregion ?OTHER ?AREA)
(not (equal ?OTHER (ElevationHighPointFn ?AREA)))
(elevation ?OTHER ?ELEV2)
(greaterThan ?ELEV2 ?ELEV1)))))
;; L. Natural resources
(instance naturalResourceTypeInArea BinaryPredicate)
(domain naturalResourceTypeInArea 1 GeographicArea)
(domainSubclass naturalResourceTypeInArea 2 Object)
(documentation naturalResourceTypeInArea EnglishLanguage
"(&%naturalResourceTypeInArea ?REGION ?TYPE) means that the
&%GeographicArea ?REGION has resources of the kind ?TYPE.")
(naturalResourceTypeInArea ?AREA ?TYPE)
(exists (?ITEM)
(instance ?ITEM ?TYPE)
(located ?ITEM ?AREA))))
(subclass Barite CompoundSubstance)
(subclass Barite Mineral)
(names "barite" Barite)
(documentation Barite EnglishLanguage
"&%Barite is Barium Sulfate occurring as a mineral.")
(subclass BrownCoal Coal)
(names "brown coal" BrownCoal)
(names "lignite" BrownCoal)
(documentation BrownCoal EnglishLanguage "&%BrownCoal is a soft &%Coal harder than
peat and softer than bituminous coal. Also called lignite, it is
brownish in color.")
(documentation Chromite EnglishLanguage "A mineral that consists of an oxide of
iron and chromium.")
(subclass Chromite CompoundSubstance)
(subclass Chromite Mineral)
(names "chromite" Chromite)
(subclass Coal Mineral)
(subclass Coal FossilFuel)
(subclass Coal Rock)
(names "coal" Coal)
(documentation Coal EnglishLanguage "&%Coal is a black or brownish black solid combustible
substance formed by the partial decomposition of vegetable matter without
free access of air and under the influence of moisture and often increased
pressure and temperature. &%Coal is a sedimentary rock containing a high
proportion of carbon.")
(subclass HydropowerWaterArea WaterArea)
(documentation HydropowerWaterArea EnglishLanguage "&%HydropowerWaterArea
is the class of &%WaterAreas with waterflow strength adequate
for the production of hydropower.")
(subclass NaturalGas CompoundSubstance)
(names "natural gas" NaturalGas)
(documentation NaturalGas EnglishLanguage "&%NaturalGas is a combustible mixture
of methane and higher hydrocarbons.")
(instance ?GAS NaturalGas)
(attribute ?GAS Gas))
(subclass Phosphate CompoundSubstance)
(names "phosphate" Phosphate)
(documentation Phosphate EnglishLanguage "&%Phospate is a salt or ester of a
phosphoric acid.")
(subclass Potash CompoundSubstance)
(names "potash" Potash)
(documentation Potash EnglishLanguage "&%Potash is a Potassium carbonate from
wood ashes or a potassium compound.")
(subclass Talc Mineral)
(names "talc" Talc)
(documentation Talc EnglishLanguage "&%Talc is a very soft &%Mineral that is
a basic silicate of magnesium.")
;; M. Land use
(subclass ArableLand LandArea)
(documentation ArableLand EnglishLanguage "&%ArableLand is the subclass of
&%LandArea that represents land in cultivation with crops that
are replanted after each harvest, e.g., wheat and rice.")
(instance arableLandArea BinaryPredicate)
(domain arableLandArea 1 GeographicArea)
(domain arableLandArea 2 ConstantQuantity)
(documentation arableLandArea EnglishLanguage "(&%arableLandArea ?REGION ?AMOUNT)
means that the &%GeographicArea ?REGION has ?AMOUNT of land under
cultivation with crops that are replanted after each harvest. ?AMOUNT
may be expressed in physical units or with a percent or fraction.
Cf. &%permanentCropLandArea.")
(arableLandArea ?REGION ?FRACTION)
(greaterThanOrEqualTo ?FRACTION 0)
(totalArea ?REGION ?TOTAL)
(instance ?TOTAL AreaMeasure)
(equal ?AMOUNT (MultiplicationFn ?FRACTION ?TOTAL)))
(arableLandArea ?REGION ?AMOUNT))
(arableLandArea ?REGION ?FRACTION)
(greaterThanOrEqualTo ?FRACTION 0)
(totalArea ?REGION (MeasureFn ?TOTAL ?UNIT))
(instance ?UNIT UnitOfArea)
(equal ?AMOUNT (MeasureFn (MultiplicationFn ?FRACTION ?TOTAL) ?UNIT)))
(arableLandArea ?REGION ?AMOUNT))
(arableLandArea ?REGION ?FRACTION)
(greaterThanOrEqualTo ?FRACTION 0)
(totalArea ?REGION (MeasureFn ?TOTAL ?UNIT))
(instance ?UNIT UnitOfArea))
(exists (?ARABLE)
(instance ?ARABLE ArableLand)
(geographicSubregion ?ARABLE ?REGION)
(measure ?ARABLE (MeasureFn (MultiplicationFn ?FRACTION ?TOTAL) ?UNIT)))))
(subclass PermanentCropLand LandArea)
(documentation PermanentCropLand EnglishLanguage "&%PermanentCropLand is the subclass
of &%LandArea that represents land cultivated for crops that are produced
without replanting after every harvest, such as fruit trees, coffee, rubber,
nuts, and vineyards. Does not include timberland. Cf. &%arableLandArea.")
(instance permanentCropLandArea BinaryPredicate)
(domain permanentCropLandArea 1 GeographicArea)
(domain permanentCropLandArea 2 ConstantQuantity)
(documentation permanentCropLandArea EnglishLanguage
"(&%permanentCropLandArea ?REGION ?AMOUNT) means that the &%GeographicArea
?REGION has ?AMOUNT of land under cultivation with crops that are not
replanted after each harvest. This includes orchards, vineyards, coffee
and rubber plantations. Timberland is excluded. ?AMOUNT may be expressed
in physical units or with a percent or fraction. Cf. &%permanentCropLandArea.")
(permanentCropLandArea ?REGION ?FRACTION)
(greaterThanOrEqualTo ?FRACTION 0)
(totalArea ?REGION ?TOTAL)
(instance ?TOTAL AreaMeasure)
(equal ?AMOUNT (MultiplicationFn ?FRACTION ?TOTAL)))
(permanentCropLandArea ?REGION ?AMOUNT))
(permanentCropLandArea ?REGION ?FRACTION)
(greaterThanOrEqualTo ?FRACTION 0)
(totalArea ?REGION (MeasureFn ?TOTAL ?UNIT))
(instance ?UNIT UnitOfArea)
(equal ?AMOUNT (MeasureFn (MultiplicationFn ?FRACTION ?TOTAL) ?UNIT)))
(permanentCropLandArea ?REGION ?AMOUNT))
(permanentCropLandArea ?REGION ?FRACTION)
(greaterThanOrEqualTo ?FRACTION 0)
(totalArea ?REGION (MeasureFn ?TOTAL ?UNIT))
(instance ?UNIT UnitOfArea))
(exists (?PERMCROP)
(instance ?PERMCROP PermanentCropLand)
(geographicSubregion ?PERMCROP ?REGION)
(measure ?PERMCROP (MeasureFn (MultiplicationFn ?FRACTION ?TOTAL) ?UNIT)))))
(instance otherLandUseArea BinaryPredicate)
(domain otherLandUseArea 1 GeographicArea)
(domain otherLandUseArea 2 ConstantQuantity)
(documentation otherLandUseArea EnglishLanguage
"This predicate is used to represent information from the CIA
World Fact Book. (&%otherLandUseArea ?REGION ?AMOUNT) means that
in the &%GeographicArea ?REGION, the ?AMOUNT of land has some
use other than planting seasonal or permanent crops. ?AMOUNT may be
expressed in physical units or with a percent or fraction. See also
&%arableLandArea and &%permanentLandArea.")
(otherLandUseArea ?REGION ?FRACTION)
(greaterThanOrEqualTo ?FRACTION 0)
(totalArea ?REGION ?TOTAL)
(instance ?TOTAL AreaMeasure)
(equal ?AMOUNT (MultiplicationFn ?FRACTION ?TOTAL)))
(otherLandUseArea ?REGION ?AMOUNT))
(otherLandUseArea ?REGION ?FRACTION)
(greaterThanOrEqualTo ?FRACTION 0)
(totalArea ?REGION (MeasureFn ?TOTAL ?UNIT))
(instance ?UNIT UnitOfArea)
(equal ?AMOUNT (MeasureFn (MultiplicationFn ?FRACTION ?TOTAL) ?UNIT)))
(otherLandUseArea ?REGION ?AMOUNT))
(otherLandUseArea ?REGION ?FRACTION)
(greaterThanOrEqualTo ?FRACTION 0)
(totalArea ?REGION (MeasureFn ?TOTAL ?UNIT))
(instance ?UNIT UnitOfArea))
(exists (?OTHER)
(instance ?OTHER LandArea)
(not (instance ?OTHER ArableLand))
(not (instance ?OTHER PermanentCropLand))
(geographicSubregion ?OTHER ?REGION)
(measure ?OTHER (MeasureFn (MultiplicationFn ?FRACTION ?TOTAL) ?UNIT)))))
;; N. Irrigated land
(subclass IrrigatedLand LandArea)
(documentation IrrigatedLand EnglishLanguage "&%IrrigatedLand is the subclass of
&%LandArea representing land whose water supply is artificially
supplied or supplemented.")
(instance irrigatedLandArea BinaryPredicate)
(domain irrigatedLandArea 1 GeographicArea)
(domain irrigatedLandArea 2 ConstantQuantity)
(documentation irrigatedLandArea EnglishLanguage "(&%irrigatedLandArea ?REGION ?AMOUNT)
means that the &%GeographicArea ?REGION has the ?AMOUNT of irrigated land.
?AMOUNT may be expressed in physical units or with a percent or fraction.")
(irrigatedLandArea ?REGION ?AMOUNT)
(instance ?AMOUNT AreaMeasure)
(totalArea ?REGION ?TOTAL)
(instance ?TOTAL AreaMeasure)
(equal ?FRACTION (DivisionFn ?AMOUNT ?TOTAL)))
(irrigatedLandArea ?REGION ?FRACTION))
(irrigatedLandArea ?REGION (MeasureFn ?AMOUNT ?UNIT))
(totalArea ?REGION (MeasureFn ?TOTAL ?UNIT))
(instance ?UNIT UnitOfArea)
(equal ?FRACTION (DivisionFn ?AMOUNT ?TOTAL)))
(irrigatedLandArea ?REGION ?FRACTION))
(irrigatedLandArea ?REGION (MeasureFn ?AMOUNT ?UNIT))
(instance ?UNIT UnitOfArea))
(exists (?IRRLAND)
(instance ?IRRLAND IrrigatedLand)
(geographicSubregion ?IRRLAND ?REGION)
(measure ?PERMCROP (MeasureFn ?AMOUNT ?UNIT)))))
;; O. Natural hazards
(instance naturalHazardTypeInArea BinaryPredicate)
(domain naturalHazardTypeInArea 1 GeographicArea)
(domainSubclass naturalHazardTypeInArea 2 Physical)
(documentation naturalHazardTypeInArea EnglishLanguage
"(&%naturalHazardTypeInArea ?AREA ?TYPE) means that in the
&%GeographicArea ?AREA, &%Processes of ?TYPE occur with some
frequency and may cause damage or danger to human lives and property.")
(naturalHazardTypeInArea ?AREA ?TYPE)
(geographicSubregion ?AREA ?COUNTRY)
(instance ?COUNTRY Nation))
(naturalHazardTypeInArea ?NATION ?TYPE))
(naturalHazardTypeInArea ?AREA ?TYPE)
(subclass ?TYPE Object))
(exists (?ITEM)
(instance ?ITEM ?TYPE)
(located ?ITEM ?AREA))))
(naturalHazardTypeInArea ?AREA ?TYPE)
(subclass ?TYPE Process))
(exists (?ITEM)
(instance ?ITEM ?TYPE)
(located ?ITEM ?AREA)
(overlapsTemporally (WhenFn ?ITEM) (WhenFn ?AREA)))))
(subclass AvalancheProcess Impelling)
(documentation AvalancheProcess EnglishLanguage "&%AvalancheProcess is a subclass of
&%Motion that represents events in which a loosened mass of snow, ice,
rock, or earth rapidly descends a steep slope, with a destructive force.")
