As an openHABian end user, please check out the official openHAB documentation:
openHABian - Hassle-free openHAB Setup
Setting up a fully working Linux system with all needed packages and openHAB recommendations is a boring task taking quite some time and Linux newcomers shouldn't worry about these technical details.
A home automation enthusiast doesn't have to be a Linux enthusiast!
openHABian aims to provide a self-configuring Linux system setup to meet the needs of every openHAB user.
The project provides two things:
- a set of scripts to set up openHAB on any Debian based system incl. Raspberry Pi OS, Ubuntu
- a complete SD-card image pre-configured with openHAB and many hardware specific preparations for all Raspberry Pi models.
openHAB versions 2 and 3
openHABian was made to provide a seamless User eXperience with openHAB version 2. At the time of writing, the first openHAB 3 milestone was just released to the public and we have incorporated the necessary changes to run it on openHABian, too. Please remain aware though that this is BETA code for the time being so it can mess up your system. Don't use this menu option to run a production setup of yours.
Let's put this first: our current recommendation is to get a RPi 4 with 2 GB (4 are
fine, too), a 3A power supply and a 16 GB SD card.
Also get another 32 GB or larger SD card and a USB card reader to make use of the "auto backup" feature.
Avoid getting a RPi4 with 8GB. It's a waste of money and it has issues. You must disable ZRAM or use the 64bit image (untested).
Hardware and OS support
As of openHABian version 1.6, all Raspberry Pi models are supported as hardware. Anything x86 based may work or not. Anything else ARM based such as ODroids, OrangePis and the like may work or not. NAS servers such as QNAP and Synology boxes will not work. Support for PINEA64 was dropped in this current release. We strongly recommend that users choose Raspberry Pi 2, 3 or 4 systems to have 1 GB of RAM or more. RPi 1 and 0/0W only have a single CPU core and 512 MB. This can be sufficient to run a smallish openHAB setup, but it will not be enough to run a full-blown system with many bindings and memory consuming openHABian features/components such as ZRAM, InfluxDB or Grafana. We do not actively prohibit installation on any hardware, including unsupported systems, but we might skip or deny to install specific extensions such as those memory hungry applications named above.
Supporting hardware means testing every single patch and every release. There are simply too many combinations of SBCs, peripherals and OS flavors that maintainers do not have available, or, even if they did, the time to spend on the testing efforts that is required to make openHABian a reliable system. Let's make sure you understand the implications of these statements: it means that to run on hardware other than RPi 2/3/4 or (bare metal i.e. not virtualized) x86 may work but this is not supported.
It may work to install and run openHABian on unsupported hardware. If it does not work, you are welcome to find out what's missing and contribute it back to the community with a Pull Request. It is sometimes simple things like a naming string. We'll be happy to include that in openHABian so you can use your box with openHABian unless there's a valid reason to change or remove it. However, that does not make your box a "supported" one as we don't have it available for our further development and testing. So there remains a risk that future openHABian releases will fail to work on your SBC because we changed a thing that broke support for your HW - unintentionally so however inevitable.
Going beyond what the RPi image provides, as a manually installed set of scripts, we support running openHABian on x86 hardware on generic Debian. On ARM, we only support Raspberry Pi OS. These are what we develop and test openHABian against. We do not actively support Ubuntu so no promises but we provide code "as-is" that is known to run on there. Several optional components though, such as WireGuard or Homegear, are known to expose problems.
We expect you to use the current stable distribution, 'buster' for Raspberry Pi OS (ARM) and Debian (x86) and 'focal' for Ubuntu (x86) this is. To install openHABian on anything older or newer may work or not. If you encounter issues, you may need to upgrade first or to live with the consequences of running an OS on the edge of software development.
Either way, please note that you're on your own when it comes to configuring and installing the HW with the proper OS yourself.
64 bit ?
Although RPi3 and 4 have a 64 bit processor, you cannot run openHAB in 64 bit.
The Azul Java Virtual Machine we currently use is incompatible with the aarch64
ARM architecture. In general you should be aware that to run in 64 bit has a
major drawback: increased memory usage. That is not a good idea on a heavily
memory constrained platform like a RPi. Also remember openHABian makes use of
Raspberry Pi OS which today still is a 32 bit OS.
We are closely observing development and will adapt openHABian once it will
reliably work on 64 bit.
So things may change in the future, but for the time being, you should not manually enforce to install a 64 bit JVM.
On x86 hardware, 64 bit is the standard.
Installation and Setup
If you want to install openHABian on non-supported hardware, you can actually fake it to make openHABian treat your box as if it was one of the supported ones. Needless to say that that may work out or not, but it's worth a try. See openhabian for how to edit openhabian.conf before booting. Set the hw, hwarch and release parameters to match your system best.
openHABian is foremost a collection of
bash scripts versioned and deployed
using git. In the current state the scripts can only be invoked through the
terminal menu system whiptail.
There is a longterm need to better separate the UI part from the script code. A
work has started to define conventions and further explain the code base in the
document CONTRIBUTING along with development guidelines in
A good place to look at to start to understand the code is the file
Building Hardware Images
Take a look at the
build.bash script to get an idea of the process.
Run the code below with
The RPi image is based on the Raspberry Pi OS Lite
(previously called Raspbian) standard image.
sudo bash ./build.bash platform
As the script uses
openhab/openhabian git repository during installation it
must sometimes be changed to test code from other repositories, like a new
feature in a fork. There are two commands for replacing the git repo with a
custom one. The first command uses the current checked-out repository used in
sudo bash build.bash platform dev-git
The second command uses a fully customizable repository:
sudo bash build.bash platform dev-url branch url
Testing is done continuously with Travis-CI using the test framework BATS and the linter ShellCheck. As the tests focus on installing software, a Docker solution is used for easy build-up and teardown.
docker build --tag openhabian/bats-openhabian -f Dockerfile.amd64 . docker run --rm --name "unit-tests" -i openhabian/bats-openhabian bash -c 'bats --tap --recursive --filter "unit-." .' docker run --rm --name "installation-tests" -i openhabian/bats-openhabian bash -c 'bats --tap --recursive --filter "installation-." .' docker run --rm --name "destructive-tests" -i openhabian/bats-openhabian bash -c 'bats --tap --recursive --filter "destructive-." .' docker build --tag openhabian/install-openhabian -f Dockerfile.amd64 . docker run --name "install-test" --privileged -d openhabian/bats-openhabian docker exec -i "install-test" bash -c "./build.bash local-test && mv ~/.profile ~/.bash_profile && /boot/first-boot.bash" docker stop install-test docker rm install-test
The ShellCheck linter can be run by using the following commands:
shellcheck -x -s bash openhabian-setup.sh shellcheck -x -s bash functions/*.bash shellcheck -x -s bash build-image/*.bash shellcheck -x -s bash build.bash ci-setup.bash