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;; copyright 2002 (c) Teknowledge, 2004-2007 Articulate Software
;; Those who are interested in making use of this ontology are urged
;; to contact Adam Pease (apease [at]
;; This software is released under the GNU Public License
;; <>. Users of this code also consent, by
;; use of this material, to credit Teknowledge and Articulate Software
;; in any writings, briefings,
;; publications, presentations, or other representations of any code or other
;; product which incorporates, builds on, or uses this material.
;; We ask that people using or referencing this work cite our primary paper:
;; Niles, I., and Pease, A. 2001. Towards a Standard Upper Ontology. In
;; Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Formal Ontology in
;; Information Systems (FOIS-2001), Chris Welty and Barry Smith, eds,
;; Ogunquit, Maine, October 17-19, 2001. See also
;; This file is an ontology of weapons of mass destruction, including chemical
;; and biological weapons, as well as radiological weapons. The sources used to
;; develop this formal content are listed below.
;; Miller, Judith, Engelberg, Stephen, and Broad, William (2002), "Germs:
;; Biological Weapons and America's Secret War", Touchstone/Simon and Schuster.
;; Norris, John and Fowler, Will (1997), "NBC: Nuclear, Biological & Chemical
;; Warfare on the Modern Battlefield", Brassey's Inc.
;; Marris, Timothy C., Maynard, Robert L., and Sidell, Frederick R. (1996),
;; "Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicology and Treatment", John Wiley & Sons.
;; Centers for Disease Control web site.
;; Federation of American Scientists Chemical and Biological Arms Control
;; Program web site.
;; Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) web site.
(subclass BiochemicalAttack Attack)
(documentation BiochemicalAttack EnglishLanguage "&%Attacks in which a &%BiochemicalWeapon
is used against an &%Organism.")
(instance ?WEAPON WeaponOfMassDestruction)
(instrument ?ATTACK ?WEAPON)
(instance ?ATTACK BiochemicalAttack))
(instance ?WEAPON BiochemicalWeapon))
(instance ?WEAPON BiochemicalWeapon)
(possesses ?AGENT ?WEAPON))
(capability BiochemicalAttack agent ?AGENT))
(instance ?ATTACK ViolentContest)
(instrument ?ATTACK ?WEAPON)
(instance ?WEAPON BiochemicalWeapon))
(instance ?ATTACK BiochemicalAttack))
(instance ?ATTACK BiochemicalAttack)
(patient ?ATTACK ?OBJ))
(instance ?OBJ Organism))
(instance ?ATTACK BiochemicalAttack)
(hasPurpose ?ATTACK
(instance ?DAMAGE Damaging)
(causes ?ATTACK ?DAMAGE)
(instance ?Organism Organism)))))
(subclass BiochemicalAgent BiologicallyActiveSubstance)
(documentation BiochemicalAgent EnglishLanguage "A &%BiologicalAgent or a &%ChemicalAgent.")
(partition BiochemicalAgent BiologicalAgent ChemicalAgent)
(documentation AgentOfOrganismFn EnglishLanguage "A &%Function that returns the &%BiologicalAgent
composed of the given &%Organism in a &%Solution of &%Mixture.")
(instance AgentOfOrganismFn UnaryFunction)
(domainSubclass AgentOfOrganismFn 1 Organism)
(rangeSubclass AgentOfOrganismFn BiologicalAgent)
(instance ?X (AgentOfOrganismFn ?Y))
(exists (?Z)
(instance ?Z ?Y)
(part ?Z ?X))))
(subclass AerosolizedAgent BiochemicalAgent)
(documentation AerosolizedAgent EnglishLanguage "A &%BiochemicalAgent that has been divided into
particles so minute that they can be easily dispersed in the air and inhaled by
&%Humans or &%Animals. &%AerosolizedAgents tend to be more lethal and to affect
a larger area.")
(subclass BiochemicalWeapon WeaponOfMassDestruction)
(documentation BiochemicalWeapon EnglishLanguage "A &%WeaponOfMassDestruction that is
either a &%BiologicalWeapon or a &%ChemicalWeapon, i.e. not a
(disjoint BiochemicalWeapon RadioactiveWeapon)
(partition BiochemicalWeapon BiologicalWeapon ChemicalWeapon)
(instance ?WEAPON BiochemicalWeapon)
(exists (?AGENT)
(instance ?AGENT BiochemicalAgent)
(part ?AGENT ?WEAPON))))
(subclass RadioactiveWeapon WeaponOfMassDestruction)
(disjoint RadioactiveWeapon BiochemicalWeapon)
(documentation RadioactiveWeapon EnglishLanguage "A &%WeaponOfMassDestruction which
achieves its effect through radioactivity, either by an explosion resulting
from nuclear fission or by a conventional explosive device that scatters
radioactive debris.")
(documentation RadiologicalWeapon EnglishLanguage "&%Weapons which are designed to spread
radioactive particles over a large area by means of a conventional
explosive device rather than a nuclear reaction. These weapons are often
referred to as 'dirty bombs'.")
(subclass RadiologicalWeapon RadioactiveWeapon)
(subclass NuclearWeapon ExplosiveDevice)
(subclass NuclearWeapon Weapon)
(documentation NuclearWeapon EnglishLanguage "An &%ExplosiveDevice and &%RadioactiveWeapon
which achieves its effect by means of a critical mass of a radioactive substance.")
(subclass NuclearWeapon RadioactiveWeapon)
(instance ?W NuclearWeapon)
(capability RadiatingNuclear instrument ?W))
(subclass BiologicalWeapon BiochemicalWeapon)
(documentation BiologicalWeapon EnglishLanguage "&%Weapons which contain a sample of
&%ToxicOrganism or a &%BiologicallyActiveSubstance that is produced by a
&%ToxicOrganism (or a synthetic analogue of the latter).")
(instance ?WEAPON BiologicalWeapon)
(exists (?AGENT)
(instance ?AGENT BiologicalAgent)
(part ?AGENT ?WEAPON))))
(subclass BiologicalAgent BiochemicalAgent)
(documentation BiologicalAgent EnglishLanguage "A naturally occurring &%Substance, or a
synthetic analogue of such a substance or an &%Organism that is capable
of inflicting severe harm on other &%Organisms. All &%BiologicalWeapons
contain a &%BiologicalAgent.")
(partition BiologicalAgent Toxin ToxicOrganism)
(subclass Toxin BiologicalAgent)
(subclass Toxin BiologicallyActiveSubstance)
(documentation Toxin EnglishLanguage "&%BiologicalAgents that are a toxic
&%BiologicallyActiveSubstance produced by an &%Organism or
that are the synthetic analogue of a toxic &%BiologicallyActiveSubstance
produced by an &%Organism.")
(instance ?SUBSTANCE Toxin)
(instance ?ORGANISM ToxicOrganism)
(instance ?PROCESS BiologicalProcess)
(instrument ?PROCESS ?ORGANISM)
(exists (?RESULT)
(copy ?SUBSTANCE ?RESULT)))))))
(instance ?DAMAGE Damaging)
(instrument ?DAMAGE ?SUBSTANCE)
(instance ?SUBSTANCE BiologicallyActiveSubstance))
(instance ?SUBSTANCE Toxin))
(subclass ToxicOrganism Organism)
(documentation ToxicOrganism EnglishLanguage "The &%Class of &%Organisms which are
poisonous to other &%Organisms.")
(instance ?ORGANISM ToxicOrganism)
(exists (?SUBSTANCE)
(instance ?SUBSTANCE Toxin)
(subclass BacterialAgent ToxicOrganism)
(subclass BacterialAgent Bacterium)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery BacterialAgent Breathing)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery BacterialAgent Touching)
(documentation BacterialAgent EnglishLanguage "&%BiologicalAgents that are instances
of &%Bacterium.")
(instance ?BACTERIUM Bacterium)
(exists (?NUMBER)
(width ?BACTERIUM (MeasureFn ?NUMBER Meter))
(greaterThanOrEqualTo ?NUMBER 0.000001)
(lessThanOrEqualTo ?NUMBER 0.000002))))
(subclass FungalAgent ToxicOrganism)
(subclass FungalAgent Fungus)
(documentation FungalAgent EnglishLanguage "Any &%BiologicalAgent that is also a &%Fungus.")
(subclass Mycotoxin Toxin)
(subclass Mycotoxin BodySubstance)
(documentation Mycotoxin EnglishLanguage "A &%Toxin that is produced by a &%FungalAgent.")
(instance ?SUBSTANCE Mycotoxin)
(exists (?FUNGUS ?PROCESS)
(instance ?FUNGUS FungalAgent)
(instance ?PROCESS BiologicalProcess)
(instrument ?PROCESS ?ORGANISM)
(subclass ViralAgent ToxicOrganism)
(subclass ViralAgent Virus)
(documentation ViralAgent EnglishLanguage "&%BiologicalAgents that are also a &%Virus.")
(subclass GeneticallyEngineeredOrganism Organism)
(documentation GeneticallyEngineeredOrganism EnglishLanguage "The class of &%Organisms that
are not found originally in nature, but are produced in a laboratory by
manipulating the genes of naturally occurring organisms.")
(instance ?ORGANISM GeneticallyEngineeredOrganism)
(exists (?PROCESS)
(instance ?PROCESS IntentionalProcess)
(result ?PROCESS ?ORGANISM))))
(subclass RickettsialAgent BacterialAgent)
(biologicalAgentCarrier RickettsialAgent Mammal)
(biologicalAgentCarrier RickettsialAgent Arthropod)
(documentation RickettsialAgent EnglishLanguage "&%BiologicalAgents that are rickettsial
organisms, i.e. gram-negative bacteria that infect mammals and arthropods.")
(subclass RickettsiaRickettsii RickettsialAgent)
(biologicalAgentCarrier RickettsiaRickettsii Arthropod)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome RickettsiaRickettsii RockyMountainSpottedFever)
(documentation RickettsiaRickettsii EnglishLanguage "The &%Bacterium that causes
(instance RockyMountainSpottedFever BacterialDisease)
(instance RockyMountainSpottedFever LifeThreateningDisease)
(diseaseMortality RockyMountainSpottedFever 0.04)
(diseaseTreatment RockyMountainSpottedFever OralAntibiotic Ingesting)
(documentation RockyMountainSpottedFever EnglishLanguage "A very serious disease that is
caused &%RickettsiaRickettsii, which is carried by ticks. The most
distinctive symptom of the disease is a rash of black dots.")
(subclass RickettsiaProwazekii RickettsialAgent)
(biologicalAgentCarrier RickettsiaProwazekii Arthropod)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome RickettsiaProwazekii LouseBorneTyphus)
(documentation RickettsiaProwazekii EnglishLanguage "The &%Bacterium that causes &%LouseBorneTyphus.")
(instance LouseBorneTyphus BacterialDisease)
(diseaseIncubation LouseBorneTyphus (MeasureFn 1 WeekDuration) (MeasureFn 2 WeekDuration))
(diseaseTreatment LouseBorneTyphus OralAntibiotic Ingesting)
(documentation LouseBorneTyphus EnglishLanguage "The only rickettsial disease which is capable of causing
widespread human epidemics. The initial symptoms of the disease are flu-like, but on the
fifth or sixth day of infection a macular eruption appears on the upper trunk of the body
and then spreads to the rest of the body.")