(subclass LandslideProcess Impelling)
(documentation LandslideProcess EnglishLanguage "&%LandslideProcess is a subclass
of &%Motion that represents events in which a loosened mass of mud,
dirt, or rock slides down a slope, by the force of gravity.")
(subclass Drought WeatherProcess)
(documentation Drought EnglishLanguage "&%Drought is the subclass of &%WeatherProcess
that represents long periods without precipitation, which is damaging
to crops, livestock, and human life.")
(instance ?DRYSPELL Drought)
(eventLocated ?DRYSPELL ?AREA))
(exists (?RAIN ?PLACE)
(instance ?RAIN Raining)
(instance ?PLACE Region)
(eventLocated ?RAIN ?PLACE)
(overlapsSpatially ?PLACE ?AREA)
(overlapsTemporally ?RAIN ?DRYSPELL)))))
(subclass Earthquake GeologicalProcess)
(documentation Earthquake EnglishLanguage "&%Earthquake is the class of events in
which the earth shakes while its layers readjust due to tensional
stresses in the surface of the earth. A single earthquake may consist
of one or more &%EarthTremors.")
(instance ?QUAKE Earthquake)
(exists (?TREMOR)
(instance ?TREMOR EarthTremor)
(subProcess ?TREMOR ?QUAKE))))
(subclass EarthTremor GeologicalProcess)
(subclass EarthTremor Tremor)
(documentation EarthTremor EnglishLanguage "An &%EarthTremor is an individual seismic
event in which the earth shakes due to release of seismic pressures.")
(subclass Aftershock EarthTremor)
(documentation Aftershock EnglishLanguage "&%Aftershock is the subclass of &%EarthTremors
that occur after the main tremor(s) of an &%Earthquake.")
(instance ?SHOCK Aftershock)
(eventLocated ?SHOCK ?PLACE))
(exists (?TREMOR)
(instance ?TREMOR EarthTremor)
(eventLocated ?TREMOR ?PLACE)
(before (WhenFn ?TREMOR) (WhenFn ?SHOCK)))))
(names "Richter magnitude" RichterMagnitude)
(names "Richter scale" RichterMagnitude)
(instance RichterMagnitude CompositeUnitOfMeasure)
(documentation RichterMagnitude EnglishLanguage "A &%RichterMagnitude is a measure
of the severity of an &%EarthTremor. For example,
(&%MeasureFn 6.5 RichterMagnitude) denotes the value of 6.5 on the
Richter scale.")
(measure ?QUAKE (MeasureFn ?VALUE RichterMagnitude))
(instance ?VALUE PositiveRealNumber))
(measure ?QUAKE (MeasureFn ?VALUE RichterMagnitude))
(instance ?QUAKE EarthTremor)
(instance ?QUAKE Earthquake)))
(measure ?QUAKE (MeasureFn ?VALUE RichterMagnitude))
(instance ?QUAKE Earthquake))
(exists (?TREMOR)
(instance ?TREMOR EarthTremor)
(subProcess ?TREMOR ?QUAKE)
(measure ?TREMOR (MeasureFn ?VALUE RichterMagnitude)))))
(subclass GeologicalFault GeographicArea)
(documentation GeologicalFault EnglishLanguage "&%GeologicalFault is the subclass of
&%GeographicAreas in which there is a fracture in the Earth's crust
and differential movement can occur on the two sides of the fault.
Such movement results in &%EarthTremors and is the cause of
(instance ?QUAKE EarthTremor)
(exists (?FAULT)
(instance ?FAULT GeologicalFault)
(origin ?QUAKE ?FAULT))))
(instance ?QUAKE Earthquake)
(exists (?FAULT)
(instance ?FAULT GeologicalFault)
(origin ?QUAKE ?FAULT))))
(subclass DipSlipFault GeologicalFault)
(subclass NormalFault DipSlipFault)
(subclass ThrustFault DipSlipFault)
(subclass StrikeSlipFault GeologicalFault)
;; KJN: Moving this to MILO as it is a very general idea
;;(subclass Fire Combustion)
;;(documentation Fire EnglishLanguage "&%Fire is the subclass of &%Combustion events in
;;which flames are present. Fires are slower combustion processes than
;;explosions, though some fires may include explosive episodes.")
(subclass ForestFire Combustion)
(instance ?FIRE ForestFire)
(exists (?FOREST)
(instance ?FOREST Forest)
(eventLocated ?FIRE ?FOREST)
(patient ?FIRE ?FOREST))))
(subclass GrassFire Combustion)
(instance ?FIRE GrassFire)
(exists (?GRASS)
(instance ?GRASS Grass)
(eventLocated ?FIRE ?GRASS)
(patient ?FIRE ?GRASS))))
;; KJN: Removing this as Flooding, while it could be a WeatherProcess, is not necessarily so.
;; e.g. an area can be deliberately flooded by an agent for some purpose
;;(subclass Flooding WeatherProcess)
(subclass Hurricane TropicalCyclone)
(instance Permafrost CompoundSubstance)
(subclass Tornado WeatherProcess)
(subclass Tsunami WeatherProcess)
(documentation Tsunami EnglishLanguage "&%Tsunami is the class of highly destructive
ocean waves caused by offshore seismic processes.")
(subclass VolcanicEruption GeologicalProcess)
(documentation VolcanicEruption EnglishLanguage "&%VolcanicEruption is the subclass of
&%GeologicalProcesses in which &%Volcanoes erupt.")
(instance ?ERUPTING VolcanicEruption)
(exists (?VOLCANO)
(instance ?VOLCANO Volcano)
(eventLocated ?ERUPTING ?VOLCANO))))
(instance ?ERUPTING VolcanicEruption)
(exists (?HEATING)
(instance ?HEATING Heating)
(subProcess ?HEATING ?ERUPTING))))
;; P. Environment - current issues
(instance environmentalProblemTypeInArea BinaryPredicate)
(domain environmentalProblemTypeInArea 1 GeographicArea)
(domainSubclass environmentalProblemTypeInArea 2 Physical)
(documentation environmentalProblemTypeInArea EnglishLanguage
"(&%environmentalProblemTypeInArea ?AREA ?PROBLEM) means that
objects or processes of type ?PROBLEM is an environmental
problem in the &%GeographicArea ?AREA.")
(environmentalProblemTypeInArea ?AREA ?PROBLEM)
(exists (?EVENT)
(instance ?EVENT ?PROBLEM)
(eventLocated ?EVENT ?AREA))))
;; Environmental phenomena
(subclass Acidification Combining)
(documentation Acidification EnglishLanguage "&%Acidification is the process of
lowering soil and water pH due to acid rain or other types of
acid deposition. Potential harmful effects include killing
freshwater fish and plants.")
(subclass AirPollution Pollution)
(documentation AirPollution EnglishLanguage "&%AirPollution is the subclass of
&%Pollution processes in which air is contaminated.")
(subclass AcidRainfall WeatherProcess)
(documentation AcidRainfall EnglishLanguage "&%AcidRainfall is the subclass of
&%Raining in which the precipitate contains harmful amounts of
sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxide. The standard for acid rain
is below 5.6 pH.")
(causesSubclass AirPollution AcidRainfall)
(causesSubclass AcidRainfall Acidification)
(names "pH" PHValue)
(instance PHValue NonCompositeUnitOfMeasure)
(documentation PHValue EnglishLanguage "&%PHValue ('pH') is a &%UnitOfMeasure
used to measure the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. The pH
scale ranges from 0 to 14. The pH of a neutral solution is 7.
Acid solutions have a pH value less than seven. Alkaline solutions
have a value greater than seven.")
(measure ?SOLUTION
(MeasureFn ?PH PHValue))
(potentialOfHydrogen ?SOLUTION ?PH))
(measure ?SOLUTION (MeasureFn ?PH PHValue))
(lessThanOrEqualTo ?PH 14))
(measure ?SOLUTION (MeasureFn ?PH PHValue))
(greaterThanOrEqualTo ?PH 0))
(instance ?RAINFALL Process)
(patient ?RAINFALL ?RAIN)
(instance ?RAIN Water)
(measure ?RAIN (MeasureFn ?PH PHValue)))
(lessThan ?PH 5.6))
(subclass CarbonDioxideEmission Separating)
(subclass Afforestation Planting)
(documentation Afforestation EnglishLanguage "&%Afforestation is the process of
planting trees and plants on spaces that are either empty or in
agricultural use.")
(subclass Planting Putting)
(documentation Planting EnglishLanguage "&%Planting is the class of processes in
which botanical &%Plants are planted or transplanted, whether as
seeds, seedlings, or mature plants.")
(subclass Reforestation Planting)
(documentation Reforestation EnglishLanguage "&%Reforestation is the process of
replanting trees on land where they were cut or burned.")
(instance ?RESTORE Reforestation)
(exists (?TREE)
(instance ?TREE BotanicalTree)
(attribute ?TREE NonFullyFormed)
(patient ?RESTORE ?TREE))))
(subclass Asbestos Mineral)
(documentation Asbestos EnglishLanguage "&%Asbestos is a &%Mineral.")
(subclass BiodiversityAttribute InternalAttribute)
(documentation BiodiversityAttribute EnglishLanguage "&%BiodiversityAttribute is the
class of &%Attributes that describe the level of biodiversity present
in a &%GeographicArea or &%Ecosystem.")
(instance LowBiodiversity BiodiversityAttribute)
(instance MediumBiodiversity BiodiversityAttribute)
(instance HighBiodiversity BiodiversityAttribute)
(instance bioindicatorForHabitat BinaryPredicate)
(domain bioindicatorForHabitat 1 GeographicArea)
(domainSubclass bioindicatorForHabitat 2 OrganicObject)
(documentation bioindicatorForHabitat EnglishLanguage
"(&%bioindicatorForHabitat ?AREA ?SPECIES) means that the health
of the individuals in ?SPECIES indicates the condition of their
habitat in the &%GeographicArea ?AREA.")
(instance totalBiomass BinaryPredicate)
(domain totalBiomass 1 GeographicArea)
(domain totalBiomass 2 PhysicalQuantity)
(documentation totalBiomass EnglishLanguage "(&%totalBiomass ?PLACE ?MASS) means that the
total amount (in weight or volume) of living matter in the &%Region
?PLACE is ?MASS.")
(subclass CarbonCycle GeologicalProcess)
(documentation CarbonCycle EnglishLanguage "&%CarbonCycle is the class of
&%GeologicalProcesses in which carbon in various forms is passed
between air, water, earth, and the biosphere.")
(subclass WaterCatchment Artifact)
(documentation WaterCatchment EnglishLanguage "&%WaterCatchment is the subclass of
&%Artifacts used to capture rainwater or runoff as a source
of &%Freshwater.")
(subclass DDT CompoundSubstance)
(names "dichoro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane" DDT)
(abbreviation "DDT" DDT)
(documentation DDT EnglishLanguage "&%DDT (dichoro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane)
is a highly toxic insecticide also harmful to most other animal
species. DDT was banned in the &%UnitedStates in 1972.")
(subclass Defoliant PureSubstance)
(documentation Defoliant EnglishLanguage "&%Defoliant is the class of substances
that are used to make plants lose their leaves, typically used
in agriculture or warfare. Defoliants may have detrimental
environmental side effects.")
(subclass Deforestation Removing)
(subclass Desertification WeatherProcess)
(documentation Desertification EnglishLanguage "&%Desertification represents the
&%Process by which desert conditions are spread over an area.")
(subclass Dredging Removing)
(subclass Ecosystem GeographicArea)
(documentation Ecosystem EnglishLanguage "&%Ecosystem is a subclass of &%GeographicAreas
considered together with their organisms and environment as a functioning
(subclass Effluent Substance)
(documentation Effluent EnglishLanguage "&%Effluent is a &%Substance
that generically covers any waste matter that is released into
the environment, including sewage and industrial pollutants.")
