iODBC Driver Manager
Copyright 1996-2022 OpenLink Software
Note: The only valid version of the GPL license as far as this project is concerned is the original GNU General Public License Version 2, dated June 1991.
While not mandated by the BSD license, any patches you make to the iODBC project may be contributed back into the project at your discretion. Contributions will benefit the Open Source and Data Access community as a whole. Submissions may be made via the iODBC Github project or via email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Welcome to the iODBC driver manager maintained by OpenLink Software.
This kit will provide you with everything you need to develop ODBC-compliant applications under Unix without having to pay royalties to other parties.
This kit consists of a number of parts:
The iODBC driver manager. This is a complete implementation of an ODBC driver manager, released under either the GNU Library General Public License or the BSD License. We fully comply with these licenses by giving you this product in source form (as well as the binary form). You can download the latest version of the driver manager from the iODBC website.
A simple example application,
iodbctest.c, which gives you a command-line interface to SQL. You can fit this to your purposes, but at the very least this is useful for verification of your ODBC installation.
You can use either part stand-alone, if you wish.
An ODBC driver is still needed to affect your connection architecture. You may build a driver with the iODBC components or obtain an ODBC driver from a commercial vendor. OpenLink Software produces cross-platform commercial drivers as well as maintaining the iODBC distribution: evaluation copies may be obtained via download from the OpenLink Software website. Any ODBC-compliant driver will work with the iODBC Driver Manager.
You can see the iODBC website for pointers to various ODBC drivers.
Installation of run-time distribution
You have probably already unpacked this distribution. The next step is to make sure that your applications can find all the dynamic link libraries. Depending on your system's implementation of dynamic link libraries, you have a number of options:
Install the libraries in a directory that is searched by your linker by default. Typical locations are
Install the libraries in some other place, and make sure that the environment variable your dynamic linker uses to find extra locations for dynamic link libraries. Most systems use the environment variable
LD_LIBRARY_PATHto this end. Known exceptions include AIX which uses
LIBPATH, and HP/UX which uses
SHLIB_PATHfor 32-bit libraries.
If your system has a C compiler, you can verify the installation by compiling the
iodbctest program. Otherwise, you may have ODBC applications installed on your
system which you can use.
Configuration of run-time distribution
The iODBC driver manager looks for a file
~/.odbc.ini, where the tilde stands
for the user's home directory. This file initially contains only a default section
where you can select which driver library to use. Copy the
odbc.ini file from the
examples directory to
~/.odbc.ini and make sure the right path and filename is
used for your installation.
A data source is a section (enclosed in square brackets), and the attributes for
a data source are given within this section. The most important attribute to
iODBC for each datasource is the
Driver attribute. This must point to the shared
library for the ODBC driver associated with the data source.
For example, the OpenLink Enterprise Edition (Multi-Tier) ODBC drivers have a number of attributes which can be set for a data source. Here is a description:
||ODBC connect string keyword||Description|
||The hostname where the database resides.|
||The type of Database Agent. (See
||Server-specific extra options. See Enterprise Edition server-side documentation for Agents which can use this.|
||The database to use.|
||Connect options for the database.|
||The name of the database user.|
||The password of the database user.|
||The number of records that are transferred in a single call to the server. Default is
||The protocol to use. Set to
Apart from these data source-specific settings, you may add a section called
[Communications], which you may use to tune the OpenLink Enterprise Edition
(Multi-Tier) driver further:
||The time in seconds that the client application will wait for the Database Agent to start sending results. Default is
||The time in seconds that the client application will wait for the Request Broker to accept or reject a database connection request. Default is
||RPC send buffer size. A value of
||RPC receive buffer size. A value of
||If set, the name of a file to which debugging output from the driver should be directed.|
iODBC driver manager platform availability
The iODBC driver manager has been ported to following platforms:
|DEC Unix (OSF/1)||3.x - 5.x||DEC Alpha|
|FreeBSD||2.x - 9.x||x86|
|HP/UX||9.x - 11.x||HP9000 s700/s800|
|IBM AIX||3.x - 5.x||IBM RS6000, ppc32, ppc64|
|Linux ELF||1.x, 2.x||x86, x86_64, IA_64, ppc32, ppc64, arm32, arm64|
|macOS||10.x – 11.x||ppc32, ppc64, x86, x86_64, arm64|
|Max/OS SVR4||1.x||Concurrent Maxion 9200 MP|
|NCR SVR4||3.x||NCR 3435|
|SGI Irix SVR4||5.x, 6.x||IP12 MIPS, IP22 MIPS|
|Sun Solaris||2.x||Sun Sparc, x86, x86_64|
|UnixWare SVR4.2||1.x, 2.x||x86|
As the iODBC driver manager uses
libtool, it should be
portable to most modern UNIX-like OS out of the box. However, if you do need to
make changes to the code or the configuration files, we would appreciate it if
you would share your changes with the rest of the internet community by mailing
your patches to email@example.com, so we can
include them for the next build.