(subclass BacillusAnthracis BacterialAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome BacillusAnthracis Anthrax)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery BacillusAnthracis Breathing)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery BacillusAnthracis Ingesting)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery BacillusAnthracis Poking)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery BacillusAnthracis Touching)
(biologicalAgentCarrier BacillusAnthracis HoofedMammal)
(documentation BacillusAnthracis EnglishLanguage "The &%Bacterium which causes the disease
&%Anthrax. Humans may become infected with Anthrax via contamination of a
wound or by inhaling the &%Bacterium. When it is inhaled, the disease is
often fatal if not treated early (see &%InhalationalAnthrax).")
(subclass AerosolizedBacillusAnthracis AerosolizedAgent)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery AerosolizedBacillusAnthracis Breathing)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome AerosolizedBacillusAnthracis InhalationalAnthrax)
(documentation AerosolizedBacillusAnthracis EnglishLanguage "Also known as weaponized anthrax. These
are spores of &%BacillusAnthracis that have been separated to the point that they can
be dispersed in the air and easily inhaled by crowds.")
(instance ?X AerosolizedBacillusAnthracis)
(exists (?Y)
(instance ?Y BacillusAnthracis)
(part ?Y ?X))))
(subclass Vollum1B AerosolizedBacillusAnthracis)
(documentation Vollum1B EnglishLanguage "A highly lethal, weaponized form of &%BacillusAnthracis
developed by the United States government.")
(subclass Batrachotoxin Toxin)
(subclass Batrachotoxin BodySubstance)
(lethalDose Batrachotoxin (PerFn (MeasureFn 2.0 (MicroFn Gram)) (MeasureFn 1.0 (KiloFn Gram))))
(documentation Batrachotoxin EnglishLanguage "A &%Toxin produced by some species of Frogs.")
(secretesToxin ?FROG Batrachotoxin)
(subclass ?FROG Amphibian))
(subclass ClostridiumBotulinum BacterialAgent)
(secretesToxin ClostridiumBotulinum BotulinumToxin)
(documentation ClostridiumBotulinum EnglishLanguage "The &%Bacterium that produces
(subclass BotulinumToxin Toxin)
(subclass BotulinumToxin BodySubstance)
(subclass BotulinumToxin LifeThreateningAgent)
(lethalDose BotulinumToxin (PerFn (MeasureFn 0.001 (MicroFn Gram)) (MeasureFn 1 (KiloFn Gram))))
(biochemicalAgentDelivery BotulinumToxin Ingesting)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome BotulinumToxin Botulism)
(documentation BotulinumToxin EnglishLanguage "A &%Toxin produced by the bacterium
&%ClostridiumBotulinum. It paralyzes muscles if ingested, and one
billionth of a pound is sufficient to cause death.")
(instance Botulism BacterialDisease)
(instance Botulism LifeThreateningDisease)
(instance Botulism VaccinatableDisease)
(diseaseSymptom Botulism Paralysis)
(diseaseIncubation Botulism (MeasureFn 2 HourDuration) (MeasureFn 8 DayDuration))
(documentation Botulism EnglishLanguage "A paralytic disease caused by &%BotulinumToxin,
a &%Toxin produced by the bacterium &%ClostridiumBotulinum.")
(subclass ClostridiumPerfringens BacterialAgent)
(secretesToxin ClostridiumPerfringens EpsilonToxin)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery ClostridiumPerfringens Ingesting)
(documentation ClostridiumPerfringens EnglishLanguage "&%Bacterium often found in the
intestines of &%Animals. Ingesting this &%Bacterium can result in
Perfringens food poisoning, which can attack internal organs and lead
to gangrene.")
(subclass EpsilonToxin Toxin)
(subclass EpsilonToxin BodySubstance)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery EpsilonToxin Ingesting)
(documentation EpsilonToxin EnglishLanguage "A &%Toxin produced by the bacterium
&%ClostridiumPerfringens that causes a mild form of food poisoning
that lasts one to two days.")
(subclass BurkholderiaMallei BacterialAgent)
(biologicalAgentCarrier BurkholderiaMallei Mammal)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery BurkholderiaMallei Poking)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome BurkholderiaMallei Glanders)
(diseaseTreatment BurkholderiaMallei Ciprofloxacin Ingesting)
(documentation BurkholderiaMallei EnglishLanguage "The &%Bacterium that causes the disease &%Glanders.
It is transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected animals. The bacteria enter
the body through the skin and the mucosal surfaces of the eyes and nose.")
(instance Glanders BacterialDisease)
(diseaseSymptom Glanders Fever)
(documentation Glanders EnglishLanguage "A disease caused by &%BurkholderiaMallei. Primary symptoms
of &%Glanders include fever, muscle aches, chest pain, muscle tightness, and headache.
Additional symptoms include tearing of the eyes, light sensitivity, and diarrhea.
There is no vaccine for this disease.")
(subclass BurkholderiaPseudomallei BacterialAgent)
(biologicalAgentCarrier BurkholderiaPseudomallei Mammal)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery BurkholderiaPseudomallei Poking)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery BurkholderiaPseudomallei Breathing)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery BurkholderiaPseudomallei Ingesting)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome BurkholderiaPseudomallei Melioidosis)
(documentation BurkholderiaPseudomallei EnglishLanguage "Formerly known as Pseudomonas Pseudomallei, this
is the &%Bacterium that causes &%Melioidosis.")
(instance Melioidosis BacterialDisease)
(documentation Melioidosis EnglishLanguage "Also known as Whitmore's disease, it is similar to &%Glanders.
Unlike &%Glanders, however, the disease is found predominantly in Southeast Asia. The
disease may be a localized infection or it may involve the bloodstream, the lungs or other
organs of the body.")
(subclass BrucellaBacterium BacterialAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome BrucellaBacterium Brucellosis)
(documentation BrucellaBacterium EnglishLanguage "The &%Bacterium which is responsible for the
disease &%Brucellosis. This class covers Brucella Abortus (which infects humans
and cattle), Brucella Melitensis (which infects sheep, goats, and humans), and
Brucella Suis (which infects pigs).")
(instance Brucellosis BacterialDisease)
(diseaseSymptom Brucellosis Fever)
(documentation Brucellosis EnglishLanguage "Infectious disease caused by &%BrucellaBacterium. It is
also known as undulant fever and malta fever, depending on the strain of
&%BrucellaBacterium that is reponsible for the infection.")
(subclass YersiniaPestis BacterialAgent)
(subclass (AgentOfOrganismFn YersiniaPestis) LifeThreateningAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome YersiniaPestis Plague)
(biologicalAgentCarrier YersiniaPestis Rodent)
(biologicalAgentCarrier YersiniaPestis Insect)
(documentation YersiniaPestis EnglishLanguage "The &%Bacterium that causes &%Plague.")
(instance Plague BacterialDisease)
(instance Plague VaccinatableDisease)
(diseaseSymptom Plague Fever)
(documentation Plague EnglishLanguage "The disease caused by the &%Bacterium &%YersiniaPestis.
&%Plague has two forms depending on the location of the infection within the
body, &%BubonicPlague and &%PneumonicPlague.")
(subAttribute BubonicPlague Plague)
(diseaseIncubation BubonicPlague (MeasureFn 2 DayDuration) (MeasureFn 6 DayDuration))
(documentation BubonicPlague EnglishLanguage "A variant of the &%Plague which results in large
swellings, called buboes.")
(subAttribute PneumonicPlague Plague)
(diseaseIncubation PneumonicPlague (MeasureFn 3 DayDuration) (MeasureFn 4 DayDuration))
(documentation PneumonicPlague EnglishLanguage "Also known as pulmonary plague, a variant
of the &%Plague which attacks the lungs and is spread between humans by oral
bodily fluids.")
(subclass RicinToxin Toxin)
(subclass RicinToxin Protein)
(lethalDose RicinToxin (PerFn (MeasureFn 3.0 (MicroFn Gram)) (MeasureFn 1 (KiloFn Gram))))
(documentation RicinToxin EnglishLanguage "An extremely toxic protein found in the castor
bean plant (ricinus communis). It is 200 times more toxic than cyanide,
and it has no known antidote, and it causes vomiting, high fever, weakness,
and death.")
(subclass AbrinToxin Toxin)
(subclass AbrinToxin Protein)
(lethalDose AbrinToxin (PerFn (MeasureFn 0.04 (MicroFn Gram)) (MeasureFn 1 (KiloFn Gram))))
(documentation AbrinToxin EnglishLanguage "An extremely toxic protein found in the seeds of the rosary pea.
Its mechanism, symptoms, and treatment are very similar to those of &%RicinToxin. However,
&%AbrinToxin is roughly 75 times more toxic than &%RicinToxin.")
(subclass ChemicalAgent BiochemicalAgent)
(subclass ChemicalAgent CompoundSubstance)
(subclass ChemicalAgent BiologicallyActiveSubstance)
(disjoint ChemicalAgent OrganicObject)
(documentation ChemicalAgent EnglishLanguage "Synthetic compounds that are not an analogue
of anything occurring naturally and that can result in serious burns,
paralysis, and death to &%Organisms.")
(subclass ChemicalAgent (ComplementFn OrganicObject))
(subclass ChemicalWeapon BiochemicalWeapon)
(documentation ChemicalWeapon EnglishLanguage "&%Weapons that damage or destroy &%Organisms by means
of a &%ChemicalAgent.")
(instance ?WEAPON ChemicalWeapon)
(exists (?AGENT)
(instance ?AGENT ChemicalAgent)
(part ?AGENT ?WEAPON))))
(instance ?AGENT ChemicalAgent)
(instance ?ORGANISM Organism)
(instance ?PROCESS BiologicalProcess)
(instrument ?PROCESS ?ORGANISM)
(copy ?SUBSTANCE ?AGENT)))))
(subclass BlisterAgent ChemicalAgent)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery BlisterAgent Touching)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery BlisterAgent Breathing)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery BlisterAgent Ingesting)
(documentation BlisterAgent EnglishLanguage "&%ChemicalAgents that affect eyes, lungs, and skin.
&%BlisterAgents are so named because they cause blistering of the skin. They may
also cause blindness and respiratory damage.")
(instance ?AGENT BlisterAgent)
(hasPurpose ?AGENT
(exists (?DAMAGE ?TISSUE)
(instance ?DAMAGE Damaging)
(instance ?TISSUE Tissue)
(patient ?DAMAGE ?TISSUE)))))
(subclass MustardGas BlisterAgent)
(documentation MustardGas EnglishLanguage "A &%BlisterAgent that was commonly used in World War I
to incapacitate troops. It is chemically stable, persistent, and is capable of
attacking the eyes, the skin, and the respiratory tract. There is no accepted
treatment or preventive measure for &%MustardGas.")
(subclass SulphurMustardGas MustardGas)
(documentation SulphurMustardGas EnglishLanguage "A kind of mustard gas. Also known as Yperite
and HD. This is regarded b some as the most effective &%BlisterAgent because it
is persistent.")
(subclass NitrogenMustardGas MustardGas)
(documentation NitrogenMustardGas EnglishLanguage "A kind of mustard gas. Also known as HN.")