(instance ?STUFF Effluent)
(attribute ?STUFF Fluid))
(subclass EndangeredSpecies Organism)
(documentation EndangeredSpecies EnglishLanguage "&%EndangeredSpecies is the
subclass of &%Organism that includes plants and animals that
are in danger of extinction from destruction of individuals
or of habitat.")
(subclass Erosion Removing)
(subclass Erosion GeologicalProcess)
(documentation Erosion EnglishLanguage "&%Erosion is a wearing process on
&%LandForms by wind, running water, ice, heat, and other processes,
in which rock and soil material are removed from one area and
deposited elsewhere.")
(instance ?WEARING Erosion)
(exists (?LAND)
(patient ?WEARING ?LAND)
(instance ?LAND LandForm))))
(instance ?WEARING Erosion)
(instance ?LAND LandForm)
(patient ?WEARING ?LAND)
(measure ?LAND ?SIZE1)
(instance ?SIZE1 VolumeMeasure))
(holdsDuring (ImmediateFutureFn (WhenFn ?WEARING))
(exists (?SIZE2)
(measure ?LAND ?SIZE2)
(instance ?SIZE2 VolumeMeasure)
(lessThan ?SIZE2 ?SIZE1)))))
(subclass Fishing Hunting)
(documentation Fishing EnglishLanguage "&%Fishing is the class of &%Processes in which
&%Fish are hunted.")
(instance ?FISHING Fishing)
(patient ?FISHING ?TARGET)
(instance ?TARGET Animal))
(instance ?TARGET Fish))
(subclass ForestDamage Damaging)
(subclass ForestFire ForestDamage)
(subclass Deforestation ForestDamage)
(instance ?HARMING ForestDamage)
(exists (?TREE)
(instance ?TREE BotanicalTree)
(patient ?HARMING ?TREE))))
(subclass DriftnetFishing Fishing)
(subclass FreshwaterOverutilization SocialInteraction)
(subclass Freshwater Water)
(documentation Freshwater EnglishLanguage "&%Freshwater is the subclass of &%Water
that has low soluble mineral content. See also &%PotableWater.")
(subclass GreenhouseGas PureSubstance)
(documentation GreenhouseGas EnglishLanguage "&%GreenhouseGas is the subclass of
substances that, when present in the atmosphere, trap infrared
radiation and cause global warming. Greenhouse gases include
carbon dioxide, hydrofluorocarbons, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone,
and water vapor.")
(subclass Groundwater Water)
(documentation Groundwater EnglishLanguage "&%Groundwater is the subclass of
&%Water that is found in deposits in the earth.")
(subclass IndustrialPollution Pollution)
(documentation IndustrialPollution EnglishLanguage "&%IndustrialPollution is
the subclass of &%Pollution characterized by pollutants that
originate in industrial processes.")
(subclass MetallurgicalPlant Organization)
(documentation MetallurgicalPlant EnglishLanguage "&%MetallurgicalPlant is the
subclass of &%Organization that includes metal refining and
manufacturing plants. Such plants typically release extremely
toxic waste which can pollute air and groundwater if not
properly treated.")
(subclass NoxiousSubstance Substance)
(documentation NoxiousSubstance EnglishLanguage "&%NoxiousSubstance is
the class of &%Substances that are harmful to &%Humans.")
(subclass Overgrazing Eating)
(documentation Overgrazing EnglishLanguage "&%Overgrazing is the class of processes
in which grazing animals consume vegetation faster than it can regrow.")
(instance OzoneShield AtmosphericRegion)
(instance OzoneShield CompoundSubstance)
(documentation earthAltitude EnglishLanguage "The altitude of an object
above the sea level of &%PlanetEarth")
(instance earthAltitude BinaryPredicate)
(domain earthAltitude 1 Object)
(domain earthAltitude 2 PhysicalQuantity)
(earthAltitude ?OBJ ?ALT)
(altitude ?OBJ ?SEA ?ALT)
(surface ?SEA PlanetEarth)))
(documentation OzoneShield EnglishLanguage "The &%OzoneShield is a layer in
&%EarthsAtmosphere, located about 25 miles above Earth's surface,
composed of ozone gas that absorbs ultraviolent radiation from
the Sun that can be damaging to living things.")
(earthAltitude OzoneShield (MeasureFn 25 Mile))
(subclass PesticidePollution Pollution)
(documentation PesticidePollution EnglishLanguage "&%PesticidePollution is
the subclass of &%Pollution in which the pollutant is a pesticide.")
(subclass Poaching Killing)
(documentation Poaching EnglishLanguage "&%Poaching is the illegal killing
of non-human animals.")
(subclass Pollution SocialInteraction)
(documentation Pollution EnglishLanguage "&%Pollution is the contamination of an
environment by man-made wastes.")
(subclass PotableWater Freshwater)
(documentation PotableWater EnglishLanguage "&%PotableWater is the subclass
of &%Water that represents safely drinkable water.")
(instance ShortageFn UnaryFunction)
(domainSubclass ShortageFn 1 Object)
(range ShortageFn Entity)
(documentation ShortageFn EnglishLanguage "(&%ShortageFn ?TYPE) means that there
is a shortage of objects of ?TYPE, which are used as &%resources.")
(subclass Salination Combining)
(documentation Salination EnglishLanguage "&%Salination is the class of processes
in which either &%Freshwater or &%Topsoil becomes imbued with
&%SodiumChloride from sea water or from the evaporation of irrigation water.")
(instance ?PROCESS Salination)
(exists (?SALT)
(instance ?SALT SodiumChloride)
(resource ?PROCESS ?SALT))))
(subclass Sanitation Removing)
(documentation Sanitation EnglishLanguage "&%Sanitation is the class of processes
by which human waste and garbage are disposed of.")
(subclass SewageDisposal Sanitation)
(subclass SolidWasteDisposal Sanitation)
(subclass Siltation Putting)
(documentation Siltation EnglishLanguage "&%Siltation is the class of processes
in which &%WaterAreas become filled in with silt or mud, due to
soil &%Erosion.")
(subclass SlashAndBurnAgriculture Agriculture)
(documentation SlashAndBurnAgriculture EnglishLanguage "&%SlashAndBurnAgriculture
is the subclass of &%Agriculture processes in which land is
cleared by cutting and burning trees, and crops are farmed until
the soil is depleted, at which point the plot is abandoned to
regrowth. This rotational technique is viable only with low
populations and infrequent re-use.")
(subclass SoilDegradation SocialInteraction)
(documentation SoilDegradation EnglishLanguage "&%SoilDegradation is a class of
processes in which the productive capacity of soil is lowered by
over-fertilization, overuse of pesticides, erosion, or soil
(subclass SoilErosion Erosion)
(documentation SoilErosion EnglishLanguage "&%SoilErosion is the subclass of
&%Erosion in which the matter removed by wind or water is topsoil.")
(causesSubclass SoilErosion Siltation)
(subclass SoilSalination Salination)
(instance ?PROCESS SoilSalination)
(exists (?SOIL)
(instance ?SOIL Soil)
(resource ?PROCESS ?SOIL))))
(subclass VehicularPollution Pollution)
(documentation VehicularPollution EnglishLanguage "&%VehicularPollution is the
subclass of &%Pollution in which the pollutants are vehicle emissions.")
(relatedInternalConcept CarbonDioxideEmission VehicularPollution)
(subclass WaterOverutilization SocialInteraction)
(subclass WaterPollution Pollution)
(documentation WaterPollution EnglishLanguage "&%WaterPollution is the subclass
of &%Pollution processes in which &%Water is the polluted substance.")
;; Q. Environment - international agreements
;;(subclass Agreement Proposition)
;; KJN: Moving contracts and agreements to Mid-level-ontology.kif
;;(documentation Agreement EnglishLanguage "&%Agreement is the class of
;;&%Propositions that express the contents of agreements
;;entered into by &%CognitiveAgents. &%Agreement includes
;;treaties, contracts, purchase orders, pledges, marriage
;;vows, etc. An &%Agreement may be written down in a document
;;or other &%ContentBearingObject.")
;; (instance ?COMPACT Agreement)
;; (exists (?COMM)
;; (and
;; (instance ?COMM Committing)
;; (represents ?COMM ?COMPACT))))
(subclass InternationalAgreement Agreement)
(documentation InternationalAgreement EnglishLanguage "&%InternationalAgreement is the
subclass of &%Agreements which are made by and between &%Nations.")
(instance ?AGREEMENT InternationalAgreement)
(instance ?COMMITTING Committing)
(exists (?AGENT)
(instance ?AGENT Nation))))
(instance DocumentFn UnaryFunction)
(domain DocumentFn 1 Proposition)
(rangeSubclass DocumentFn Text)
(documentation DocumentFn EnglishLanguage "(&%DocumentFn ?PROP) denotes a class
of &%Text objects that contain the information ?PROP.")
(instance ?PROP Proposition)
(instance (DocumentFn ?PROP) Text))
(containsInformation ?DOC ?PROP))
(instance ?PROP Proposition)
(instance ?CBO ContentBearingObject)
(containsInformation ?CBO ?PROP)
(instance ?COMM Communication)
(patient ?COMM ?CBO))
(represents ?COMM ?PROP))
(subclass TreatyDocument Text)
(documentation TreatyDocument EnglishLanguage "&%TreatyDocument is the subclass of
&%Texts that represent written agreements between &%Nations.")
(instance ?TREATY TreatyDocument)
(instance ?COMM Committing)
(patient ?COMM ?TREATY)
(instance ?COUNTRY1 GeopoliticalArea)
(agent ?COMM ?COUNTRY1)
(instance ?COUNTRY2 GeopoliticalArea)
(agent ?COMM ?COUNTRY2)
(not (equal ?COUNTRY1 ?COUNTRY2)))))
(instance AgreementOrganizationFn UnaryFunction)
(domain AgreementOrganizationFn 1 Agreement)
(range AgreementOrganizationFn Organization)
(documentation AgreementOrganizationFn EnglishLanguage "(&%AgreementOrganizationFn ?AGR)
denotes the official &%Organization established by the &%Agreement ?AGR
to administer or enforce the terms of that agreement.")
(instance ?AGR InternationalAgreement)
(instance (AgreementOrganizationFn ?AGR) Organization))
(instance (AgreementOrganizationFn ?AGR) OrganizationOfNations))
(instance dateOpenedForSignature BinaryPredicate)
(domain dateOpenedForSignature 1 Proposition)
(domainSubclass dateOpenedForSignature 2 TimePosition)
(documentation dateOpenedForSignature EnglishLanguage
"(&%dateOpenedForSignature ?PROP ?DATE) means that as of a date
indicated by ?DATE, document(s) may officially be signed (by the
appropriate agents) to effect commitments to the &%Agreement ?PROP.")
;; For "date entered into force" use (from Government.kif):
;; &%agreementEffectiveDate: Proposition x (subclass of) TimePosition
;; Moved this to Mid-level-ontology.kif
;;(instance partyToAgreement BinaryPredicate)
;;(domain partyToAgreement 1 Agent)
;;(domain partyToAgreement 2 Proposition)
;;(documentation partyToAgreement EnglishLanguage "(&%partyToAgreement ?AGENT ?PROP)
;;means that the &%Agent ?AGENT has committed to the agreement ?PROP.")
;; (partyToAgreement ?AGENT ?CONTENT)
;; (instance ?CONTENT Agreement))
;; (partyToAgreement ?AGENT ?CONTENT)
;; (exists (?COMMITTING ?CBO)
;; (and
;; (instance ?COMMITTING Committing)
;; (instance ?CBO ContentBearingObject)
;; (patient ?COMMITTING ?CBO)
;; (containsInformation ?CBO ?CONTENT)
;; (agent ?COMMITTING ?AGENT))))
(instance unratifiedSignatoryToAgreement BinaryPredicate)
(domain unratifiedSignatoryToAgreement 1 Agent)
(domain unratifiedSignatoryToAgreement 2 Agreement)
(documentation unratifiedSignatoryToAgreement EnglishLanguage
"(&%unratifiedSignatoryToAgreement ?AGENT ?PROP) means that
the &%Agent ?AGENT has signed a document to begin the process of
committing to the &%Agreement ?PROP, but that a ratification
process required to complete the commitment has not yet occurred.")
