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Name
ngx_lua - Embed the power of Lua into Nginx
*This module is not distributed with the Nginx source.* See the
installation instructions.
Status
This module is under active development and is production ready.
Version
This document describes ngx_lua v0.5.9
(<https://github.com/chaoslawful/lua-nginx-module/tags>) released on 26
July 2012.
Synopsis
# set search paths for pure Lua external libraries (';;' is the default path):
lua_package_path '/foo/bar/?.lua;/blah/?.lua;;';
# set search paths for Lua external libraries written in C (can also use ';;'):
lua_package_cpath '/bar/baz/?.so;/blah/blah/?.so;;';
server {
location /inline_concat {
# MIME type determined by default_type:
default_type 'text/plain';
set $a "hello";
set $b "world";
# inline Lua script
set_by_lua $res "return ngx.arg[1]..ngx.arg[2]" $a $b;
echo $res;
}
location /rel_file_concat {
set $a "foo";
set $b "bar";
# script path relative to nginx prefix
# $ngx_prefix/conf/concat.lua contents:
#
# return ngx.arg[1]..ngx.arg[2]
#
set_by_lua_file $res conf/concat.lua $a $b;
echo $res;
}
location /abs_file_concat {
set $a "fee";
set $b "baz";
# absolute script path not modified
set_by_lua_file $res /usr/nginx/conf/concat.lua $a $b;
echo $res;
}
location /lua_content {
# MIME type determined by default_type:
default_type 'text/plain';
content_by_lua "ngx.say('Hello,world!')";
}
location /nginx_var {
# MIME type determined by default_type:
default_type 'text/plain';
# try access /nginx_var?a=hello,world
content_by_lua "ngx.print(ngx.var['arg_a'], '\\n')";
}
location /request_body {
# force reading request body (default off)
lua_need_request_body on;
client_max_body_size 50k;
client_body_buffer_size 50k;
content_by_lua 'ngx.print(ngx.var.request_body)';
}
# transparent non-blocking I/O in Lua via subrequests
location /lua {
# MIME type determined by default_type:
default_type 'text/plain';
content_by_lua '
local res = ngx.location.capture("/some_other_location")
if res.status == 200 then
ngx.print(res.body)
end';
}
# GET /recur?num=5
location /recur {
# MIME type determined by default_type:
default_type 'text/plain';
content_by_lua '
local num = tonumber(ngx.var.arg_num) or 0
if num > 50 then
ngx.say("num too big")
return
end
ngx.say("num is: ", num)
if num > 0 then
res = ngx.location.capture("/recur?num=" .. tostring(num - 1))
ngx.print("status=", res.status, " ")
ngx.print("body=", res.body)
else
ngx.say("end")
end
';
}
location /foo {
rewrite_by_lua '
res = ngx.location.capture("/memc",
{ args = { cmd = 'incr', key = ngx.var.uri } }
)
';
proxy_pass http://blah.blah.com;
}
location /blah {
access_by_lua '
local res = ngx.location.capture("/auth")
if res.status == ngx.HTTP_OK then
return
end
if res.status == ngx.HTTP_FORBIDDEN then
ngx.exit(res.status)
end
ngx.exit(ngx.HTTP_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR)
';
# proxy_pass/fastcgi_pass/postgres_pass/...
}
location /mixed {
rewrite_by_lua_file /path/to/rewrite.lua;
access_by_lua_file /path/to/access.lua;
content_by_lua_file /path/to/content.lua;
}
# use nginx var in code path
# WARN: contents in nginx var must be carefully filtered,
# otherwise there'll be great security risk!
location ~ ^/app/(.+) {
content_by_lua_file /path/to/lua/app/root/$1.lua;
}
location / {
lua_need_request_body on;
client_max_body_size 100k;
client_body_buffer_size 100k;
access_by_lua '
-- check the client IP address is in our black list
if ngx.var.remote_addr == "132.5.72.3" then
ngx.exit(ngx.HTTP_FORBIDDEN)
end
-- check if the request body contains bad words
if ngx.var.request_body and
string.match(ngx.var.request_body, "fsck")
then
return ngx.redirect("/terms_of_use.html")
end
-- tests passed
';
# proxy_pass/fastcgi_pass/etc settings
}
}
Description
This module embeds Lua, via the standard Lua interpreter or LuaJIT, into
Nginx and by leveraging Nginx's subrequests, allows the integration of
the powerful Lua threads (Lua coroutines) into the Nginx event model.