(subclass Lewisite BlisterAgent)
(biochemicalAgentAntidote Lewisite Dimercaprol Covering)
(documentation Lewisite EnglishLanguage "Besides being a &%BlisterAgent, &%Lewisite causes
systemic poisoning. Its symptoms include pulmonary edema, diarrhea, reduced
body temperature and blood pressure. When large quantities of &%Lewisite are
inhaled, it can cause death in as little as 10 minutes.")
(subclass Dimercaprol BiologicallyActiveSubstance)
(documentation Dimercaprol EnglishLanguage "A chelating agent often used to treat &%Lewisite,
as well as &%Lead &%Poisoning.")
(subclass PhosgeneOxime BlisterAgent)
(documentation PhosgeneOxime EnglishLanguage "One of the most painful and destructive chemical
compounds in existence. Recovery from this &%ChemicalAgent requires one to
three months.")
(subclass BloodAgent ChemicalAgent)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery BloodAgent Breathing)
(documentation BloodAgent EnglishLanguage "A &%CompoundSubstance that prevents the normal use
of oxygen by bodily tissues. &%BloodAgents are highly volatile and disperse
easily in the open air.")
(subclass HydrogenCyanide BloodAgent)
(documentation HydrogenCyanide EnglishLanguage "A &%ChemicalAgent that was widely used by the
Nazis in extermination camps. A low dose can cause headache, disorientation,
and vomiting, while a high dose can rapidly result in respiratory and/or cardiac
(subclass CyanogenChloride BloodAgent)
(documentation CyanogenChloride EnglishLanguage "Used in mining and metalurgy, it is very
similar to &%HydrogenCyanide. However, it is less volatile than &%HydrogenCyanide,
and its effects on the eyes, respiratory tract, and lungs is similar to &%Phosgene
and &%ChorineGas.")
(subclass Arsine BloodAgent)
(documentation Arsine EnglishLanguage "A very toxic form of arsenic that is 2 and a half times
denser than air. Victims who die after exposure to &%Arsine generally die from
renal failure.")
(subclass IncapacitatingAgent ChemicalAgent)
(documentation IncapacitatingAgent EnglishLanguage "&%ChemicalAgents that are designed to cause
temporary disability in victims.")
(subclass CSGas IncapacitatingAgent)
(subclass BZGas IncapacitatingAgent)
(documentation BZGas EnglishLanguage "Stockpiled for a time by both NATO and the Warsaw Pact
countries, &%BZGas is a psychoactive agent that is heaver than air and reputedly
ten times more powerful than LSD. Effects of the gas are not well understood,
but they include vomiting, lethargy, loss of motor co-ordination, and cognitive
(subclass NerveAgent ChemicalAgent)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery NerveAgent Breathing)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome NerveAgent Paralysis)
(biochemicalAgentAntidote NerveAgent Atropine Poking)
(documentation NerveAgent EnglishLanguage "These &%ChemicalAgents are easily absorbed into
the mucous membranes of humans and inactivate the essential enzyme
acetylcholinesterase, bringing about paralysis of the respiratory and central
nervous systems.")
(subclass GSeriesNerveAgent NerveAgent)
(disjoint GSeriesNerveAgent VSeriesNerveAgent)
(documentation GSeriesNerveAgent EnglishLanguage "Earliest sort of &%NerveAgent (developed
in the 1930's). This &%subclass of &%NerveAgents tends to be less
persistent, more volatile, and less toxic than &%VSeriesNerveAgents,
which were developed later. &%GSeriesNerveAgents include &%Tabun,
&%Sarin, and &%Soman.")
(subclass Tabun GSeriesNerveAgent)
(documentation Tabun EnglishLanguage "Also known as GA, one of the G-series nerve agents. It
is about half as toxic as &%Sarin, but it is more irritating to the eyes than
(subclass Soman GSeriesNerveAgent)
(biochemicalAgentAntidote Soman PyridostigmineBromide Putting)
(lethalDose Soman (PerFn (MeasureFn 64.0 (MicroFn Gram)) (MeasureFn 1.0 (KiloFn Gram))))
(documentation Soman EnglishLanguage "Also known as GD, one of the G-series nerve agents.")
(subclass Sarin GSeriesNerveAgent)
(lethalDose Sarin (PerFn (MeasureFn 100.0 (MicroFn Gram)) (MeasureFn 1 (KiloFn Gram))))
(documentation Sarin EnglishLanguage "Also known as GB, one of the G-series nerve agents.")
(subclass GF GSeriesNerveAgent)
(documentation GF EnglishLanguage "One of the G-series nerve agents.")
(subclass VSeriesNerveAgent NerveAgent)
(documentation VSeriesNerveAgent EnglishLanguage "More advanced sort of &%NerveAgent
(developed in the 1950's). This &%subclass of &%NerveAgents tends to be
more persistent and toxic than &%GSeriesNerveAgents, which were developed
earlier. &%VSeriesNerveAgents include VE, VG, VM, VS, and VX.")
(subclass VX VSeriesNerveAgent)
(lethalDose VX (PerFn (MeasureFn 15.0 (MicroFn Gram)) (MeasureFn 1.0 (KiloFn Gram))))
(documentation VX EnglishLanguage "One of the V-series nerve agents.")
(subclass ChokingAgent ChemicalAgent)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery ChokingAgent Breathing)
(documentation ChokingAgent EnglishLanguage "&%ChemicalAgents designed to cause the lungs to fill
with fluid, which can result in the victim choking to death. &%ChokingAgents are
heavy gases that are less effective than other &%ChemicalAgents because they can be
easily dissipated by a slight wind.")
(subclass Diphosgene ChokingAgent)
(documentation Diphosgene EnglishLanguage "A poisonous gas that irritates the lungs and that is
similar to &%Phosgene.")
(subclass Chloropicrin ChokingAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome Chloropicrin Gastroenteritis)
(documentation Chloropicrin EnglishLanguage "Poisonous gas which has effects similar to
tear gas. If ingested, the gas causes gastroenteritis.")
(subclass Phosgene ChokingAgent)
(documentation Phosgene EnglishLanguage "A colorless, extremely toxic gas. It is regarded as the
most dangerous of the &%ChemicalAgents. Deaths resulting from exposure to this
&%ChemicalAgent generally occur in 24 to 48 hours.")
(subclass ChlorineGas ChokingAgent)
(documentation ChlorineGas EnglishLanguage "A poisonous gas.")
(subclass WMDWeaponsProductionFacility StationaryArtifact)
(documentation WMDWeaponsProductionFacility EnglishLanguage "Facilities where instances of
&%WeaponOfMassDestruction are built.")
(instance ?FACILITY WMDWeaponsProductionFacility)
(exists (?DEVELOP)
(instance ?DEVELOP DevelopingWeaponOfMassDestruction)
(eventLocated ?DEVELOP ?FACILITY))))
(subclass WMDWeaponsResearchFacility StationaryArtifact)
(documentation WMDWeaponsResearchFacility EnglishLanguage "Facilities where research on
instances of &%WeaponOfMassDestruction is performed.")
(instance ?FACILITY WMDWeaponsResearchFacility)
(exists (?RESEARCH)
(instance ?RESEARCH ResearchingWeaponOfMassDestruction)
(eventLocated ?RESEARCH ?FACILITY))))
(partition RadioactiveWeapon NuclearWeapon RadiologicalWeapon)
(subclass NuclearWeaponProductionFacility WMDWeaponsProductionFacility)
(documentation NuclearWeaponProductionFacility EnglishLanguage "Facilities where &%NuclearWeapons
are built.")
(instance ?FACILITY NuclearWeaponProductionFacility)
(instance ?DEVELOP DevelopingWeaponOfMassDestruction)
(eventLocated ?DEVELOP ?FACILITY)
(result ?DEVELOP ?WEAPON))
(instance ?WEAPON NuclearWeapon))
(documentation NuclearWeaponResearchFacility EnglishLanguage "Research facilities that perform
research on technology related to &%NuclearWeapons.")
(subclass NuclearWeaponResearchFacility WMDWeaponsResearchFacility)
(instance ?FACILITY NuclearWeaponResearchFacility)
(instance ?RESEARCH ResearchingWeaponOfMassDestruction)
(eventLocated ?RESEARCH ?FACILITY))
(refers ?RESEARCH NuclearWeapon))
(partition WeaponOfMassDestruction RadioactiveWeapon BiochemicalWeapon)
(subclass DeployingWeaponOfMassDestruction IntentionalProcess)
(subclass DeployingWeaponOfMassDestruction Putting)
(documentation DeployingWeaponOfMassDestruction EnglishLanguage "Positioning a chemical, biological
or radioactive weapon for the purpose of bringing about harm of some kind.")
(instance ?DEPLOY DeployingWeaponOfMassDestruction)
(patient ?DEPLOY ?WEAPON))
(instance ?WEAPON WeaponOfMassDestruction))
(subclass DevelopingWeaponOfMassDestruction Making)
(documentation DevelopingWeaponOfMassDestruction EnglishLanguage "&%Making instances of
(instance ?DEVELOP DevelopingWeaponOfMassDestruction)
(result ?DEVELOP ?WEAPON))
(instance ?WEAPON WeaponOfMassDestruction))
(subclass StockpilingWeaponOfMassDestruction Manufacture)
(subclass StockpilingWeaponOfMassDestruction DevelopingWeaponOfMassDestruction)
(documentation StockpilingWeaponOfMassDestruction EnglishLanguage "Manufacturing a significant quantity
of instances of a &%WeaponOfMassDestruction, i.e. the weapons are not produced at the
scale of a single laboratory or a pilot program. These weapons may or may not be deployed
(see &%DeployingWeaponOfMassDestruction).")
(subclass DeliveringWeaponOfMassDestruction Making)
(documentation DeliveringWeaponOfMassDestruction EnglishLanguage "Integrating a &%WeaponOfMassDestruction
with a conventional weapon, so that the former can be delivered to its target.")
(instance ?DELIVER DeliveringWeaponOfMassDestruction)
(instance ?PUTTING Putting)
(instance ?WEAPON1 WeaponOfMassDestruction)
(instance ?WEAPON2 Weapon)
(not (instance ?WEAPON2 WeaponOfMassDestruction))
(patient ?PUTTING ?WEAPON1)
(destination ?PUTTING ?WEAPON2))))
(subclass ResearchingWeaponOfMassDestruction Investigating)
(documentation ResearchingWeaponOfMassDestruction EnglishLanguage "Conducting research on the development
of Weapons of Mass Destruction.")
(instance ?RESEARCH ResearchingWeaponOfMassDestruction)
(exists (?WEAPON)
(subclass ?WEAPON WeaponOfMassDestruction)
(refers ?RESEARCH ?WEAPON))))
(subclass DismantlingWeaponOfMassDestruction IntentionalProcess)
(documentation DismantlingWeaponOfMassDestruction EnglishLanguage "Dismantling a Weapon of Mass
Destruction, i.e. destroying the weapon or removing it from active deployment.")