Porting the iODBC driver manager to some non-UNIX-like operating systems, such
as the Windows family (3.x, 95, NT, 200x, etc.), IBM OS/2, or Mac Classic, is
supported, but has not been compiled or tested recently. Of course, you will need
to supply a
build file and a short
LibMain for creating the
How to build the iODBC driver manager
Users of macOS should read the separate README_MACOSX document for more detail of porting to this platform.
Users of all other UNIX-like OS:
configureto adjust to target platform
configure program will examine your system for various compiler flags,
system options, etc. In some cases, extra flags need to be added for the
compiler to work properly; for instance, on HP systems, you may need:
$ CFLAGS="-Ae -O" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local ..........
Note that the path of the system wide
odbc.ini file is calculated as follows
(based on flags to
no --prefix default is /etc/odbc.ini --prefix=/usr /etc/odbc.ini --prefix=/xxx/yyy /xxx/yyy/etc/odbc.ini --sysconfdir=/xxx/yyy /xxx/yyy/odbc.ini --with-iodbc-inidir=/xxx/yyy /xxx/yyy/odbc.ini
--with-layout= option is set, then the
parameters will be changed accordingly. Currently, this parameter understands
(with everything going into
/opt/iodbc/). If both are specified,
argument will overrule
$ ./configure --prefix=/usr/local --with-iodbc-inidir=/etc ... ... ... $ make ... ... ... $ su # make install ... ... ...
Driver manager and drivers use the
odbc.ini file or connection string when
establishing a data source connection. On Windows,
odbc.ini is located in
the Windows directory.
On UNIX-like OS, the iODBC driver manager looks for the
odbc.ini file in the
check environment variable
check home in
odbc.ini(settable at configuration time)
Item 1 is the easiest, as most drivers will also look at this variable.
The format of
~/.odbc.ini) is defined as:
odbc.ini ::= data_source_list data_source_list ::= /* empty */ | data_source '\n' data_source_list data_source ::= '[' data_source_name ']' '\n' data_source_desc data_source_name ::= 'default' | [A-Za-z]*[A-Za-z0-9_]* data_source_desc ::= /* empty */ | attrib_desc '\n' data_source_desc addrib_desc ::= Attrib '=' attrib_value Attrib ::= 'Driver' | 'PID' | 'UID' | driver_def_attrib driver_def_attrib ::= [A-Za-z]*[A-Za-z0-9_]*
An example of an
; ; odbc.ini ; [ODBC Data Sources] Myodbc = Myodbc Sample = OpenLink Generic ODBC Driver Virtuoso = Virtuoso [ODBC] TraceFile = /tmp/odbc.trace Trace = 0 ; set to 1 to enable tracing [Sample] Driver = /usr/local/openlink/lib/oplodbc.so.1 Description = Sample OpenLink DSN Host = localhost UserName = openlink Password = xxxx ServerType = Oracle 8.1.x Database = FetchBufferSize = 99 ReadOnly = no [Virtuoso] Driver = /usr/local/virtuoso/lib/virtodbc.so.1 Address = localhost:1112 Database = Demo [Myodbc] Driver = /usr/lib/libmyodbc.so HOST = localhost [Default] Driver = /usr/local/openlink/lib/oplodbc.so.1
The iODBC driver manager traces driver's ODBC call invoked by the driver manager.
Default tracing file is
./odbc.log. Tracing option (i.e., on/off or optional
tracing file name) can be set in
odbc.ini file under the
[ODBC] heading, as:
[ODBC] TraceFile = <optional_trace_file> Trace = ON | On | on | 1 | OFF | Off | off | 0
stdout, i.e. --
TraceFile = stderr
-- or --
TraceFile = stdout
-- the tracing message will go to the terminal screen (if available).
Further Information Sources
iODBC Website containing binaries, sources and documentation.
iODBC Project page on GitHub containing source archives, GIT tree, issues forum.
iODBC Project page on Sourceforge containing source archives, GIT tree, mailing lists, forums, bug reports.
OpenLink Software Website containing free trials and support for OpenLink's ODBC drivers.
Microsoft ODBC Documentation containing the ODBC API Reference Guide.