(unratifiedSignatoryToAgreement ?AGENT ?PROP)
(not (partyToAgreement ?AGENT ?PROP)))
(subclass SigningAnAgreement Committing)
(documentation SigningAnAgreement EnglishLanguage "&%SigningAnAgreement is the class of
actions in which an agent affixes a signature, stamp, or other evidence
of authorization or attestation to a document. The document and signature
may be electronic. Signings count as &%SocialInteractions even if done in
private, because their significance derives from a social context.")
(instance ?SIGNING SigningAnAgreement)
(exists (?DOC ?TERMS)
(instance ?DOC LinguisticExpression)
(instance ?TERMS Agreement)
(containsInformation ?DOC ?TERMS)
(patient ?SIGNING ?DOC))))
;; Environmental Agreements covered by the CIA World Fact Book:
(instance AirPollutionConvention Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution" AirPollutionConvention)
(conventionalShortName "Air Pollution" AirPollutionConvention)
(instance AirPollution-NitrogenOxidesProtocol Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary
Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their
Transboundary Fluxes" AirPollution-NitrogenOxidesProtocol)
(instance AirPollution-PeristentOrganicPollutantsProtocol Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary
Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants" AirPollution-PeristentOrganicPollutantsProtocol)
(instance AirPollution-Sulphur85Protocol Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary
Air Pollution on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or Their Transboundary Fluxes
by at least 30%" AirPollution-Sulphur85Protocol)
(instance AirPollution-Sulphur94Protocol Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary
Air Pollution on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions" AirPollution-Sulphur94Protocol)
(instance AirPollution-VolatileOrganicCompoundsProtocol Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary
Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or
Their Transboundary Fluxes" AirPollution-VolatileOrganicCompoundsProtocol)
(instance Antarctic-EnvironmentalProtocol Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty"
(instance Antarctic-MarineLivingResourcesConvention Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources"
(conventionalShortName "Antarctic-Marine Living Resources" Antarctic-MarineLivingResourcesConvention)
(instance AntarcticSealsConvention Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals" AntarcticSealsConvention)
(conventionalShortName "Antarctic Seals" AntarcticSealsConvention)
(instance AntarcticTreaty Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Antarctic Treaty" AntarcticTreaty)
(agreementAdoptionDate AntarcticTreaty (DayFn 1 (MonthFn December (YearFn 1959))))
(agreementEffectiveDate AntarcticTreaty (DayFn 23 (MonthFn June (YearFn 1961))))
;; consultative (voting) members: (claimants) Argentina, Australia,
;; Chile, France, NewZealand, Norway, UnitedKingdom; (nonclaimants)
;; Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, China, Ecuador, Finland, Germany, India,
;; Italy, Japan, SouthKorea, Netherlands, Peru, Poland, Russia,
;; SouthAfrica, Spain, Sweden, Uruguay, UnitedStates. includes under
;; the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes
;; south and reserves high seas rights.
(instance BiodiversityConvention Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Convention on Biological Diversity" BiodiversityConvention)
(instance ClimateChangeConvention Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change" ClimateChangeConvention)
(conventionalShortName "Climate Change" ClimateChangeConvention)
(instance ClimateChange-KyotoProtocol Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention
on Climate Change" ClimateChange-KyotoProtocol)
(conventionalShortName "Kyoto Protocol" ClimateChange-KyotoProtocol)
(conventionalShortName "Climate Change Kyoto Protocol" ClimateChange-KyotoProtocol)
(instance DesertificationConvention Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those
Countries Experiencing Serious Drought or Desertification, Particularly in Africa" DesertificationConvention)
(conventionalShortName "Desertification" DesertificationConvention)
(instance EndangeredSpeciesConvention Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of
Wild Flora and Fauna" EndangeredSpeciesConvention)
(conventionalShortName "EndangeredSpecies" EndangeredSpeciesConvention)
(abbreviation "CITES" EndangeredSpeciesConvention)
(instance EnvironmentalModificationConvention Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile
Use of Environmental Modification Techniques" EnvironmentalModificationConvention)
(conventionalShortName "Environmental Modification" EnvironmentalModificationConvention)
(instance HazardousWastesConvention Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of
Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal" HazardousWastesConvention )
(conventionalShortName "Basel Convention" HazardousWastesConvention)
(conventionalShortName "Hazardous Wastes" HazardousWastesConvention)
(instance LawOfTheSeaConvention Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea" LawOfTheSeaConvention)
(conventionalShortName "Law of the Sea" LawOfTheSeaConvention)
(abbreviation "LOS" LawOfTheSeaConvention)
(instance MarineDumpingConvention Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping
Wastes and Other Matter" MarineDumpingConvention)
(conventionalShortName "Marine Dumping" MarineDumpingConvention)
(conventionalShortName "London Convention" MarineDumpingConvention)
(instance MarineLifeConservationConvention Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of
the High Seas" MarineLifeConservationConvention)
(conventionalShortName "Marine Life Conservation" MarineLifeConservationConvention)
(instance NuclearTestBanTreaty Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer
Space, and Under Water" NuclearTestBanTreaty)
(conventionalShortName "Nuclear Test Ban" NuclearTestBanTreaty)
(instance OzoneLayerProtectionProtocol Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer" OzoneLayerProtectionProtocol)
(conventionalShortName "Ozone Layer Protection" OzoneLayerProtectionProtocol)
(conventionalShortName "Montreal Protocol" OzoneLayerProtectionProtocol)
(instance ShipPollutionProtocol Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for
the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973" ShipPollutionProtocol)
(conventionalShortName "Ship Pollution" ShipPollutionProtocol)
(conventionalShortName "MARPOL" ShipPollutionProtocol)
(instance TropicalTimber83Agreement Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983" TropicalTimber83Agreement)
(conventionalShortName "Tropical Timber 83" TropicalTimber83Agreement)
(instance TropicalTimber94Agreement Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994" TropicalTimber94Agreement)
(conventionalShortName "Tropical Timber 94" TropicalTimber94Agreement)
(instance WetlandsConvention Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially
as Waterfowl Habitat" WetlandsConvention)
(conventionalShortName "Wetlands" WetlandsConvention)
(conventionalShortName "Ramsar Convention" WetlandsConvention)
(instance WhalingConvention Agreement)
(conventionalLongName "International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling" WhalingConvention)
(conventionalShortName "Whaling" WhalingConvention)
;; R. Geography - note
;; [Specific notes made in KIF Country files as needed.]
;; II. General Geography Terms and Background
;; A. Planet geography & astronomical bodies
;; B. Directions and distances
;; C. Land forms
;; D. Water areas
;; 1. Oceans & Seas
;; 2. Tides & Currents
;; 3. Water subregions
;; 4. Fresh water areas
;; E. Coastal and shoreline areas
;; F. Air and atmosphere
;; G. Weather & Climate
;; H. Vegetation and biomes
;; I. Natural disasters
; A. Planet Geography and Astronomical Bodies
(subclass Star AstronomicalBody)
(documentation Star EnglishLanguage
"&%Star is the class of hot gaseous astronomical bodies.")
(instance Sol Star)
(documentation Sol EnglishLanguage "&%Sol is the nearest &%Star to &%PlanetEarth and
the focus of its &%SolarSystem.")
(instance ?L Sunlight)
(origin ?L Sol))
(subclass SolarSystem Collection)
(documentation SolarSystem EnglishLanguage "&%SolarSystem is the class of systems that
consist of a star or stars and any encircling astronomical bodies.")
(subclass Satellite AstronomicalBody)
(documentation Satellite EnglishLanguage "&%Satellite is the collection of bodies that
revolve around some astronomical body, e.g., planets around a star.
This class includes both artificial and &%NaturalSatellites.")
(instance orbits BinaryPredicate)
(instance orbits AsymmetricRelation)
(domain orbits 1 Object)
(domain orbits 2 AstronomicalBody)
(documentation orbits EnglishLanguage "(&%orbits ?SATELLITE ?FOCUS) means that the &%Object
?SATELLITE revolves around the &%AstronomicalBody ?FOCUS.")
(instance ?SAT Satellite)
(exists (?BODY)
(instance ?BODY AstronomicalBody)
(orbits ?SAT ?BODY))))
(subclass NaturalSatellite Satellite)
(subclass NaturalSatellite AstronomicalBody)
(disjoint NaturalSatellite Artifact)
(documentation NaturalSatellite EnglishLanguage "&%NaturalSatellite is the class of
large, naturally occurring astronomical bodies orbiting some other
(subclass Moon NaturalSatellite)
(documentation Moon EnglishLanguage "&%Moon is the class of &%NaturalSatellites that
orbit planets or large asteroids.")
(instance EarthsMoon Moon)
(orbits EarthsMoon PlanetEarth)
(documentation EarthsMoon EnglishLanguage "EarthsMoon is the Moon of PlanetEarth.")
(subclass Planet NaturalSatellite)
(documentation Planet EnglishLanguage "&%Planet is the class of large
&%NaturalSatellites that revolve around a star.")
(instance PlanetEarth Planet)
(orbits PlanetEarth Sol)
(instance PlanetMercury Planet)
(orbits PlanetMercury Sol)
(instance PlanetVenus Planet)
(orbits PlanetVenus Sol)
(instance PlanetMars Planet)
(orbits PlanetMars Sol)
(instance PlanetJupiter Planet)
(orbits PlanetJupiter Sol)
(instance PlanetSaturn Planet)
(orbits PlanetSaturn Sol)
(instance PlanetNeptune Planet)
(orbits PlanetNeptune Sol)
(instance PlanetUranus Planet)
(orbits PlanetUranus Sol)
(instance PlanetPluto Planet)
(orbits PlanetPluto Sol)
(subclass Meteorite Meteoroid)
(documentation Meteorite EnglishLanguage "Any &%Meteoroid that leaves traces on the surface
of &%Earth.")
(instance ?M Meteorite)
(exists (?T)
(holdsDuring ?T
(meetsSpatially ?M PlanetEarth))))
;; KJN: changing the definition of this based on Wikipedia
(subclass Meteoroid AstronomicalBody)
;;(documentation Meteoroid EnglishLanguage "Any &%AstronomicalBody that breaks through the
;;&%Atmosphere of &%Earth.")
(documentation Meteoroid EnglishLanguage "According to the International Astronomical
Union, a &%Meteoroid is a solid object moving in interplanetary space, of a size
considerably smaller than an asteroid and considerably larger than an atom.")
;; KJN: Changing this rule based on new linguistic definition
;; (instance ?M Meteoroid)
;; (exists (?T)
;; (holdsDuring ?T
;; (meetsSpatially ?M EarthsAtmosphere))))
(instance ?M Meteoroid)
(exists (?R)
(instance ?R OuterSpaceRegion)
(located ?M ?R))))
;; Earth location terms
(subclass Hemisphere GeographicArea)
(documentation Hemisphere EnglishLanguage "&%Hemisphere is the class of &%GeographicAreas
that are halves of the Earth, as traditionally divided into the Northern
and Southern Hemispheres along the equator and into the Eastern and Western
Hemispheres along a north-south line running 20�W and 160�E.")
(instance ?AREA Hemisphere)
(geographicSubregion ?AREA PlanetEarth))
(instance NorthernHemisphere Hemisphere)
(documentation NorthernHemisphere EnglishLanguage "The half of the Earth that lies above the
(instance SouthernHemisphere Hemisphere)
(documentation SouthernHemisphere EnglishLanguage "The half of the Earth that lies below the
(instance EasternHemisphere Hemisphere)
(documentation EasternHemisphere EnglishLanguage "The half of the Earth that includes Europe,
Asia, Africa, and Australia.")
(instance WesternHemisphere Hemisphere)
(documentation WesternHemisphere EnglishLanguage "The half of the Earth that includes North
and South America.")