(instance ?DISMANTLE DismantlingWeaponOfMassDestruction)
(instance ?WEAPON WeaponOfMassDestruction))
(instance ?DISMANTLE DismantlingWeaponOfMassDestruction)
(exists (?PROCESS)
(instance ?PROCESS Destruction)
(instance ?PROCESS Removing)))))
(instance ?DISMANTLE DismantlingWeaponOfMassDestruction)
(exists (?DEVELOP)
(instance ?DEVELOP DevelopingWeaponOfMassDestruction)
(earlier (WhenFn ?DEVELOP) (WhenFn ?DISMANTLE)))))
(instance biochemicalAgentSyndrome BinaryPredicate)
(domainSubclass biochemicalAgentSyndrome 1 BiochemicalAgent)
(domain biochemicalAgentSyndrome 2 DiseaseOrSyndrome)
(documentation biochemicalAgentSyndrome EnglishLanguage "Relates a &%subclass of &%BiochemicalAgent
to a &%DiseaseOrSyndrome that is caused by or often associated with the
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome ?AGENT ?SYMPTOM)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery ?AGENT ?PROCESSTYPE)
(experiencer ?PROCESS ?ORGANISM))
(attribute ?ORGANISM ?SYMPTOM))
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome ?AGENT ?SYNDROME)
(diseaseSymptom ?SYNDROME ?SYMPTOM))
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome ?AGENT ?SYMPTOM))
(instance biochemicalAgentDelivery BinaryPredicate)
(domainSubclass biochemicalAgentDelivery 1 BiochemicalAgent)
(domainSubclass biochemicalAgentDelivery 2 Process)
(documentation biochemicalAgentDelivery EnglishLanguage "(&%biochemicalAgentDelivery ?AGENT ?PROCESS)
means that the &%Process ?PROCESS is capable of infecting an organism with the
&%BiochemicalAgent ?AGENT when the organism is the &%experiencer and the ?AGENT the
&%patient of an instance of ?PROCESS.")
(biochemicalAgentDelivery ?AGENT ?PROCESS)
(subclass ?SUB ?PROCESS))
(biochemicalAgentDelivery ?AGENT ?SUB))
(instance effectiveDose BinaryPredicate)
(domainSubclass effectiveDose 1 BiochemicalAgent)
(domain effectiveDose 2 FunctionQuantity)
(documentation effectiveDose EnglishLanguage "(&%effectiveDose ?AGENT ?QUANTITY) means that
?QUANTITY is the effective dose, or ED50, for the &%BiochemicalAgent ?AGENT.
This is the dose that would incapacitate 50% of the exposed human population.
Note that ?QUANTITY is generally expressed in micrograms per kilogram (mcg/kg).")
(effectiveDose ?AGENT (PerFn (MeasureFn ?NUMBER1 ?UNIT1) (MeasureFn ?NUMBER2 ?UNIT2)))
(instance ?UNIT1 MassMeasure)
(instance ?UNIT2 MassMeasure)))
(instance lethalDose BinaryPredicate)
(domainSubclass lethalDose 1 BiochemicalAgent)
(domain lethalDose 2 FunctionQuantity)
(relatedInternalConcept lethalDose effectiveDose)
(documentation lethalDose EnglishLanguage "(&%lethalDose ?AGENT ?QUANTITY) means that ?QUANTITY
is the lethal dose, or LD50, for the &%BiochemicalAgent ?AGENT. This is the dose
that would result in death for 50% of the exposed human population. Note that
?QUANTITY is generally expressed in micrograms per kilogram (mcg/kg).")
(effectiveDose ?AGENT ?NUMBER1)
(lethalDose ?AGENT ?NUMBER2))
(greaterThan ?NUMBER2 ?NUMBER1))
(lethalDose ?AGENT (PerFn (MeasureFn ?NUMBER1 ?UNIT1) (MeasureFn ?NUMBER2 ?UNIT2)))
(instance ?UNIT1 MassMeasure)
(instance ?UNIT2 MassMeasure)))
(instance diseaseSymptom BinaryPredicate)
(domain diseaseSymptom 1 DiseaseOrSyndrome)
(domain diseaseSymptom 2 DiseaseOrSyndrome)
(documentation diseaseSymptom EnglishLanguage "(&%diseaseSymptom ?DISEASE ?SYMPTOM) means that
&%DiseaseOrSyndrome ?DISEASE is often associated with the &%DiseaseOrSyndrome
?SYMPTOM, i.e. an &%Organism which suffers from ?DISEASE is more likely to
suffer from ?SYMPTOM than one which does not.")
(diseaseSymptom ?DISEASE ?SYMPTOM)
(attribute ?ORGANISM ?DISEASE)
(attribute ?ORGANISM ?SYMPTOM)))
(instance diseaseMortality BinaryPredicate)
(domain diseaseMortality 1 DiseaseOrSyndrome)
(domain diseaseMortality 2 RealNumber)
(documentation diseaseMortality EnglishLanguage "(&%diseaseMortality ?DISEASE ?NUMBER) means
that &%DiseaseOrSyndrome ?DISEASE has a Mortality rate of ?NUMBER.")
(diseaseMortality ?DISEASE ?RATE)
(attribute ?ORGANISM ?DISEASE)
(exists (?DEATH) (and (instance ?DEATH Death) (experiencer ?DEATH ?ORGANISM)))
(diseaseMortality ?DISEASE ?RATE)
(greaterThan ?RATE 0)
(lessThan ?RATE 1)))
(diseaseMortality ?DISEASE ?RATE)
(instance ?DISEASE LifeThreateningDisease))
(instance biochemicalAgentAntidote TernaryPredicate)
(domain biochemicalAgentAntidote 1 BiochemicalAgent)
(domainSubclass biochemicalAgentAntidote 2 BiologicallyActiveSubstance)
(domainSubclass biochemicalAgentAntidote 3 Process)
(documentation biochemicalAgentAntidote EnglishLanguage "(&%biochemicalAgentAntidote ?AGENT ?SUBSTANCE ?PROCESS)
means that the &%BiologicallyActiveSubstance ?SUBSTANCE has been shown to be effective in
treating someone who has been exposed to the &%BiochemicalAgent ?AGENT when the ?SUBSTANCE is
administered via the &%Process ?PROCESS.")
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome ?AGENT ?SYMPTOM)
(biochemicalAgentAntidote ?AGENT ?SUBSTANCE ?PROCESS)
(instance ?THERAPY ?PROCESS)
(experiencer ?THERAPY ?ORGANISM)
(attribute ?ORGANISM ?SYMPTOM))
(instance diseaseTreatment TernaryPredicate)
(domain diseaseTreatment 1 DiseaseOrSyndrome)
(domainSubclass diseaseTreatment 2 BiologicallyActiveSubstance)
(domainSubclass diseaseTreatment 3 Process)
(documentation diseaseTreatment EnglishLanguage "(&%diseaseTreatment ?DISEASE ?SUBSTANCE ?PROCESS)
means that the &%BiologicallyActiveSubstance ?SUBSTANCE is effective in the treatment
of the &%DiseaseOrSyndrome ?DISEASE when administered via the &%Process ?PROCESS, i.e.
it has been demonstrated (in a significant sample of patients) to cure the ?DISEASE or
at least reduce the severity of symptoms associated with the ?DISEASE.")
(holdsDuring ?TIME (attribute ?ORGANISM ?DISEASE))
(exists (?SAMPLE)
(temporalPart (WhenFn ?PROCESS) ?TIME)
(experiencer ?PROCESS ?ORGANISM)
(patient ?PROCESS ?SAMPLE)
(instance ?SAMPLE ?SUBSTANCE)))
(holdsDuring (ImmediateFutureFn ?TIME) (not (attribute ?ORGANISM ?DISEASE))))))
(subclass ?SUB ?PROCESS))
(diseaseTreatment ?DISEASE ?SUBSTANCE ?SUB))
(subclass ?SUB ?SUBSTANCE))
(diseaseTreatment ?DISEASE ?SUB ?PROCESS))
(instance biologicalAgentCarrier BinaryPredicate)
(domainSubclass biologicalAgentCarrier 1 BiologicalAgent)
(domainSubclass biologicalAgentCarrier 2 Organism)
(documentation biologicalAgentCarrier EnglishLanguage "(&%biologicalAgentCarrier ?AGENT ?ORGANISM)
means that the &%subclass of &%Organism ?ORGANISM is a carrier of the &%subclass of
&%BiologicalAgent ?AGENT.")
(biologicalAgentCarrier ?AGENT ?ORGANISM)
(subclass ?SUB ?ORGANISM))
(biologicalAgentCarrier ?AGENT ?SUB))
(instance secretesToxin BinaryPredicate)
(domainSubclass secretesToxin 1 Organism)
(domainSubclass secretesToxin 2 Toxin)
(documentation secretesToxin EnglishLanguage "(&%secretesToxin ?ORGANISM ?TOXIN) means that the
&%subclass of &%Organism ?ORGANISM produces the &%subclass of &%Toxin ?TOXIN.")
(secretesToxin ?ORGANISM ?TOXIN)
(forall (?INSTANCE1)
(instance ?PROCESS BiologicalProcess)
(experiencer ?PROCESS ?INSTANCE1)
(instance ?INSTANCE2 ?TOXIN))))))
(subclass SalmonellaTyphimurium BacterialAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome SalmonellaTyphimurium Gastroenteritis)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome SalmonellaTyphimurium Fever)
(documentation SalmonellaTyphimurium EnglishLanguage "A bacterium that can cause death in young,
elderly or immunodeficient people. It appears in the stool of infected people.")
(subclass SalmonellaPartyphi BacterialAgent)
(documentation SalmonellaPartyphi EnglishLanguage "Causes a less severe illness than &%SalmonellaTyphimurium.")
(subclass LifeThreateningAgent BiochemicalAgent)
(documentation LifeThreateningAgent EnglishLanguage "A &%BiochemicalAgent that has been observed
to cause the death of &%Humans.")
(instance ?AGENT LifeThreateningAgent)
(capability Killing instrument ?AGENT))
(lethalDose ?AGENT ?NUMBER)
(greaterThan ?NUMBER 0))
(instance ?AGENT LifeThreateningAgent))
(subclass LifeThreateningDisease DiseaseOrSyndrome)
(documentation LifeThreateningDisease EnglishLanguage "A &%DiseaseOrSyndrome that has been observed
to cause the death of &%Humans.")
(instance ?DISEASE LifeThreateningDisease)
(attribute ?AGENT ?DISEASE))
(capability Death experiencer ?AGENT))
(instance ?DISEASE LifeThreateningDisease)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome ?AGENT ?DISEASE))
(instance ?AGENT LifeThreateningAgent))
(subclass VaccinatableDisease InfectiousDisease)
(documentation VaccinatableDisease EnglishLanguage "A disease for which there is an effective
vaccine for &%Humans.")
(instance ?DISEASE VaccinatableDisease)
(exists (?VACCINE)
(instance ?VACCINE BiologicallyActiveSubstance)
(instance ?PUT Putting)
(destination ?PUT ?HUMAN)
(instance ?HUMAN Human))
(holdsDuring (FutureFn (WhenFn ?PUT)) (not (attribute ?HUMAN ?DISEASE)))))))
(instance Gastroenteritis DiseaseOrSyndrome)
(documentation Gastroenteritis EnglishLanguage "Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, i.e.
the stomach and small and large intestines. The symptoms include diarrhea, vomiting,
and abdominal pain.")
