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tq-031 Attempt use of Explicit Congestion Notification

When a transparent HTTP or TLS proxy is in the path between the probe and the target server, an attempt to use explicit congestion notification (ECN) may reveal its presence in following ways:

  1. The connection fails due to unknown TCP flags being set
  2. The connection fails due to unknown IP flags being set
  3. ECN is not negotiated where expected, or is negotiated where it is not expected


  1. Fetch a webpage from a target server using either HTTP or HTTPS, negotiating ECN.
  2. If the first connection failed, retry the request without attempting to negotiate ECN to confirm that this was responsible for the connectivity failure, and not just that the host was down

Implementation issues

  • To use ECN on Linux, it is necessary to enable a sysctl switch in the kernel which would typically require root access. This also affects all new connections and so this test should not be scheduled to run in parallel with other tests. A userland TCP stack would be able to implement per-connection ECN logic, but would require raw sockets.
  • To confirm that ECN usage was successful it is necessary to perform a packet capture, while connectivity failures can be confirmed from the application layer feedback alone
  • Analysis of raw packets, and also setting the flags for TCP negotiation, could be performed using an eBPF program which could be attached from userspace. Some information on this can be found in an LWN article.
  • It would be possible to attempt the use of multiple protocol features on the first connection, falling back to trying each individually only if the first connection fails. In some rare cases the use of a protocol feature can brick the CPE or upstream middleboxes but this should either happen immediately or never happen.


  • Censorship infrastructure was discovered using this technique in the EE mobile operator network in the United Kingdom. See: I. R. Learmonth, A. Lutu, G. Fairhurst, D. Ros and Ö. Alay, "Path transparency measurements from the mobile edge with PATHspider," 2017 Network Traffic Measurement and Analysis Conference (TMA), Dublin, 2017, pp. 1-6. doi:10.23919/TMA.2017.8002922



  • An independent implementation exists for this technique in PATHspider's ECN plugin