(instance ?HEMISPHERE Hemisphere)
(equal ?HEMISPHERE NorthernHemisphere)
(equal ?HEMISPHERE SouthernHemisphere)
(equal ?HEMISPHERE EasternHemisphere)
(equal ?HEMISPHERE WesternHemisphere)))
(overlapsSpatially ?ONE ?TWO)
(instance ?TWO Region)
(not (equal ?ONE ?TWO)))
(partlyLocated ?ONE ?TWO))
;; AXIOMS for &%Continent (defined in Merge.txt):
(instance ?CONTINENT Continent)
(equal Africa ?CONTINENT)
(equal NorthAmerica ?CONTINENT)
(equal SouthAmerica ?CONTINENT)
(equal Antarctica ?CONTINENT)
(equal Europe ?CONTINENT)
(equal Asia ?CONTINENT)
(equal Oceania ?CONTINENT)))
(instance ?AREA Continent)
(geographicSubregion ?AREA PlanetEarth))
(disjoint Nation Continent)
(instance Africa Continent)
(names "Africa" Africa)
(overlapsSpatially Africa NorthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially Africa SouthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion Africa EasternHemisphere)
(instance NorthAmerica Continent)
(geographicSubregion NorthAmerica NorthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion NorthAmerica WesternHemisphere)
(instance SouthAmerica Continent)
(names "South America" SouthAmerica)
(overlapsSpatially SouthAmerica NorthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially SouthAmerica SouthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion SouthAmerica WesternHemisphere)
(instance Antarctica Continent)
(names "Antarctica" Antarctica)
(geographicSubregion Antarctica SouthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially Antarctica EasternHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially Antarctica WesternHemisphere)
(names "Europe" Europe)
(geographicSubregion Europe NorthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially Europe EasternHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially Europe WesternHemisphere)
(instance Asia Continent)
(names "Asia" Asia)
(overlapsSpatially Asia NorthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially Asia SouthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion Asia EasternHemisphere)
(instance Oceania Continent)
; (names "Oceania" Oceania)
(overlapsSpatially Oceania NorthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially Oceania SouthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially Oceania EasternHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially Oceania WesternHemisphere)
(instance ArcticRegion GeographicArea)
(names "Arctic" ArcticRegion)
(names "the Arctic" ArcticRegion)
(documentation ArcticRegion EnglishLanguage "The area above the Artic Circle, which is
66 degrees 33 minutes and 38 seconds north latitude. It is dark
for at least 24 hours at some point during the year, with an
increasing period of yearly continuous darkness as one gets closer
to the North Pole.")
(instance ?REGION GeographicArea)
(located ?REGION ArcticRegion))
(exists (?DAY)
(instance ?DAY Day)
(holdsDuring ?DAY
(attribute ?REGION Illuminated))))))
(geographicSubregion ArcticRegion NorthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially ArcticRegion EasternHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially ArcticRegion WesternHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially ArcticOcean ArcticRegion)
(not (vegetationType ArcticRegion BotanicalTree))
(instance Tropics GeographicArea)
(names "Tropics" Tropics)
(names "the Tropics" Tropics)
(documentation Tropics EnglishLanguage "The &%Tropics is the region of
&%PlanetEarth that lies between approximately 23 and one half degrees
&%North latitude and 23 and one half degrees &%South latitude,
encircling the globe. 'The Tropics'. See also &%TropicArea.")
(overlapsSpatially Tropics NorthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially Tropics SouthernHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially Tropics EasternHemisphere)
(overlapsSpatially Tropics WesternHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion Antarctica AntarcticArea)
(instance AntarcticArea GeographicArea)
(instance AntarcticArea LandArea)
(documentation AntarcticArea EnglishLanguage "The area below the AntarcticCircle, which is
66 degrees 33 minutes and 38 seconds south latitude. It is dark
for at least 24 hours at some point during the year, with an
increasing period of yearly continuous darkness as one gets closer
to the South Pole.")
(instance ?REGION GeographicArea)
(located ?REGION AntarcticArea))
(exists (?DAY)
(instance ?DAY Day)
(holdsDuring ?DAY
(attribute ?REGION Illuminated))))))
;; B. Directions and coordinates
;; Additional Compass Directions:
(instance Northeast DirectionalAttribute)
(documentation Northeast EnglishLanguage
"&%Northeast represents the compass direction of Northeast.")
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 Northeast)
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 North)
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 East)))
(instance Southeast DirectionalAttribute)
(documentation Southeast EnglishLanguage
"&%Southeast represents the compass direction of Southeast.")
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 Southeast)
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 South)
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 East)))
(instance Southwest DirectionalAttribute)
(oppositeDirection Northeast Southwest)
(documentation Southwest EnglishLanguage
"&%Southwest represents the compass direction of Southwest.")
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 Southwest)
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 South)
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 West)))
(instance Northwest DirectionalAttribute)
(oppositeDirection Northwest Southeast)
(documentation Northwest EnglishLanguage
"&%Northwest represents the compass direction of Northwest.")
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 Northwest)
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 North)
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 West)))
(instance headingWRTTrueNorth BinaryPredicate)
(instance headingWRTTrueNorth AsymmetricRelation)
(domain headingWRTTrueNorth 1 Object)
(domain headingWRTTrueNorth 2 PlaneAngleMeasure)
(documentation headingWRTTrueNorth EnglishLanguage "(&%headingWRTTrueNorth ?OBJ ?DEGREE)
means that the front-to-back axis of the &%Object ?OBJ points in
the direction ?DEGREE, with respect to true North.")
(instance headingWRTMagneticNorth BinaryPredicate)
(instance headingWRTMagneticNorth AsymmetricRelation)
(domain headingWRTMagneticNorth 1 Object)
(domain headingWRTMagneticNorth 2 PlaneAngleMeasure)
(documentation headingWRTMagneticNorth EnglishLanguage "(&%headingWRTMagneticNorth ?OBJ ?DEGREE)
means that the front-to-back axis of the &%Object ?OBJ points in
the direction ?DEGREE, with respect to magnetic North.")
(instance headingWRTCompassNorth BinaryPredicate)
(instance headingWRTCompassNorth AsymmetricRelation)
(domain headingWRTCompassNorth 1 Object)
(domain headingWRTCompassNorth 2 PlaneAngleMeasure)
(documentation headingWRTCompassNorth EnglishLanguage "(&%headingWRTCompassNorth ?OBJ ?DEGREE)
means that the front-to-back axis of the &%Object ?OBJ points in
the direction ?DEGREE, according to the compass carried by ?OBJ.")
(instance courseWRTTrueNorth TernaryPredicate)
(domain courseWRTTrueNorth 1 Physical)
(domain courseWRTTrueNorth 2 Physical)
(domain courseWRTTrueNorth 3 PlaneAngleMeasure)
(documentation courseWRTTrueNorth EnglishLanguage
"(&%courseWRTTrueNorth ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 ?HEADING) means that the course
heading or track from ?OBJ1 to ?OBJ2 is ?HEADING, in &%AngularDegrees,
with the reference point of 000 degrees being true North.")
(courseWRTTrueNorth ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 (MeasureFn 0 AngularDegree))
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 North))
(courseWRTTrueNorth ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 (MeasureFn 90 AngularDegree))
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 East))
(courseWRTTrueNorth ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 (MeasureFn 180 AngularDegree))
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 South))
(courseWRTTrueNorth ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 (MeasureFn 270 AngularDegree))
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 West))
(courseWRTTrueNorth ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 (MeasureFn 360 AngularDegree))
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 North))
(courseWRTTrueNorth ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 (MeasureFn 45 AngularDegree))
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 Northeast))
(courseWRTTrueNorth ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 (MeasureFn 135 AngularDegree))
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 Southeast))
(courseWRTTrueNorth ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 (MeasureFn 225 AngularDegree))
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 Southwest))
(courseWRTTrueNorth ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 (MeasureFn 315 AngularDegree))
(orientation ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 Northwest))
(instance magneticVariation TernaryPredicate)
(domain magneticVariation 1 GeographicArea)
(domain magneticVariation 2 PlaneAngleMeasure)
(domain magneticVariation 3 DirectionalAttribute)
(documentation magneticVariation EnglishLanguage
"(&%magneticVariation ?AREA ?DEGREE ?DIRECTION) means that in the
&%GeographicArea ?AREA, the magnetic variation of a compass from
000 degrees true is ?DEGREE &%AngularDegrees in ?DIRECTION (&%East
or &%West).")
(magneticVariation ?AREA ?DEGREE ?DIRECTION)
(equal ?DIRECTION East)
(equal ?DIRECTION West)))
(instance courseWRTMagneticNorth TernaryPredicate)
(domain courseWRTMagneticNorth 1 Physical)
(domain courseWRTMagneticNorth 2 Physical)
(domain courseWRTMagneticNorth 3 PlaneAngleMeasure)
(documentation courseWRTMagneticNorth EnglishLanguage
"(&%courseWRTMagneticNorth ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 ?HEADING) means that the course
heading from ?OBJ1 to ?OBJ2 is ?HEADING in &%AngularDegrees, with
the reference point of 000 degrees being the magnetic North pole.")
(courseWRTMagneticNorth ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 ?MAGDEGREE)
(partlyLocated ?OBJ1 ?AREA)
(partlyLocated ?OBJ2 ?AREA)
(magneticVariation ?AREA ?DEGREE ?DIRECTION))
(equal ?DIRECTION East)
(courseWRTTrueNorth ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 ?TRUEDEGREE))
(equal ?DIRECTION West)
(equal ?DIFFDEGREE (SubtractionFn ?MAGDEGREE ?DEGREE)))
(courseWRTTrueNorth ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 ?TRUEDEGREE)))))
(instance courseWRTCompassNorth TernaryPredicate)
(domain courseWRTCompassNorth 1 Physical)
(domain courseWRTCompassNorth 2 Physical)
(domain courseWRTCompassNorth 3 PlaneAngleMeasure)
(documentation courseWRTCompassNorth EnglishLanguage
"(&%courseWRTCompassNorth ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2 ?HEADING) means that the course
heading from ?OBJ1 to ?OBJ2 is ?HEADING in &%AngularDegrees, with
the reference point of 000 degrees North as measured by compass on
or at ?OBJ1.")
(instance relativeBearing TernaryPredicate)
(domain relativeBearing 1 Object)
(domain relativeBearing 2 Object)
(domain relativeBearing 3 PlaneAngleMeasure)
(documentation relativeBearing EnglishLanguage "(&%relativeBearing ?OBJ1?OBJ2 ?DEGREES)
means that ?OBJ1 and ?OBJ2 are separated by the amount ?DEGREES of
;; Nautical units of measure
(names "fathom" Fathom)
(instance Fathom UnitOfLength)
(equal (MeasureFn 1 Fathom) (MeasureFn 6 FootLength))
(equal ?NUMBER (MultiplicationFn 1 ?NUMBER))
(MeasureFn ?NUMBER Fathom)
(MeasureFn (MultiplicationFn ?NUMBER 6) FootLength)))
(documentation Fathom EnglishLanguage "&%Fathom is a &%UnitOfMeasure used for measuring
water depth. One fathom is equal to six feet.")