(instance ?ORGANISM Human)
(attribute ?ORGANISM Fever))
(exists (?NUMBER)
(measure ?ORGANISM (MeasureFn ?NUMBER FahrenheitDegree))
(greaterThan ?NUMBER 98.6))))
(instance Paralysis DiseaseOrSyndrome)
(documentation Paralysis EnglishLanguage "The syndrome where some or all of an &%Animal's muscles
cannot be moved voluntarily.")
(attribute ?ORGANISM Paralysis)
(exists (?MUSCLE)
(instance ?MUSCLE Muscle)
(not (exists (?MOTION)
(instance ?MOTION BodyMotion)
(patient ?MOTION ?MUSCLE)))))))
(subclass HemorrhagicFever ViralDisease)
(documentation HemorrhagicFever EnglishLanguage "A severe syndrome that affects multiple organs of
the body. Typically, the vascular system is damaged, and the body's ability to regulate
itself is impaired.")
(instance ?BACTERIUM BacterialAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome ?BACTERIUM ?SYNDROME))
(instance ?SYNDROME BacterialDisease))
(instance ?VIRUS ViralAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome ?VIRUS ?SYNDROME))
(instance ?SYNDROME ViralDisease))
(instance Anthrax BacterialDisease)
(diseaseTreatment Anthrax Doxycycline Ingesting)
(diseaseTreatment Anthrax Ciprofloxacin Ingesting)
(diseaseIncubation Anthrax (MeasureFn 1 HourDuration) (MeasureFn 2 HourDuration))
(documentation Anthrax EnglishLanguage "The disease caused by &%BacillusAnthracis. Victims of
the disease may experience a brief, apparent recovery before death.")
(subAttribute InhalationalAnthrax Anthrax)
(instance InhalationalAnthrax LifeThreateningDisease)
(documentation InhalationalAnthrax EnglishLanguage "Almost 100% fatal if left untreated for more
than 24 hours.")
(attribute ?ORGANISM InhalationalAnthrax)
(instance ?ANTHRACIS BacillusAnthracis)
(instance ?BREATHING Breathing)
(instance Gonorrhea BacterialDisease)
(documentation Gonorrhea EnglishLanguage "A disease caused by the bacterium &%NeisseriaGonorrhoeae.")
(instance QFever BacterialDisease)
(diseaseSymptom QFever Fever)
(diseaseMortality QFever 0.01)
(documentation QFever EnglishLanguage "A disease caused by the rickettsia &%CoxiellaBurnetii. Causes
headache, chills, coughing, hallucinations, fever up to 104 degrees, facial pain, speech
impairment, heart inflammation and congestive heart failure.")
(instance YellowSkin ViralDisease)
(documentation YellowSkin EnglishLanguage "Is caused by liver failure, which results in an accumulation
of bile. It is caused by &%YellowFeverVirus.")
(subclass YellowFeverVirus ViralAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome YellowFeverVirus Fever)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome YellowFeverVirus YellowSkin)
(documentation YellowFeverVirus EnglishLanguage "A &%Virus that can result in chills, fever, stomach
bleeding, and &%YellowSkin.")
(instance ?VIRUS YellowFeverVirus)
(exists (?NUMBER)
(width ?VIRUS (MeasureFn ?NUMBER Meter))
(equal ?NUMBER 0.00000002))))
(subclass FootAndMouthVirus ViralAgent)
(documentation FootAndMouthVirus EnglishLanguage "A &%Virus that is smaller than &%YellowFeverVirus.")
(instance ?VIRUS1 FootAndMouthVirus)
(instance ?VIRUS2 YellowFeverVirus))
(smaller ?VIRUS1 ?VIRUS2))
(subclass EbolaVirus ViralAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome EbolaVirus EbolaHemorrhagicFever)
(documentation EbolaVirus EnglishLanguage "A &%Virus that causes a form of hemorrhagic fever.")
(instance EbolaHemorrhagicFever HemorrhagicFever)
(documentation EbolaHemorrhagicFever EnglishLanguage "A very serious &%HemorrhagicFever, which often results
in death.")
(subclass FrancisellaTularensis BacterialAgent)
(biologicalAgentCarrier FrancisellaTularensis Rodent)
(biologicalAgentCarrier FrancisellaTularensis Arachnid)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome FrancisellaTularensis Tularemia)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery FrancisellaTularensis Breathing)
(documentation FrancisellaTularensis EnglishLanguage "The &%Bacterium that causes the disease
&%Tularemia. Also known as Pasturella Tularensis. The &%Bacterium has two strains,
Jellison type A (F. tularensis biovar tularensis) and type B strains (F tularensis
biovar palaearctica), and it is infectious with a dose as small as 50 cells per
(instance Tularemia BacterialDisease)
(diseaseSymptom Tularemia Fever)
(diseaseMortality Tularemia 0.05)
(documentation Tularemia EnglishLanguage "A disease associated with fever, chills, coughing and
Tularemia skin lesions (ulcers up to an inch wide).")
(instance Smallpox ViralDisease)
(diseaseMortality Smallpox 0.33)
(documentation Smallpox EnglishLanguage "A highly contagious and dangerous disease. It causes blood
loss, cardiovascular collapse, secondary infections, skin pustules, and often leaves
survivors scarred and blinded. Approximately 500 million people died from &%Smallpox
in the nineteenth century. The disease can live on objects for several days, and it
incubates for twelve days before showing symptoms.")
(instance Monkeypox ViralDisease)
(documentation Monkeypox EnglishLanguage "A viral disease that is very similar to &%Smallpox. It is
seen sporadically in parts of Africa.")
(subclass MonkeypoxVirus ViralAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome MonkeypoxVirus Monkeypox)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery MonkeypoxVirus Poking)
(biologicalAgentCarrier MonkeypoxVirus Mammal)
(documentation MonkeypoxVirus EnglishLanguage "The &%Virus that causes &%Monkeypox.")
(subclass NeisseriaGonorrhoeae BacterialAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome NeisseriaGonorrhoeae Gonorrhea)
(documentation NeisseriaGonorrhoeae EnglishLanguage "The &%Bacterium that causes &%Gonorrhea.")
(subclass CoxiellaBurnetii RickettsialAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome CoxiellaBurnetii QFever)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery CoxiellaBurnetii Breathing)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery CoxiellaBurnetii Ingesting)
(documentation CoxiellaBurnetii EnglishLanguage "The &%Bacterium that causes &%QFever.")
(subclass VariolaMajor ViralAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome VariolaMajor Smallpox)
(documentation VariolaMajor EnglishLanguage "A &%Virus that causes &%Smallpox. Also known
as the smallpox virus.")
(subclass VariolaMinor ViralAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome VariolaMinor Smallpox)
(documentation VariolaMinor EnglishLanguage "A &%Virus that causes &%Smallpox. Also known
as Alastrim.")
(instance ?ANTIBIOTIC Antibiotic)
(capability (KappaFn ?KILL (and
(instance ?KILL Killing)
(patient ?KILL ?BACTERIUM)
(instance ?BACTERIUM Bacterium)))
(diseaseTreatment ?DISEASE Antibiotic ?PROCESS)
(instance ?DISEASE BacterialDisease))
(instance ?DISEASE ViralDisease)
(exists (?PROCESS)
(not (diseaseTreatment ?DISEASE Antibiotic ?PROCESS))))
(subclass OralAntibiotic Antibiotic)
(documentation OralAntibiotic EnglishLanguage "An &%Antibiotic that is administered orally,
e.g. &%Penicillin.")
(diseaseTreatment ?DISEASE OralAntibiotic ?PROCESS)
(subclass ?PROCESS Ingesting))
(subclass Penicillin OralAntibiotic)
(documentation Penicillin EnglishLanguage "An ingestible antibiotic which kills many kinds of
(subclass Doxycycline OralAntibiotic)
(documentation Doxycycline EnglishLanguage "An &%OralAntibiotic that is used to treat a wide variety
of &%BacterialDiseases, including traveler's diarrhea. Recommended for prevention of
inhalational &%Anthrax in subjects who may have been exposed to aeresolized
(subclass Ciprofloxacin OralAntibiotic)
(documentation Ciprofloxacin EnglishLanguage "An &%OralAntibiotic that is often used to prevent
complications from &%AcquiredImmunoDeficiencySyndrome. Recommended for prevention
of inhalational &%Anthrax in subjects who may have been exposed to aeresolized
(subclass Keflex OralAntibiotic)
(documentation Keflex EnglishLanguage "A cephalosporin for treating bacterial infections.")
(subclass TopicalAntibiotic Antibiotic)
(documentation TopicalAntibiotic EnglishLanguage "An &%Antibiotic that is administered topically,
e.g. &%Bacitracin.")
(diseaseTreatment ?DISEASE TopicalAntibiotic ?PROCESS)
(subclass ?PROCESS Covering))
(subclass Bacitracin TopicalAntibiotic)
(documentation Bacitracin EnglishLanguage "A common topical antibiotic.")
(diseaseTreatment ?DISEASE Bacitracin ?PROCESS)
(instance ?DISEASE BacterialDisease)
(instance ?PROCESS Putting)))
(subclass Atropine BiologicallyActiveSubstance)
(documentation Atropine EnglishLanguage "An anticholinergic agent.")
(subclass ShigellaDysenteriae BacterialAgent)
(secretesToxin ShigellaDysenteriae ShigaToxin)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery ShigellaDysenteriae Ingesting)
(documentation ShigellaDysenteriae EnglishLanguage "Causes severe dysentery (even when as little as
100 bacteria are ingested). This form of dysentery results in death in 10-20 percent
of infections.")
(subclass ShigaToxin Toxin)
(lethalDose ShigaToxin (PerFn (MeasureFn 0.002 (MicroFn Gram)) (MeasureFn 1 (KiloFn Gram))))
(documentation ShigaToxin EnglishLanguage "The &%Toxin produced by the &%Bacterium &%ShigellaDysenteriae.")
(subclass AcquiredImmunoDeficiencySyndrome DiseaseOrSyndrome)
(documentation AcquiredImmunoDeficiencySyndrome EnglishLanguage "A disease that attacks the immune
system and that is caused by the &%HIVVirus. Patients are usually infected through
blood or semen.")
(subclass HIVVirus ViralAgent)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery HIVVirus SexualReproduction)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome HIVVirus AcquiredImmunoDeficiencySyndrome)
(documentation HIVVirus EnglishLanguage "The &%Virus that causes &%AcquiredImmunoDeficiencySyndrome.")
(subclass SalmonellaTyphi BacterialAgent)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery SalmonellaTyphi Ingesting)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome SalmonellaTyphi TyphoidFever)
(documentation SalmonellaTyphi EnglishLanguage "The &%Bacterium that causes &%TyphoidFever.")
(subclass TyphoidFever DiseaseOrSyndrome)
(diseaseSymptom TyphoidFever Fever)
(diseaseTreatment TyphoidFever Antibiotic Ingesting)
(documentation TyphoidFever EnglishLanguage "A life-threatening disease that is caused by
(subclass GiardiaLamblia BacterialAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome GiardiaLamblia Gastroenteritis)
(biologicalAgentCarrier GiardiaLamblia Rodent)
(documentation GiardiaLamblia EnglishLanguage "A &%Bacterium that causes &%Gastroenteritis. It is
present in many streams and lakes, and it is carried by beavers and other animals.")
(subclass SerratiaMarcenscens BacterialAgent)
(subclass (AgentOfOrganismFn SerratiaMarcenscens) LifeThreateningAgent)
(documentation SerratiaMarcenscens EnglishLanguage "A &%Bacterium that can cause death in infected
(subclass CoccidioidesImmitis FungalAgent)
(subclass (AgentOfOrganismFn CoccidioidesImmitis) LifeThreateningAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome CoccidioidesImmitis RiftValleyFever)
(documentation CoccidioidesImmitis EnglishLanguage "A &%Fungus that causes &%RiftValleyFever,
an illness whose symptoms include fever, chills, and coughing and which may
result in death.")
(subclass CoccidiodesPosadasii FungalAgent)
(subclass (AgentOfOrganismFn CoccidiodesPosadasii) LifeThreateningAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome CoccidiodesPosadasii RiftValleyFever)
(documentation CoccidiodesPosadasii EnglishLanguage "A recently discovered &%Fungus that is related to
&%CoccidioidesImmitis and that also causes &%RiftValleyFever.")
(subclass Mixomatosis ViralAgent)
(relatedInternalConcept Mixomatosis VariolaMajor)
(biologicalAgentCarrier Mixomatosis Rodent)
(documentation Mixomatosis EnglishLanguage "A &%Virus that is infectious to rabbits and may
cause blindness and death in these &%Rodents.")
(subclass VenezuelanEquineEncephalitis ViralDisease)
(subclass VenezuelanEquineEncephalitis VaccinatableDisease)
(diseaseMortality VenezuelanEquineEncephalitis 0.01)
(diseaseSymptom VenezuelanEquineEncephalitis Fever)
(documentation VenezuelanEquineEncephalitis EnglishLanguage "Also known as Venezuelan equine
encephalomyelitis. Caused by any one of eight distinct &%Viruses. Symptoms of
the disease include severe headache, high fever (up to 105 degrees), sensitivity
to light (photophobia), nausea, coughing, and diarrhea. The disease results in
central nervous system infection in 1 of 25 children.")
(subclass VenezuelanEquineEncephalitisVirus ViralAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome VenezuelanEquineEncephalitisVirus VenezuelanEquineEncephalitis)
(documentation VenezuelanEquineEncephalitisVirus EnglishLanguage "The &%Virus that causes
(subclass RiftValleyFever ViralDisease)
(diseaseSymptom RiftValleyFever Fever)
(diseaseMortality RiftValleyFever 0.01)
(documentation RiftValleyFever EnglishLanguage "A &%ViralDisease that causes chills, bleeding,
and stupor.")
(subclass StaphyylococcusAureus BacterialAgent)
(secretesToxin StaphyylococcusAureus StaphylococcalEnterotoxinB)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome StaphyylococcusAureus Fever)
(documentation StaphyylococcusAureus EnglishLanguage "A bacterium that secretes &%StaphylococcalEnterotoxicB.
It causes chills, headache, muscle pain, coughing (which may last for weeks), and sudden
fever of up to 106 degrees (which may last for days). It occasionally causes nausea,
vomiting, and diarrhea.")
(subclass StaphylococcalEnterotoxinB Toxin)
(subclass StaphylococcalEnterotoxinB LifeThreateningAgent)
(effectiveDose StaphylococcalEnterotoxinB (PerFn (MeasureFn 0.0004 (MicroFn Gram)) (MeasureFn 1 (KiloFn Gram))))
(lethalDose StaphylococcalEnterotoxinB (PerFn (MeasureFn 0.02 (MicroFn Gram)) (MeasureFn 1 (KiloFn Gram))))
(biochemicalAgentDelivery StaphylococcalEnterotoxinB Ingesting)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery StaphylococcalEnterotoxinB Breathing)
(documentation StaphylococcalEnterotoxinB EnglishLanguage "A common cause of food poisoning. It has
been studied as a &%BiologicalAgent, because it is stable, can be converted to aerosol
form, and can be lethal when inhaled.")
(subclass Influenza ViralDisease)
(subclass Influenza VaccinatableDisease)
(diseaseSymptom Influenza Fever)
(documentation Influenza EnglishLanguage "A contagious disease caused by a large number of &%Viruses.")
(subclass Saxitoxin Toxin)
(subclass Saxitoxin CompoundSubstance)
(subclass Saxitoxin BodySubstance)
(biologicalAgentCarrier Saxitoxin Mollusk)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery Saxitoxin Ingesting)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery Saxitoxin Breathing)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome Saxitoxin ParalyticShellfishPoisoning)
(documentation Saxitoxin EnglishLanguage "A class of chemically related neurotoxins that are produced
by marine dinoflagellates and carried by &%Mollusks.")
(instance ParalyticShellfishPoisoning LifeThreateningDisease)
(diseaseSymptom ParalyticShellfishPoisoning Paralysis)
(documentation ParalyticShellfishPoisoning EnglishLanguage "A very serious disease requiring immediate
medical attention. There is no vaccine for this disease.")
(subclass Conotoxin Toxin)
(subclass Conotoxin CompoundSubstance)
(subclass Conotoxin BodySubstance)
(biologicalAgentCarrier Conotoxin Mollusk)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome Conotoxin ParalyticShellfishPoisoning)
(documentation Conotoxin EnglishLanguage "A class of neurotoxins that are produced by the Pacific cone
snails. The lethality of these toxins varies widely, and it would be impractical to
manufacture them on a large scale.")
(subclass Tetrodotoxin Toxin)
(subclass Tetrodotoxin CompoundSubstance)
(subclass Tetrodotoxin BodySubstance)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome Tetrodotoxin ParalyticShellfishPoisoning)
(documentation Tetrodotoxin EnglishLanguage "A &%Toxin produced by the pufferfish and several other (widely varying)
species. The initial symptoms include numbness in the lips and tongue, which spreads
throughout the body. The next phase of the poisoning is paralysis, which again spreads
throughout the body.")
(instance Cholera BacterialDisease)
(instance Cholera VaccinatableDisease)
(instance Cholera LifeThreateningDisease)
(documentation Cholera EnglishLanguage "A diarrheal disease that is caused by a &%Toxin secreted by the
&%Bacterium &%VibrioCholera. Death may result from severe dehydration caused by the
disease. There is little if any fever and abdominal pain with this illness.")
(subclass VibrioCholera BacterialAgent)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery VibrioCholera Ingesting)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome VibrioCholera Cholera)
(documentation VibrioCholera EnglishLanguage "The &%Bacterium that is responsible for &%Cholera.")
(instance Tetanus BacterialDisease)
(instance Tetanus VaccinatableDisease)
(diseaseIncubation Tetanus (MeasureFn 3 DayDuration) (MeasureFn 3 WeekDuration))
(documentation Tetanus EnglishLanguage "Also known as lockjaw, a &%BacterialDisease that affects
the nervous system. A subject is infected with the disease by a puncture of the
skin that becomes infected with the &%ClostridiumTetani bacterium. Symptoms of
the disease include muscular stiffness (especially in the jaw and neck), difficulty
swallowing, spasms, sweating, and fever.")
(subclass ClostridiumTetani BacterialAgent)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery ClostridiumTetani Poking)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome ClostridiumTetani Tetanus)
(documentation ClostridiumTetani EnglishLanguage "The &%Bacterium that causes the disease &%Tetanus.")
(instance HerpesB ViralDisease)
(instance HerpesB LifeThreateningDisease)
(diseaseIncubation HerpesB (MeasureFn 10 DayDuration) (MeasureFn 20 DayDuration))
(diseaseMortality HerpesB 0.7)
(documentation HerpesB EnglishLanguage "The disease caused by &%HerpesBVirus.")
(subclass HerpesBVirus ViralAgent)
(biologicalAgentCarrier HerpesBVirus Monkey)
(documentation HerpesBVirus EnglishLanguage "A virus which is carried by Macaque monkeys and
which does not harm these primates, but which causes the very serious &%HerpesB
disease in humans.")
(instance diseaseIncubation TernaryPredicate)
(domain diseaseIncubation 1 DiseaseOrSyndrome)
(domainSubclass diseaseIncubation 2 TimeDuration)
(domainSubclass diseaseIncubation 3 TimeDuration)
(documentation diseaseIncubation EnglishLanguage "A predicate that specifies the time frame for the
incubation of a &%DiseaseOrSyndrome. (&%diseaseIncubation ?DISEASE ?TIME1 ?TIME2) means
that the &%DiseaseOrSyndrome ?DISEASE will appear between ?TIME1 and ?TIME2 after the
subject has been infected with the &%BiologicalAgent causing ?DISEASE.")
(instance sideEffect BinaryPredicate)
(domain sideEffect 1 BiologicallyActiveSubstance)
(domain sideEffect 2 DiseaseOrSyndrome)
(documentation sideEffect EnglishLanguage "A predicate that is used to specify a side effect of a
substance used in a medical treatment. (&%sideEffect ?SUBSTANCE ?SYNDROME) means
that the &%BiologicallyActiveSubstance ?SUBSTANCE has the side effect ?SYNDROME.")
(instance Pertussis BacterialDisease)
(instance Pertussis VaccinatableDisease)
(diseaseTreatment Pertussis Antibiotic Ingesting)
(diseaseIncubation Pertussis (MeasureFn 6 DayDuration) (MeasureFn 21 DayDuration))
(documentation Pertussis EnglishLanguage "The &%BacterialDisease caused by &%BordetellaPertussis. Its
symptoms include severe coughing (hence the colloquial name of whooping cough) and
flu-like symptoms.")
(subclass BordetellaPertussis BacterialAgent)
(biologicalAgentCarrier BordetellaPertussis Human)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome BordetellaPertussis Pertussis)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery BordetellaPertussis Breathing)
(documentation BordetellaPertussis EnglishLanguage "The &%Bacterium that causes &%Pertussis.")
(subclass YersiniaPseudotuberculosis BacterialAgent)
(documentation YersiniaPseudotuberculosis EnglishLanguage "Causes a disease whose symptoms include
diarrhea, fever, headache, skin ulcers, and post-infectious arthritis.")
(subclass ChlamydiaPsittaci BacterialAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome ChlamydiaPsittaci Psittacosis)
(biologicalAgentCarrier ChlamydiaPsittaci Bird)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery ChlamydiaPsittaci Breathing)
(documentation ChlamydiaPsittaci EnglishLanguage "The &%Bacterium that causes &%Psittacosis.")
(instance Psittacosis BacterialDisease)
(diseaseIncubation Psittacosis (MeasureFn 6 DayDuration) (MeasureFn 19 DayDuration))
(documentation Psittacosis EnglishLanguage "A serious disease caused by &%ChlamydiaPsittaci that
affects both birds and humans. In humans the symptoms include fever, chills, headache,
muscle aches, and a dry cough. The disease may give rise to pneumonia in extreme cases.")
(instance Malaria InfectiousDisease)
(instance Malaria LifeThreateningDisease)
(diseaseSymptom Malaria Fever)
(documentation Malaria EnglishLanguage "A disease that destroys red blood cells. It is caused by a
&%Microorganism (see &%MalarialPlasmodium) that is carried by the Anopheles Gambiae
(subclass (AgentOfOrganismFn MalarialPlasmodium) BiologicalAgent)
(subclass MalarialPlasmodium Microorganism)
(biologicalAgentCarrier MalarialPlasmodium Insect)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery MalarialPlasmodium Poking)
(documentation MalarialPlasmodium EnglishLanguage "Any of four strains of Plasmodium that are known
to cause &%Malaria.")