(names "nautical mile" NauticalMile)
(instance NauticalMile UnitOfLength)
(documentation NauticalMile EnglishLanguage "&%NauticalMile represents the international
unit used for measuring distance in sea and air navigation. The unit is
based on the length of a minute of arc of a great circle of
(equal (MeasureFn 1 NauticalMile) (MeasureFn 6076.1 FootLength))
(equal (MeasureFn 1 NauticalMile) (MeasureFn 1852 Meter))
(equal ?AMOUNT (MeasureFn ?NUM NauticalMile))
(equal ?AMOUNT (MeasureFn (MultiplicationFn ?NUM 1.852) (KiloFn Meter))))
(equal ?AMOUNT (MeasureFn ?NUM NauticalMile))
(equal ?AMOUNT (MeasureFn (MultiplicationFn ?NUM 1.151) Mile)))
(equal ?NUM (MultiplicationFn 1 ?NUM))
(equal (MeasureFn ?NUM NauticalMile)(MeasureFn (MultiplicationFn ?NUM 1852) Meter)))
(equal ?NUM (MultiplicationFn 1 ?NUM))
(equal (MeasureFn ?NUM NauticalMile)(MeasureFn (MultiplicationFn ?NUM 1.852)(KiloFn Meter))))
(equal ?NUM (MultiplicationFn 1 ?NUM))
(equal (MeasureFn ?NUM NauticalMile)(MeasureFn (MultiplicationFn ?NUM 6076.1) FootLength)))
(equal ?NUM (MultiplicationFn 1 ?NUM))
(equal (MeasureFn ?NUM NauticalMile)(MeasureFn (MultiplicationFn ?NUM 1.151) Mile)))
(names "knot" KnotUnitOfSpeed)
(abbreviation "kt" KnotUnitOfSpeed)
(instance KnotUnitOfSpeed CompositeUnitOfMeasure)
(documentation KnotUnitOfSpeed EnglishLanguage "&%KnotUnitOfSpeed is a unit for measuring
speed. One &%KnotUnitOfSpeed is equal to one &%NauticalMile per one
(equal ?SPEED (SpeedFn (MeasureFn ?DISTANCE NauticalMile)(MeasureFn ?TIME HourDuration)))
(equal ?SPEED (MeasureFn (DivisionFn ?DISTANCE ?TIME) KnotUnitOfSpeed)))
(equal ?SPEED (MeasureFn ?NUM KnotUnitOfSpeed))
(equal ?SPEED (SpeedFn (MeasureFn ?NUM NauticalMile)(MeasureFn 1 HourDuration))))
;; C. Land Forms
;; Area measures
(instance SquareMeter UnitOfArea)
(documentation SquareMeter EnglishLanguage "&%SquareMeter represents a &%UnitOfMeasure
equal to one square &%Meter.")
(equal (MeasureFn 1 SquareMeter)
(MultiplicationFn (MeasureFn 1 Meter)(MeasureFn 1 Meter)))
(instance SquareUnitFn UnaryFunction)
(domain SquareUnitFn 1 UnitOfMeasure)
(range SquareUnitFn UnitOfMeasure)
(documentation SquareUnitFn EnglishLanguage "(&%SquareUnitFn ?UNIT) denotes the
&%UnitOfMeasure that is the square of the &%UnitOfMeasure ?UNIT.
For example, (&%SquareUnitFn (&%KiloFn &%Meter)) denotes the unit
of a square kilometer.")
(instance ?UNIT UnitOfMeasure)
(equal ?AMOUNT (MeasureFn 1 (SquareUnitFn ?UNIT))))
(equal ?AMOUNT (MultiplicationFn (MeasureFn 1 ?UNIT) (MeasureFn 1 ?UNIT))))
(equal SquareMeter (SquareUnitFn Meter))
(equal SquareKilometer (SquareUnitFn (KiloFn Meter)))
(subclass LandForm GeographicArea)
(documentation LandForm EnglishLanguage "A &%LandForm is the class of geographically and/or geologically
distinct areas that occur on Earth's surface, including mountains, hills, plains, valleys,
deltas, and features of submerged land areas such as the ocean floor.")
(subclass UplandArea LandForm)
(documentation UplandArea EnglishLanguage "An &%UplandArea is a &%LandArea elevated above the surrounding
(subclass LowlandArea LandForm)
(documentation LowlandArea EnglishLanguage "A &%LowlandArea is a land area lower than the surrounding region,
and usually level land.")
(subclass UndergroundArea GeographicArea)
(documentation UndergroundArea EnglishLanguage "The class of regions &%located &%Below the surface of the earth.")
(instance ?place UndergroundArea)
(exists (?area ?ground)
(surface ?ground PlanetEarth)
(part ?area ?ground)
(orientation ?place ?area Below))))
(instance ?place UndergroundArea)
(earthAltitude ?place ?alt1)
(surface ?ground PlanetEarth)
(part ?area ?ground)
(orientation ?place ?area Below)
(earthAltitude ?area ?alt2))
(greaterThan ?alt2 ?alt1))
(subclass MountainRange LandForm)
(subclass MountainRange UplandArea)
(documentation MountainRange EnglishLanguage "A &%MountainRange is a row or chain of connected mountains.")
(instance ?Range MountainRange)
(part ?Mountain1 ?Range))
(exists (?Mountain2)
(component ?Mountain2 ?Range)
(instance ?Mountain2 Mountain)
(meetsSpatially ?Mountain1 ?Mountain2))))
(subclass Mountain LandForm)
(subclass Mountain UplandArea)
(documentation Mountain EnglishLanguage "A &%Mountain is a high, rocky &%LandForm, usually
with steep sides and a pointed or rounded top, and higher than a &%Hill.")
(instance ?Mountain Mountain)
(exists (?Incline)
(instance ?Incline SlopedArea)
(attribute ?Incline SteepTerrain)
(part ?Incline ?Mountain))))
(groundSurfaceType Mountain Rock)
(groundSubsurfaceType Mountain Rock)
(subclass Hill LandForm)
(subclass Hill UplandArea)
(documentation Hill EnglishLanguage "A &%Hill is a raised part of the earth's surface with
sloping sides - an old mountain which because of erosion has become shorter
and more rounded.")
(instance ?Hill Hill)
(exists (?Incline)
(instance ?Incline SlopedArea)
(part ?Incline ?Hill))))
(subclass Volcano LandForm)
(documentation Volcano EnglishLanguage "A &%Volcano in the broadest sense, i.e., a region
containing a vent through which magmous and/or pyroclastic materials are
passed from the interior of the Earth to its surface (atmospheric or
(subclass VolcanoStatus InternalAttribute)
(instance VolcanicallyActive VolcanoStatus)
(instance VolcanicallyDormant VolcanoStatus)
(instance VolcanicallyExtinct VolcanoStatus)
(contraryAttribute VolcanicallyActive VolcanicallyDormant VolcanicallyExtinct)
(exhaustiveAttribute VolcanoStatus VolcanicallyActive VolcanicallyDormant VolcanicallyExtinct)
(instance ?event VolcanicEruption)
(exists (?volcano)
(instance ?volcano Volcano)
(agent ?event ?volcano))))
(subclass VolcanicMountain Mountain)
(subclass VolcanicMountain Volcano)
(documentation VolcanicMountain EnglishLanguage "A &%VolcanicMountain is a cone-shaped
mountain formed out of rock or ash thrown up from inside the earth,
frequently with an opening or depression at the top.")
(subclass VolcanicCone Hill)
(subclass VolcanicCone Volcano)
(documentation VolcanicCone EnglishLanguage "A &%VolcanicCone is a hill of lava or
pyroclastics surrounding a volcanic vent. Not as high as a
(subclass WatershedDivide LandArea)
(subclass WatershedDivide UplandArea)
(documentation WatershedDivide EnglishLanguage "A &%WatershedDivide is a summit area, or
narrow tract of higher ground that constitutes the watershed boundary
between two adjacent drainage basins, it divides the surface waters that
flow naturally in one direction from those that flow in the opposite
(subclass SlopedArea LandForm)
(documentation SlopedArea EnglishLanguage "A &%SlopedArea is a land surface which lies at
an angle to the horizontal so that some points on it are higher than
others, a slope.")
(instance ?incline SlopedArea)
(exists (?top ?bottom ?height1 ?height2)
(top ?top ?incline)
(bottom ?bottom ?incline)
(earthAltitude ?top ?height1)
(earthAltitude ?bottom ?height2)
(successorAttributeClosure ?height2 ?height1) ;; needed?
(greaterThan ?height1 ?height2))))
(subclass Cliff SlopedArea)
(documentation Cliff EnglishLanguage "A &%Cliff is any high, very-steep-to-perpendicular
or overhanging face of rock or earth, a precipice.")
(instance ?cliff Cliff)
(exists (?slope)
(instance ?slope RationalNumber)
(slopeGradient ?cliff ?slope)
(greaterThan ?slope 0.60) ;; or more?
(greaterThan 1.20 ?slope)))) ;; or less?
(subclass Plateau LandForm)
(subclass Plateau UplandArea)
(documentation Plateau EnglishLanguage "A &%Plateau is a flat upland area with one steep
face, elevated plain.")
(instance ?Plateau Plateau)
(top ?Top ?Plateau))
(attribute ?Top FlatTerrain))
(instance ?plateau Plateau)
(exists (?slope)
(instance ?slope SlopedArea)
(attribute ?slope SteepTerrain)
(overlapsSpatially ?slope ?plateau))))
(subclass Mesa LandForm)
(subclass Mesa UplandArea)
(documentation Mesa EnglishLanguage "A &%Mesa is a land formation having a relatively flat
top and steep rock walls.")
(instance ?Mesa Mesa)
(top ?Top ?Mesa))
(attribute ?Top FlatTerrain))
(instance ?Mesa Mesa)
(side ?Side ?Mesa))
(attribute ?Side SteepTerrain))
(subclass Butte UplandArea)
(subclass Butte LandForm)
(documentation Butte EnglishLanguage "A &%Butte is an &%Upland raised sharply from the
surrounding region. Smaller in area than a &%Mesa.")
(instance ?butte Butte)
(side ?side ?butte))
(attribute ?side SteepTerrain))
(instance ?butte Butte)
(top ?top ?butte))
(attribute ?top FlatTerrain))
(instance ?butte Butte)
(instance ?mesa Mesa)
(linearExtent ?butte (MeasureFn ?size1 ?unit))
(linearExtent ?mesa (MeasureFn ?size2 ?unit)))
(greaterThan ?size2 ?size1))
(subclass Piedmont LandArea)
(documentation Piedmont EnglishLanguage "A &%Piedmont is a &%LandArea at the foot of mountains.")
(instance ?piedmont Piedmont)
(exists (?mountains)
(instance ?mountains MountainousTerrain)
(orientation ?piedmont ?mountains Adjacent))))
(instance ?piedmont Piedmont)
(attribute ?mountains MountainousTerrain)
(orientation ?piedmont ?mountains Adjacent)
(height ?piedmont ?height1)
(height ?mountains ?height2)
(successorAttributeClosure ?height1 ?height2))
(greaterThan ?height2 ?height1))
(subclass Plain LowlandArea)
(documentation Plain EnglishLanguage "A &%Plain is a broad, flat or gently rolling area,
usually low in elevation.")
(instance ?plain Plain)
(attribute ?plain FlatTerrain))
(subclass Valley LandForm)
(subclass Valley LowlandArea)
(documentation Valley EnglishLanguage "A &%Valley is an area of low-lying land flanked by
higher ground. Valleys typically contain a stream or river flowing along the valley floor.")
(instance ?valley Valley)
(instance ?area LandArea)
(earthAltitude ?valley ?height1)
(earthAltitude ?area ?height2)
(orientation ?valley ?area Adjacent))
(greaterThan ?height2 ?height1))
(subclass Basin LandForm)
(documentation Basin EnglishLanguage "A &%Basin is an area of land enclosed or partially
enclosed by higher land.")
(instance ?basin Basin)
(instance ?area LandArea)
(earthAltitude ?basin ?height1)
(earthAltitude ?area ?height2)
(orientation ?basin ?area Adjacent))
(greaterThan ?height2 ?height1))
(subclass Canyon LandForm)
(documentation Canyon EnglishLanguage "A &%Canyon is a narrow valley with steep sides, usually
created by erosion.")
(instance ?Canyon Canyon)
(exists (?Hole)
(hole ?Hole ?Canyon)))
(instance ?Canyon Canyon)
(exists (?Erosion)
(instance ?Erosion Erosion)
(result ?Erosion ?Canyon))))
;; Ground and soil types:
(instance groundSurfaceType BinaryPredicate)
(documentation groundSurfaceType EnglishLanguage "(%&groundSurfaceType ?area ?substance) means
that the predominant &%Substance at the ground surface of the &%LandArea ?area is ?substance.")
(domain groundSurfaceType 1 LandArea)
(domainSubclass groundSurfaceType 2 Substance)
(instance groundSubsurfaceType BinaryPredicate)
(documentation groundSubsurfaceType EnglishLanguage "(&%groundSubsurfaceType ?area ?subsoil)
means that the predominant &%Substance in the subsoil or subsurface layer of
the &%LandArea ?area is of type ?subsoil.")
(domain groundSubsurfaceType 1 LandArea)
(domainSubclass groundSubsurfaceType 2 Substance)
(instance ?area LandArea)
(groundSurfaceType ?area ?type1)
(groundSubsurfaceType ?area ?type2))
(exists (?above ?below)
(instance ?above ?type1)
(instance ?below ?type2)
(orientation ?above ?below Above))))
;; KJN: Moving this to MILO to remove multiple dependencies
;;(subclass Soil Mixture)
;;(documentation Soil EnglishLanguage "&%Soil is a substance composed of fine rock material
;;disintegrated by geological processes, mixed with humus, the organic remains of decomposed vegetation.")
;; (instance ?Soil Soil)
;; (exists (?Humus ?Mineral)
;; (and
;; (instance ?Humus Humus)
;; (instance ?Mineral Mineral)
;; (part ?Humus ?Soil)
;; (part ?Mineral ?Soil))))
;;(subclass Humus Mixture)
;;(documentation Humus EnglishLanguage "&%Humus is decaying organic matter found in &%Soil
;;and derived from dead animal and plant material.")
;; (instance ?Humus Humus)
;; (exists (?Soil)
;; (and
;; (instance ?Soil Soil)
;; (part ?Humus ?Soil))))
(subclass SoilSolution Solution)
(documentation SoilSolution EnglishLanguage "&%SoilSolution is the liquid component of soils,
which is largely water containing a number of mineral substances in solution,
as well as comparatively large amounts of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide.")
(instance ?Solution SoilSolution)
(exists (?Soil)
(instance ?Soil Soil)
(part ?Solution ?Soil))))
;; KJN: MOving to MILO to remove dependencies.
;;(subclass Clay Soil)
;;(documentation Clay EnglishLanguage "Fine-grained soil consisting of mineral particles, not
;;necessarily clay minerals, that are less than 0.002 mm in their maximum dimension.")
;; (and
;; (part ?Particle ?Soil)
;; (instance ?Soil Clay)
;; (diameter ?Particle (MeasureFn ?Size Centimeter)))
;; (greaterThan 0.0002 ?Size))
(subclass Loam Soil)
(documentation Loam EnglishLanguage "Type of soil intermediate in texture between clay and sand,
consisting of a mixture of clay, sand, gravel, silt, and organic matter.")
(instance ?Loam Loam)
(exists (?Clay ?Sand ?Gravel ?Silt ?Organic)
(instance ?Clay Clay)
(piece ?Clay ?Loam)
(instance ?Gravel Gravel)
(piece ?Gravel ?Loam)
(instance ?Sand Sand)
(piece ?Sand ?Loam)
(instance ?Silt Silt)
(piece ?Silt ?Loam)
(instance ?Organic BodySubstance)
(piece ?Organic ?Loam))))
(instance ?area GeographicArea)
(groundSurfaceType ?area Loam))
(attribute ?area FertileTerrain))
(subclass Sand Soil)
(documentation Sand EnglishLanguage "&%Sand is loose fragments of minerals or rocks. Smaller than
gravel and larger than silt and clay, sand particles range from 8/10,000 to 8/100
inch (0.02 to 2 millimeters) in diameter. &%Sand is formed by the &%Erosion of rocks
through the action of water, ice, or air.")
(subclass Silt Soil)
(documentation Silt EnglishLanguage "&%Silt is sand or earth which is carried along by flowing
water and deposited at a bend in a river or at a river's opening.")
(part ?Particle ?Soil)
(instance ?Soil Sand)
(diameter ?Particle (MeasureFn ?Size Centimeter)))
(greaterThan ?Size 0.00002)
(greaterThan 0.005 ?Size)))
(subclass Gravel Rock)
(documentation Gravel EnglishLanguage "&%Gravel is small rounded stones, often mixed with sand.")
(subclass Marble Rock)
(documentation Marble EnglishLanguage "A metamorphic &%Rock that is used in &%Constructing
and in creating &%Sculptures.")
;; KJN: Moving this to MILO to remove dependencies
;;(subclass Rock Substance)
;;(documentation Rock EnglishLanguage "&%Rock is any naturally formed aggregate of one or more
;;minerals, consolidated or not, with some degree of mineralogic and chemical
;;constancy, in popular use the term is usually restricted to those aggregates
;;that are hard, compact, and coherent.")
;; (instance ?Rock Rock)
;; (attribute ?Rock Solid))
;; (instance ?Rock Rock)
;; (exists (?Mineral)
;; (and
;; (instance ?Mineral Mineral)
;; (part ?Mineral ?Rock))))
(subclass Stone Rock)
(documentation Stone EnglishLanguage "A &%Stone is any small fragment of rock or mineral matter.")
; (instance ?Stone Stone)
; (relativeSize ?Stone Small Rock))
(subclass Salt CompoundSubstance)
(documentation Salt EnglishLanguage "A &%Salt is a chemical substance which is a combination
of a metal or a base with an acid.")
;; D. Water Areas
;; 1. Oceans & Seas
;; 2. Tides & Currents
;; 3. Water Subregions
;; 4. Fresh Water Areas
;; Defined in Merge.txt:
;; WaterArea, StreamWaterArea, SaltWaterArea, and FreshWaterArea
;; 1. Oceans & Seas
(subclass BodyOfWater WaterArea)
(subclass BodyOfWater SelfConnectedObject)
(documentation BodyOfWater EnglishLanguage "A &%BodyOfWater is a connected body of
water with established boundaries marked by either geographical features
or conventional borders.")
(instance WorldOcean SaltWaterArea)
(instance WorldOcean BodyOfWater)
(names "world ocean" WorldOcean)
(names "the ocean" WorldOcean)
(documentation WorldOcean EnglishLanguage "The &%WorldOcean is the collective mass of
sea water that covers 70% of the surface of &%PlanetEarth, surrounding
all of its dry land areas. Earth's individual &%Oceans are parts of
the &%WorldOcean.")
(instance ?AREA Continent)
(meetsSpatially ?AREA WorldOcean))
(subclass Ocean SaltWaterArea)
(subclass Ocean BodyOfWater)
(documentation Ocean EnglishLanguage "&%Ocean is the class containing the oceans
that are the major subdivisions of the &%WorldOcean. According to
the International Hydrographic Association, there are five oceans:
the &%AtlanticOcean, &%PacificOcean, &%IndianOcean, &%SouthernOcean,
and &%ArcticOcean. Note: The largest oceans, the Atlantic and Pacific,
are subdivided into Northern and Southern regions, but those regions
are not separate &%Oceans.")
(instance ?WATER BodyOfWater)
(not (instance ?WATER Ocean))
(instance ?OCEAN Ocean))
(larger ?OCEAN ?WATER))
(instance ?OCEAN Ocean)
(properPart ?OCEAN WorldOcean))
(instance AtlanticOcean Ocean)
(names "Atlantic Ocean" AtlanticOcean)
(documentation AtlanticOcean EnglishLanguage "&%AtlanticOcean represents the Atlantic
(instance NorthAtlanticOcean SaltWaterArea)
(instance NorthAtlanticOcean BodyOfWater)
(names "North Atlantic Ocean" NorthAtlanticOcean)
(names "North Atlantic" NorthAtlanticOcean)
(geographicSubregion NorthAtlanticOcean AtlanticOcean)
(geographicSubregion NorthAtlanticOcean NorthernHemisphere)
(geographicSubregion NorthAtlanticOcean WesternHemisphere)
(documentation NorthAtlanticOcean EnglishLanguage
"&%NorthAtlanticOcean denotes the northern &%geographicSubregion
of the &%AtlanticOcean.")
(instance SouthAtlanticOcean SaltWaterArea)
(instance SouthAtlanticOcean BodyOfWater)
(names "South Atlantic Ocean" SouthAtlanticOcean)
(names "South Atlantic" SouthAtlanticOcean)
(geographicSubregion SouthAtlanticOcean AtlanticOcean)
(geographicSubregion SouthAtlanticOcean SouthernHemisphere)
(partlyLocated SouthAtlanticOcean WesternHemisphere)
(partlyLocated SouthAtlanticOcean EasternHemisphere)
(documentation SouthAtlanticOcean EnglishLanguage
"&%SouthAtlanticOcean denotes the southern &%geographicSubregion
of the &%AtlanticOcean.")
(instance PacificOcean Ocean)
(names "Pacific Ocean" PacificOcean)
(documentation PacificOcean EnglishLanguage "&%PacificOcean represents the Pacific
(instance NorthPacificOcean SaltWaterArea)
(instance NorthPacificOcean BodyOfWater)
(names "North Pacific Ocean" NorthPacificOcean)
(names "North Pacific" NorthPacificOcean)
(geographicSubregion NorthPacificOcean PacificOcean)
(geographicSubregion NorthPacificOcean NorthernHemisphere)
(partlyLocated NorthPacificOcean EasternHemisphere)
(partlyLocated NorthPacificOcean WesternHemisphere)
(documentation NorthPacificOcean EnglishLanguage
"&%NorthPacificOcean denotes the northern &%geographicSubregion
of the &%PacificOcean.")
(instance SouthPacificOcean SaltWaterArea)
(instance SouthPacificOcean BodyOfWater)
(names "South Pacific Ocean" SouthPacificOcean)
(names "South Pacific" SouthPacificOcean)
(geographicSubregion SouthPacificOcean PacificOcean)
(geographicSubregion SouthPacificOcean SouthernHemisphere)
(partlyLocated SouthPacificOcean EasternHemisphere)
(partlyLocated SouthPacificOcean WesternHemisphere)
(documentation SouthPacificOcean EnglishLanguage
"&%SouthPacificOcean denotes the southern &%geographicSubregion
of the &%PacificOcean.")
(instance IndianOcean Ocean)
(names "Indian Ocean" IndianOcean)
(documentation IndianOcean EnglishLanguage "&%IndianOcean represents the Indian Ocean.")
(connected IndianOcean SouthPacificOcean)
(connected IndianOcean PersianGulf)
(connected IndianOcean SouthernOcean)
(instance ArcticOcean Ocean)
(names "Arctic Ocean" ArcticOcean)
(documentation ArcticOcean EnglishLanguage "&%ArcticOcean represents the Arctic Ocean.")
(geographicSubregion ArcticOcean NorthernHemisphere)
(partlyLocated ArcticOcean EasternHemisphere)
(partlyLocated ArcticOcean WesternHemisphere)
(instance ?SEA Ocean)
(not (equal ?SEA ArcticOcean)))
(smaller ArcticOcean ?SEA))
(instance SouthernOcean Ocean)
(names "Southern Ocean" SouthernOcean)
(documentation SouthernOcean EnglishLanguage "&%SouthernOcean represents the Southern
(geographicSubregion SouthernOcean SouthernHemisphere)
(partlyLocated SouthernOcean EasternHemisphere)
(partlyLocated SouthernOcean WesternHemisphere)
(totalArea SouthernOcean (MeasureFn 20327000 SquareKilometer))
(objectGeographicCoordinates (GeographicCenterFn SouthernOcean)
(LatitudeFn South (MeasureFn 65 AngularDegree)(MeasureFn 0 ArcMinute))
(LongitudeFn East (MeasureFn 0 AngularDegree)(MeasureFn 0 ArcMinute)))
(length (ShorelineFn SouthernOcean Antarctica) (MeasureFn 17968 (KiloFn Meter)))
(comparativeArea SouthernOcean greaterThan 2 UnitedStates)
(naturalHazardTypeInArea SouthernOcean CyclonicStorm)
(naturalHazardTypeInArea SouthernOcean Iceberg)
(naturalHazardTypeInArea SouthernOcean SeaIce)
(instance SouthernOcean PolarClimateZone)
(elevation (ElevationHighPointFn SouthernOcean) (MeasureFn 0 Meter))
(elevation (ElevationLowPointFn SouthernOcean) (MeasureFn -7235 Meter))
(instance SouthSandwichTrench Hole)
(geographicSubregion SouthSandwichTrench SouthernOcean)
(instance AntarcticCircumpolarCurrent WaterMotion)
(located AntarcticCircumpolarCurrent SouthernOcean)
(origin AntarcticCircumpolarCurrent ?START)
(destination AntarcticCircumpolarCurrent ?FINISH))
(distance ?START ?FINISH (MeasureFn 21000 (KiloFn Meter))))
(instance OpenSea Attribute)
(documentation OpenSea EnglishLanguage "&%OpenSea is the &%Attribute of a &%WaterArea
that is open ocean beyond five &%NauticalMiles of land, also known as
'blue water'.")