(subclass PlasmodiumFalciparum MalarialPlasmodium)
(documentation PlasmodiumFalciparum EnglishLanguage "One of four strains of Plasmodium that are known to
cause &%Malaria. It can cause severe anemia and kidney failure or it can constrict small
blood vessels and cause cerebral malaria.")
(subclass WestNileVirus ViralAgent)
(biologicalAgentCarrier WestNileVirus Insect)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome WestNileVirus WestNileFever)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery WestNileVirus Poking)
(documentation WestNileVirus EnglishLanguage "A flavivirus that causes &%WestNileFever.")
(instance WestNileFever ViralDisease)
(documentation WestNileFever EnglishLanguage "A flu-like disease that is caused by the &%WestNileVirus.
The disease is generally not life-threatening. However, it can be very serious if it
progresses to West Nile Encephalitis, West Nile Meningitis or West Nile Meningoencephalitis,
all of which are inflammations of the brain and/or spinal cord.")
(subclass DengueFeverVirus ViralAgent)
(biologicalAgentCarrier DengueFeverVirus Insect)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome DengueFeverVirus DengueFever)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome DengueFeverVirus DengueHemorrhagicFever)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery DengueFeverVirus Poking)
(documentation DengueFeverVirus EnglishLanguage "Any of four related but distinct virus serotypes that are
carried by the Aedes Aegypti mosquito and that can cause &%DengueFever and
(instance DengueFever ViralDisease)
(relatedInternalConcept DengueFever DengueHemorrhagicFever)
(documentation DengueFever EnglishLanguage "The less serious disease caused by the &%DengueFeverVirus.
Symptoms include fever and severe headache.")
(instance DengueHemorrhagicFever HemorrhagicFever)
(instance DengueHemorrhagicFever LifeThreateningDisease)
(diseaseMortality DengueHemorrhagicFever 0.05)
(documentation DengueHemorrhagicFever EnglishLanguage "The more serious disease caused by the &
%DengueFeverVirus. Symptoms include bleeding from the nose, mouth, and gums, and
excessive thirst and difficulty breathing.")
(subclass LaCrosseVirus ViralAgent)
(biologicalAgentCarrier LaCrosseVirus Insect)
(biologicalAgentCarrier LaCrosseVirus Rodent)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery LaCrosseVirus Poking)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome LaCrosseVirus LaCrosseEncephalitis)
(documentation LaCrosseVirus EnglishLanguage "The &%Virus that causes &%LaCrossEncephalitis. It is
carried by the Aedes Triseriatus mosquito, as well as various woodlands rodents.")
(instance LaCrosseEncephalitis ViralDisease)
(diseaseMortality LaCrosseEncephalitis 0.01)
(documentation LaCrosseEncephalitis EnglishLanguage "Encephalitis caused by the &%LaCrosseVirus. In its
most severe cases, the disease may result in seizure and/or coma, but most infections are
relatively mild.")
(subclass SaintLouisEncephalitisVirus ViralAgent)
(biologicalAgentCarrier SaintLouisEncephalitisVirus Bird)
(biologicalAgentCarrier SaintLouisEncephalitisVirus Insect)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery SaintLouisEncephalitisVirus Poking)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome SaintLouisEncephalitisVirus SaintLouisEncephalitis)
(documentation SaintLouisEncephalitisVirus EnglishLanguage "The &%Virus that causes &%SaintLouisEncephalitis.
Mosquitoes carry this virus, which is then transmitted to humans, when the insects bite them.")
(instance SaintLouisEncephalitis ViralDisease)
(instance SaintLouisEncephalitis LifeThreateningDisease)
(diseaseIncubation SaintLouisEncephalitis (MeasureFn 5 DayDuration) (MeasureFn 15 DayDuration))
(diseaseSymptom SaintLouisEncephalitis Fever)
(documentation SaintLouisEncephalitis EnglishLanguage "In mild cases, symptoms are flu-like. In more
severe cases, symptoms may include disorientation, coma, tremors, hemorrhage, and
(subclass EasternEquineEncephalitisVirus ViralAgent)
(biologicalAgentCarrier EasternEquineEncephalitisVirus Insect)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery EasternEquineEncephalitisVirus Poking)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome EasternEquineEncephalitisVirus EasternEquineEncephalitis)
(documentation EasternEquineEncephalitisVirus EnglishLanguage "The &%Virus that causes
&%EasternEquineEncephalitis. Mosquitoes carry this virus, which is then transmitted
to humans, when the insects bite them.")
(instance EasternEquineEncephalitis ViralDisease)
(instance EasternEquineEncephalitis LifeThreateningDisease)
(diseaseSymptom EasternEquineEncephalitis Fever)
(documentation EasternEquineEncephalitis EnglishLanguage "In mile cases, symptoms are flu-like. In
more severe cases, the disease may result in encephalitis, coma, and death.")
(subclass JapaneseEncephalitisVirus ViralAgent)
(biologicalAgentCarrier JapaneseEncephalitisVirus Insect)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery JapaneseEncephalitisVirus Poking)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome JapaneseEncephalitisVirus JapaneseEncephalitis)
(documentation JapaneseEncephalitisVirus EnglishLanguage "The &%Virus that causes &%JapaneseEncephalitis.
Mosquitoes in agricultural areas of Asia carry this virus, which is then transmitted to
humans, when the insects bite them.")
(instance JapaneseEncephalitis ViralDisease)
(instance JapaneseEncephalitis LifeThreateningDisease)
(instance JapaneseEncephalitis VaccinatableDisease)
(diseaseIncubation JapaneseEncephalitis (MeasureFn 6 DayDuration) (MeasureFn 8 DayDuration))
(diseaseMortality JapaneseEncephalitis 0.30)
(documentation JapaneseEncephalitis EnglishLanguage "Most people who are infected with this disease
will suffer only mild symptoms. However, in severe cases, the disease attacks the
central nervous system and may result in death.")
(subclass EscherichiaColi0157H7 BacterialAgent)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery EscherichiaColi0157H7 Ingesting)
(documentation EscherichiaColi0157H7 EnglishLanguage "One of hundreds of strains of the Escherichia Coli
&%Bacterium. This strain lives in the intestines of healthy cattle, but it can cause
severe illness when ingested by humans.")
(subclass MycobacteriumTuberculosis BacterialAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome MycobacteriumTuberculosis Tuberculosis)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery MycobacteriumTuberculosis Breathing)
(documentation MycobacteriumTuberculosis EnglishLanguage "The &%Bacterium that causes &%Tuberculosis.")
(instance Tuberculosis VaccinatableDisease)
(instance Tuberculosis LifeThreateningDisease)
(diseaseTreatment Tuberculosis OralAntibiotic Ingesting)
(subclass MarburgVirus ViralAgent)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery MarburgVirus Breathing)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery MarburgVirus Poking)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome MarburgVirus MarburgDisease)
(documentation MarburgVirus EnglishLanguage "The &%Virus that causes &%MarburgDisease.")
(instance MarburgDisease ViralDisease)
(instance MarburgDisease LifeThreateningDisease)
(diseaseMortality MarburgDisease 0.25)
(diseaseIncubation MarburgDisease (MeasureFn 3 DayDuration) (MeasureFn 7 DayDuration))
(documentation MarburgDisease EnglishLanguage "Extremely serious disease caused by the &%MarburgVirus.
Symptoms include high fever, myalgias, vomiting, and diarrhea. Typically involves major
organs, including the central nervous system.")
(subclass StreptococcusA BacterialAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome StreptococcusA StrepThroat)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome StreptococcusA ScarletFever)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome StreptococcusA NecrotizingFaciitis)
(documentation StreptococcusA EnglishLanguage "The &%Bacterium that causes strep throat, scarlet fever,
and necrotizing faciitis (flesh-eating bacteria).")
(instance StrepThroat BacterialDisease)
(documentation StrepThroat EnglishLanguage "A &%BacterialDisease whose symptoms include a very sore
throat, difficulty swallowing, high fever, white spots and/or pus on or near the tonsils,
and swollen lymph nodes. If left untreated, &%StrepThroat can progress to &%ScarletFever.")
(instance ScarletFever BacterialDisease)
(diseaseIncubation ScarletFever (MeasureFn 1 DayDuration) (MeasureFn 4 DayDuration))
(documentation ScarletFever EnglishLanguage "A serious disease that may arise if &%StrepThroat is left
(instance NecrotizingFaciitis BacterialDisease)
(instance NecrotizingFaciitis LifeThreateningDisease)
(documentation NecrotizingFaciitis EnglishLanguage "A &%BacterialDisease caused by &%StreptococcusA where
the &%Bacterium rapidly attacks soft tissue.")
(subclass HepatitisVirus ViralAgent)
(documentation HepatitisVirus EnglishLanguage "&%Viruses that cause &%Hepatitis.")
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome HepatitisVirus ?DISEASE)
(instance ?DISEASE Hepatitis))
(subclass Hepatitis ViralDisease)
(documentation Hepatitis EnglishLanguage "A class of &%ViralDiseases that attack the liver.")
(subclass HepatitisAVirus HepatitisVirus)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome HepatitisAVirus HepatitisA)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery HepatitisAVirus Ingesting)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery HepatitisAVirus Poking)
(documentation HepatitisAVirus EnglishLanguage "The &%Virus that causes &%HepatitisA.")
(instance HepatitisA Hepatitis)
(instance HepatitisA VaccinatableDisease)
(diseaseSymptom HepatitisA Fever)
(documentation HepatitisA EnglishLanguage "A disease that attacks the liver and causes jaundice as
well as flu-like symptoms. There is no chronic infection with this disease, and
anyone who has recovered from it will have life-time immunity to the disease.")
(subclass HepatitisBVirus HepatitisVirus)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome HepatitisBVirus HepatitisB)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery HepatitisBVirus Poking)
(documentation HepatitisBVirus EnglishLanguage "The &%Virus that causes &%HepatitisB.")
(instance HepatitisB Hepatitis)
(instance HepatitisB VaccinatableDisease)
(instance HepatitisB LifeThreateningDisease)
(documentation HepatitisB EnglishLanguage "Like other forms of hepatitis, &%HepatitisB attacks the
liver of the victim. The disease may result in death from chronic liver disease.")
(subclass HepatitisCVirus HepatitisVirus)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome HepatitisCVirus HepatitisC)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery HepatitisCVirus Poking)
(documentation HepatitisCVirus EnglishLanguage "The &%Virus that causes &%HepatitisC.")
(instance HepatitisC Hepatitis)
(instance HepatitisC LifeThreateningDisease)
(documentation HepatitisC EnglishLanguage "Like other forms of hepatitis, &%HepatitisC attacks the
liver of the victim. The disease often results in chronic infection and chronic
liver disease, although the mortality rate of this disease is lower than that of
&%HepatitisB. Most cases of &%HepatitisC are due to injections of illegal drugs.")