(attribute ?WATER OpenSea)
(forall (?LAND)
(instance ?AREA SaltWaterArea)
(not (instance ?WATER LandlockedWater))
(distance ?LAND ?WATER ?DIST)
(greaterThan ?DIST (MeasureFn 5 NauticalMile)))))
(subclass Iceberg Water)
;(subclass Iceberg (ExtensionFn Solid))
(documentation Iceberg EnglishLanguage "An &%Iceberg is a large chunk of ice that has
broken off from a glacier and fallen into the sea. The larger part of
an &%Iceberg floats underwater.")
(instance ?BERG Iceberg)
(exists (?SHEET)
(instance ?SHEET Glacier)
(holdsDuring (ImmediatePastFn (WhenFn ?BERG)) (material ?BERG ?SHEET)))))
(subclass Sea SaltWaterArea)
(subclass Sea BodyOfWater)
(documentation Sea EnglishLanguage "&%Sea is the class of smaller subdivisions of
the &%WorldOcean, typically partially surrounded by land. However,
for inland salt water bodies that are sometimes called 'Sea', see
(instance ?SEA Sea)
(top ?TOP ?SEA))
(altitude ?TOP SeaLevel (MeasureFn 0 Meter)))
(instance ?SEA Sea)
(top ?TOP ?SEA))
(altitude ?TOP SeaLevel (MeasureFn 0 FootLength)))
(instance ?SEA Sea)
(properPart ?SEA WorldOcean))
(instance ?SEA Sea)
(exists (?OCEAN ?PATH)
(instance ?OCEAN Ocean)
(instance ?PATH WaterArea)
(connects ?PATH ?OCEAN ?SEA))))
(instance ?SEA Sea)
(exists (?LAND)
(instance ?LAND LandArea)
(meetsSpatially ?LAND ?SEA))))
(instance MediterraneanSea Sea)
(instance CaribbeanSea Sea)
(instance BlackSea Sea)
(instance RedSea Sea)
(meetsSpatially Egypt RedSea)
(meetsSpatially Sudan RedSea)
(meetsSpatially Eritrea RedSea)
(meetsSpatially SaudiArabia RedSea)
(instance BeringSea Sea)
(instance BalticSea Sea)
(instance ArabianSea Sea)
(instance NorthSea Sea)
;; Sea Level
(instance SeaLevel GeographicArea)
(documentation SeaLevel EnglishLanguage "&%SeaLevel designates the global Mean Sea Surface
(MSS). Note that &%SeaLevel represents a &%GeographicArea that comprises all
the local Mean Sea Level (MSL) areas used as references for measuring altitude.
In fact, there are local variations in MSL, due to tides and long- and short-
term weather conditions.")
;; Since there are local variations in MSL, &%SeaLevel exhibits local variations
;; from an imaginary level reference ellipsoid called the geoid.
;; the level of the surface of the sea relative to the land, halfway between high
;; and low tide, used as a standard in calculating elevation. The reference is not
;; precise, as sea level varies by region as well as by tide. assoc. with "sea level"
(elevation SeaLevel (MeasureFn 0 Meter))
(instance ?ocean Ocean)
(surface ?top ?ocean))
(elevation ?top (MeasureFn 0 Meter)))
(instance ?ocean Ocean)
(surface ?top ?ocean))
(elevation ?top (MeasureFn 0 FootLength)))
(instance meanSeaLevel BinaryPredicate)
(documentation meanSeaLevel EnglishLanguage "(&%meanSeaLevel ?place ?measure) means that the Mean Sea
Level (MSL) at ?place is ?measure. ?measure is a &%distance representing the sea level
at ?place measured against a benchmark (and averaged over a long time). MSL is measured
by tide gauges for maritime purposes, while geodesists use the difference between the
local sea surface and an ideal level ocean surface (the geoid).")
(domain meanSeaLevel 1 GeographicArea)
(domain meanSeaLevel 2 LengthMeasure)
; See
(instance DatumFn UnaryFunction)
(domain DatumFn 1 GeographicArea)
(range DatumFn LengthMeasure)
(documentation DatumFn EnglishLanguage "(&%DatumFn ?place) denotes the point of MLLW (Mean Lower Low
Water) used as the initial data point for a coastal or &%WaterArea given on a nautical
chart. High and low tides are calculated with reference to this point.")
;; 2. Tides & Currents
;; Moving this to MILO to remove dependencies
;;(subclass FlowRegion Region)
;;(documentation FlowRegion EnglishLanguage "&%FlowRegion is a class of things whose
;;boundaries are relatively stable but whose constitutive &%material is continuously moving
;;through the region itself and being replaced by
;;other, similar material. Each &%FlowRegion is constituted by a stream
;;of matter moving as a whole. A &%FlowRegion may be liquid or gaseous.
;;A wind may be considered as a &%Process or as a &%FlowRegion, similarly
;;an OceanCurrent or a &%WaterWave. The motion process associated with a
;;&%FlowRegion F is denoted by (&%FlowFn F). Note that certain
;;properties belong to the &%FlowRegion itself (e.g., mass, length, volume,
;;temperature, and speed or velocity of the region moving as a whole),
;;while other properties of interest belong to the &%Motion of its
;;constitutive stuff (e.g., velocity, direction). The motion of
;;a &%FlowRegion as a whole (e.g., &%JetStream moves within the atmosphere)
;;is distinguished from the motion of the &%pieces of stuff constituting the
;;&%FlowRegion. See &%FlowFn and &%FlowRegionFn.")
;; (and
;; (instance ?FR FlowRegion)
;; (located ?FLUID ?FR))
;; (attribute ?FLUID Fluid))
(instance FlowFn UnaryFunction)
(domain FlowFn 1 FlowRegion)
(range FlowFn Motion)
(documentation FlowFn EnglishLanguage "(&%FlowFn ?FLUID) denotes the &%Motion process
associated with the constitutive &%pieces of the &%FlowRegion ?FLUID.")
(measure (FlowFn ?FLUID) (SpeedFn ?LENGTH ?TIME))
(piece ?PART ?FLUID))
(piece ?PART (SpeedFn ?LENGTH ?TIME)))
(measure (FlowFn ?FLUID) (MeasureFn ?NUM KnotUnitOfSpeed))
(piece ?PART ?FLUID))
(piece ?PART (MeasureFn ?NUM KnotUnitOfSpeed)))
(measure (FlowFn ?FLUID) (VelocityFn ?LENGTH ?TIME ?REGION ?DIRECTION))
(piece ?PART ?FLUID))
(measure ?PART (VelocityFn ?LENGTH ?TIME ?REGION ?DIRECTION)))
;; if a flow at place x is moving downstream at y mph, then in 1 hr, the constitutive
;; stuff that was at x will be located at a distance y miles downstream from x.
;; Ditto for things moving in, on, or with the flow.
;; a thing moving place x upstream against a flow of y mph, with its own speed of z
;; mph, will be able to travel no more than z-y miles upstream from x in 1 hour
(instance FlowRegionFn UnaryFunction)
(domain FlowRegionFn 1 LiquidMotion)
(range FlowRegionFn Region)
(documentation FlowRegionFn EnglishLanguage "(&%FlowRegionFn ?FLOW) denotes the region
in which the coherent &%LiquidMotion process ?FLOW is occurring.")
(subclass WaterCurrent FlowRegion)
(subclass WaterCurrent WaterArea)
(documentation WaterCurrent EnglishLanguage "&%WaterCurrent is a subclass of &%FlowRegions
consisting of moving water, especially those currents found within a
well-identified area and having an established pattern of movement, such
as an &%OceanCurrent, a &%RipTide, or a &%River. &%WaterCurrent is
&%disjoint with &%StaticWaterArea. As a consequence, &%Lakes for example
cannot be &%FlowRegions, however, currents may be present in a lake.")
(disjoint WaterCurrent StaticWaterArea)
(subclass Tide FlowRegion)
(subclass Tide SaltWaterArea)
(documentation Tide EnglishLanguage "A &%Tide is a vertical movement of the water level
in a &%BodyOfWater due to the gravitational attraction between Earth and
the moon. Tides are diurnally recurrent events. In most regions with
tides, every day there are two high tides and two low tides. &%MixedTide
represents a process in which the tides at either extreme are unequal.")
(subclass TidalProcess InternalChange)
(documentation TidalProcess EnglishLanguage "&%TidalProcess is the class of daily
recurring events in which the water level in a &%BodyOfWater rises
and falls with the changing position between Earth and the Moon.")
(instance ?LOW LowTide)
(instance ?HIGH HighTide)
(eventLocated ?LOW ?PLACE)
(eventLocated ?HIGH ?PLACE)
(instance ?DAY Day)
(overlapsTemporally ?LOW ?DAY)
(overlapsTemporally ?HIGH ?DAY))
(exists (?AMOUNT1 ?AMOUNT2)
(holdsDuring ?LOW (waterDepth ?PLACE ?AMOUNT1))
(holdsDuring ?HIGH (waterDepth ?PLACE ?AMOUNT2))
(greaterThan ?AMOUNT2 ?AMOUNT1))))
(subclass LowTide TidalProcess)
(documentation LowTide EnglishLanguage "&%LowTide is the class of &%TidalProcesses that
occur twice a day in marine waters, in which the water level falls below
the mean sea level.")
(subclass LowerLowTide LowTide)
(documentation LowerLowTide EnglishLanguage "&%LowerLowTide is the subclass of &%LowTide
processes that occur in marine waters with a &%MixedTideProcess.")
(subclass HighTide TidalProcess)
(documentation HighTide EnglishLanguage "&%HighTide is the class of &%TidalProcesses that
occur twice a day in marine waters, in which the water level rises above
the mean sea level.")
(subclass HigherHighTide HighTide)
(documentation HigherHighTide EnglishLanguage "&%HigherHighTide is the subclass of
&%HighTide processes that occur in marine waters with a
(subclass MixedTideProcess TidalProcess)
(documentation MixedTideProcess EnglishLanguage "&%MixedTideProcess is the subclass of
&%TidalProcesses consisting of daily cycles in which the two low and
two high tides are of unequal height. In areas with this kind of
pattern, the chart (based on average low water) is determined by the
Mean Lower Low Water.")
(instance highTide TernaryPredicate)
(domain highTide 1 Region)
(domain highTide 2 TimeInterval)
(domain highTide 3 LengthMeasure)
(documentation highTide EnglishLanguage "(&%highTide ?PLACE ?TIME ?AMOUNT) means that
there is a &%HighTide at the &$Region ?PLACE at the &%TimeInterval ?TIME
with the relative height ?AMOUNT. The height is given in relation to
the datum on a standard chart.")
(instance lowTide TernaryPredicate)
(domain lowTide 1 Region)
(domain lowTide 2 TimeInterval)
(domain lowTide 3 LengthMeasure)
(documentation lowTide EnglishLanguage "(&%lowTide ?PLACE ?TIME ?AMOUNT) means that
there is a &%LowTide at the &$Region ?PLACE at the &%TimeInterval ?TIME
with the relative height ?AMOUNT. The height is given in relation to
the datum on a standard chart.")
(lowTide ?PLACE ?TIME1 ?AMOUNT1)
(highTide ?PLACE ?TIME2 ?AMOUNT2)
(instance ?DAY Day)
(overlapsTemporally ?TIME1 ?DAY)
(overlapsTemporally ?TIME2 ?DAY))
(greaterThan ?AMOUNT1 ?AMOUNT2))
(subclass LittoralCurrent WaterCurrent)