(subclass Rotavirus ViralAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome Rotavirus RotavirusGastroenteritis)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery Rotavirus Ingesting)
(documentation Rotavirus EnglishLanguage "There are three types of &%Rotavirus: Group A, Group B,
and Group C. They cause an acute form of gastroenteritis, known as &%RotavirusGastroenteritis.")
(instance RotavirusGastroenteritis ViralDisease)
(diseaseSymptom RotavirusGastroenteritis Fever)
(diseaseIncubation RotavirusGastroenteritis (MeasureFn 1 DayDuration) (MeasureFn 3 DayDuration))
(documentation RotavirusGastroenteritis EnglishLanguage "A disease caused by instances of &%Rotavirus,
and characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, and fever.")
(subclass Aflatoxin Mycotoxin)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome Aflatoxin Aflatoxicosis)
(documentation Aflatoxin EnglishLanguage "&%Toxins produced by fungi of the strains Aspergillus
Flavus and Aspergillus Parasiticus. There are four varieties of &%Aflatoxin,
viz. B1, B2, G1, and G2. B1 is most common and most toxic.")
(instance Aflatoxicosis LifeThreateningDisease)
(documentation Aflatoxicosis EnglishLanguage "The disease has rarely been observed in humans, but it
can cause severe damage to the liver, including cirrhosis and liver cancer, in a large
number of animal species.")
(subclass Diacetoxyscirpenol Mycotoxin)
(lethalDose Diacetoxyscirpenol (PerFn (MeasureFn 23 (MilliFn Gram)) (MeasureFn 1 (KiloFn Gram))))
(documentation Diacetoxyscirpenol EnglishLanguage "A &%Micotoxin that is found in grains and products
made from grains. Symptoms include diarrhea, necrotic lesions, and hemorrhaging.")
(subclass T2Toxin Mycotoxin)
(lethalDose T2Toxin (PerFn (MeasureFn 5.2 (MilliFn Gram)) (MeasureFn 1 (KiloFn Gram))))
(documentation T2Toxin EnglishLanguage "A &%Micotoxin that is found in grains and products
made from grains. Symptoms include diarrhea, necrotic lesions, and hemorrhaging.")
(subclass BacillusCereus BacterialAgent)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery BacillusCereus Ingesting)
(documentation BacillusCereus EnglishLanguage "A &%Bacterium that is closely related to and often
found near &%BacillusAnthracis, the &%Bacterium that causes &%Anthrax. &%BacillusCereus
causes two forms of food poisoning, one characterized by diarrhea and the other by
vomiting. In most cases the disease is not life-threatening.")
(subclass LassaVirus ViralAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome LassaVirus LassaFever)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery LassaVirus Ingesting)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery LassaVirus Touching)
(biologicalAgentCarrier LassaVirus Rodent)
(documentation LassaVirus EnglishLanguage "The &%Virus that causes &%LassaFever.")
(instance LassaFever ViralDisease)
(instance LassaFever LifeThreateningDisease)
(diseaseSymptom LassaFever Fever)
(diseaseIncubation LassaFever (MeasureFn 1 WeekDuration) (MeasureFn 3 WeekDuration))
(diseaseMortality LassaFever 0.01)
(documentation LassaFever EnglishLanguage "A viral, rodent-carried disease found in West Africa. The
symptoms of the disease are wide-ranging and can be life-threatening. The disease can
lead to permanent neurological problems, including deafness.")
(subclass PyridostigmineBromide BiologicallyActiveSubstance)
(documentation PyridostigmineBromide EnglishLanguage "A substance that has been shown to protect lower
primates from the lethal effects of &%Soman. Although there is no proof that it does
the same for humans, it was administered to soldiers in the Gulf War.")
(subclass Legionella BacterialAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome Legionella Legionellosis)
(documentation Legionella EnglishLanguage "The &%Bacterium that causes &%Legionellosis, which is known
as &%LegionnairesDisease (when it infects the lungs) and &%PontiacFever (when it doesn't
affect the lungs).")
(instance Legionellosis BacterialDisease)
(documentation Legionellosis EnglishLanguage "The disease caused by the &%Bacterium &%Legionella.")
(subAttribute LegionnairesDisease Legionellosis)
(instance LegionnairesDisease LifeThreateningDisease)
(diseaseMortality LegionnairesDisease 0.125)
(documentation LegionnairesDisease EnglishLanguage "The most severe form of &%Legionellosis. It is
characterized by pneumonia.")
(subAttribute PontiacFever Legionellosis)
(documentation PontiacFever EnglishLanguage "A flu-like illness which is caused by &%Legionella, but
which does not involve pneumonia.")
(subclass CorynebacteriumDiphtheriae BacterialAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome CorynebacteriumDiphtheriae Diphtheria)
(documentation CorynebacteriumDiphtheriae EnglishLanguage "The &%Bacterium that secretes a &%Toxin
that causes &%Diphtheria.")
(instance Diphtheria BacterialDisease)
(instance Diphtheria LifeThreateningDisease)
(diseaseIncubation Diphtheria (MeasureFn 2 DayDuration) (MeasureFn 5 DayDuration))
(diseaseSymptom Diphtheria Fever)
(documentation Diphtheria EnglishLanguage "The disease can infect almost any mucous membrane. It causes
fever, chills, headache, and nausea. In severe cases it may affect heart rhythm and motor
(instance CrimeanCongoHemorrhagicFever HemorrhagicFever)
(instance CrimeanCongoHemorrhagicFever LifeThreateningDisease)
(diseaseIncubation CrimeanCongoHemorrhagicFever (MeasureFn 5 DayDuration) (MeasureFn 13 DayDuration))
(diseaseSymptom CrimeanCongoHemorrhagicFever Fever)
(diseaseMortality CrimeanCongoHemorrhagicFever 0.3)
(documentation CrimeanCongoHemorrhagicFever EnglishLanguage "A widespread disease which was initially identified
in the Crimea and the Congo, which accounts for its name. The disease has a high mortality rate
for humans, but infection of humans occurs infrequently.")
(subclass CrimeanCongoHemorrhagicFeverVirus ViralAgent)
(biologicalAgentCarrier CrimeanCongoHemorrhagicFeverVirus Arachnid)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome CrimeanCongoHemorrhagicFeverVirus CrimeanCongoHemorrhagicFever)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery CrimeanCongoHemorrhagicFeverVirus Poking)
(documentation CrimeanCongoHemorrhagicFeverVirus EnglishLanguage "The &%Virus that causes &%CrimeanCongoHemorrhagicFever.")
(subclass JuninVirus ViralAgent)
(biologicalAgentCarrier JuninVirus Rodent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome JuninVirus ArgentinianHemorrhagicFever)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery JuninVirus Breathing)
(documentation JuninVirus EnglishLanguage "This &%Virus derives its name from the Junin area of Argentina,
where occurrences have so far been restricted.")
(instance ArgentinianHemorrhagicFever HemorrhagicFever)
(diseaseSymptom ArgentinianHemorrhagicFever Fever)
(documentation ArgentinianHemorrhagicFever EnglishLanguage "Symptoms of the disease are flu-like in the initial
stages. As the disease progresses, symptoms include bleeding from the nose and gums and blood
(subclass MachupoVirus ViralAgent)
(biologicalAgentCarrier MachupoVirus Rodent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome MachupoVirus BolivianHemorrhagicFever)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery MachupoVirus Breathing)
(documentation MachupoVirus EnglishLanguage "The &%Virus that causes &%BolivianHemorrhagicFever.")
(instance BolivianHemorrhagicFever HemorrhagicFever)
(diseaseSymptom BolivianHemorrhagicFever Fever)
(documentation BolivianHemorrhagicFever EnglishLanguage "Symptoms of the disease are flu-like in the initial
stages. As the disease progresses, symptoms include bleeding from the nose and gums and blood
(subclass GuanaritoVirus ViralAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome GuanaritoVirus VenezuelanHemorrhagicFever)
(documentation GuanaritoVirus EnglishLanguage "The &%Virus that causes &%VenezuelanHemorrhagicFever.")
(instance VenezuelanHemorrhagicFever HemorrhagicFever)
(diseaseSymptom VenezuelanHemorrhagicFever Fever)
(documentation VenezuelanHemorrhagicFever EnglishLanguage "Symptoms of the disease are flu-like in the initial
stages. As the disease progresses, symptoms include bleeding from the nose and gums and blood
(subclass SabiaVirus ViralAgent)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome SabiaVirus BrazilianHemorrhagicFever)
(documentation SabiaVirus EnglishLanguage "The &%Virus that causes &%BrazilianHemorrhagicFever.")
(instance BrazilianHemorrhagicFever HemorrhagicFever)
(diseaseSymptom BrazilianHemorrhagicFever Fever)
(documentation BrazilianHemorrhagicFever EnglishLanguage "Symptoms of the disease are flu-like in the initial
stages. As the disease progresses, symptoms include bleeding from the nose and gums and blood
(subclass FlexalVirus ViralAgent)
(documentation FlexalVirus EnglishLanguage "A &%Virus that that is responsible for a hemorrhagic fever found in
South America.")
(subclass TickBorneEncephalitisVirus Virus)
(subclass (AgentOfOrganismFn TickBorneEncephalitisVirus) LifeThreateningAgent)
(biologicalAgentCarrier TickBorneEncephalitisVirus Arachnid)
(biochemicalAgentDelivery TickBorneEncephalitisVirus Poking)
(documentation TickBorneEncephalitisVirus EnglishLanguage "Any &%Virus whose host is a tick and which
carries an instance of &%TickBorneEncephalitis.")
(subclass ?VIRUS TickBorneEncephalitisVirus)
(exists (?DISEASE)
(instance ?DISEASE TickBorneEncephalitis)
(biochemicalAgentSyndrome ?VIRUS ?DISEASE))))
(subclass TickBorneEncephalitis ViralDisease)
(subclass TickBorneEncephalitis VaccinatableDisease)
(documentation TickBorneEncephalitis EnglishLanguage "Any of various forms of encephalitis that are
carried by ticks. The diseases have three phases. The first consists of flu-like
symptoms, the second is asymptomatic, and the third involves the central nervous
(subclass KyasanurForestDiseaseVirus TickBorneEncephalitisVirus)
(documentation KyasanurForestDiseaseVirus EnglishLanguage "The &%Virus that carries &%KyasanurForestDisease.")
(instance KyasanurForestDisease TickBorneEncephalitis)
(diseaseIncubation KyasanurForestDisease (MeasureFn 3 DayDuration) (MeasureFn 8 DayDuration))
(documentation KyasanurForestDisease EnglishLanguage "A tick-borne encephalitis that is largely restricted
to the Shimoga and Kanara district of Karnataka, India.")
(subclass HendraVirus ViralAgent)
(documentation HendraVirus EnglishLanguage "A &%Virus found in Australia and Papua New Guinea that
infects humans and horses. The natural host of the virus appears to be fruit bats.
Not much is known about the disease caused by the &%HendraVirus, but it seems to begin
with fever and then progress to drowsiness and coma.")
(subclass NipahVirus ViralAgent)
(documentation NipahVirus EnglishLanguage "Closely related to &%HendraVirus. Like the &%HendraVirus,
the natural host of &%NipahVirus appears to be fruit bats. Not much is known about
the disease, but its symptoms include high fever, muscle pain, and eventually
encephalitis, convulsions, and coma.")