Unlike Apache's mod_lua
(<http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.3/mod/mod_lua.html>) and Lighttpd's
mod_magnet (<http://redmine.lighttpd.net/wiki/1/Docs:ModMagnet>), Lua
code executed using this module can be *100% non-blocking* on network
traffic as long as the Nginx API for Lua provided by this module is used
to handle requests to upstream services such as mysql, postgresql,
memcached, redis, or upstream http web services. (See
ngx.location.capture, ngx.location.capture_multi, ngx.socket.tcp,
[[HttpDrizzleModule]], ngx_postgres
(<http://github.com/FRiCKLE/ngx_postgres/>), [[HttpMemcModule]],
[[HttpRedis2Module]] and [[HttpProxyModule]] modules for details).
The Lua interpreter or LuaJIT instance is shared across all the requests
in a single nginx worker process but request contexts are segregated
using lightweight Lua coroutines. Loaded Lua modules persist in the
nginx worker process level resulting in a small memory footprint even
when under heavy loads.
Directives
lua_code_cache
syntax: *lua_code_cache on | off*
default: *lua_code_cache on*
context: *main, server, location, location if*
Enables or disables the Lua code cache for set_by_lua_file,
content_by_lua_file, rewrite_by_lua_file, and access_by_lua_file, and
also force Lua module reloading on a per-request basis.
The Lua files referenced in set_by_lua_file, content_by_lua_file,
access_by_lua_file, and rewrite_by_lua_file will not be cached and the
Lua "package.loaded" table will be cleared at the entry point of every
request (such that Lua modules will not be cached either). With this in
place, developers can adopt an edit-and-refresh approach.
Please note however, that Lua code written inline within nginx.conf such
as those specified by set_by_lua, content_by_lua, access_by_lua, and
rewrite_by_lua will *always* be cached because only the Nginx config
file parser can correctly parse the "nginx.conf" file and the only ways
to to reload the config file are to send a "HUP" signal or to restart
Nginx.
The "ngx_lua" module does not currently support the "stat" mode
available with the Apache "mod_lua" module but this is planned for
implementation in the future.
Disabling the Lua code cache is strongly discouraged for production use
and should only be used during development as it has a significant
negative impact on overall performance. In addition, race conditions
when reloading Lua modules are common for concurrent requests when the
code cache is disabled.
lua_regex_cache_max_entries
syntax: *lua_regex_cache_max_entries <num>*
default: *lua_regex_cache_max_entries 1024*
context: *http*
Specifies the maximum number of entries allowed in the worker process
level compiled regex cache.
The regular expressions used in ngx.re.match, ngx.re.gmatch, ngx.re.sub,
and ngx.re.gsub will be cached within this cache if the regex option "o"
(i.e., compile-once flag) is specified.
The default number of entries allowed is 1024 and when this limit is
reached, new regular expressions will not be cached (as if the "o"
option was not specified) and there will be one, and only one, warning
in the "error.log" file:
2011/08/27 23:18:26 [warn] 31997#0: *1 lua exceeding regex cache max entries (1024), ...
Do not activate the "o" option for regular expressions (and/or "replace"
string arguments for ngx.re.sub and ngx.re.gsub) that are generated *on
the fly* and give rise to infinite variations to avoid hitting the
specified limit.
lua_package_path
syntax: *lua_package_path <lua-style-path-str>*
default: *The content of LUA_PATH environ variable or Lua's compiled-in
defaults.*
context: *main*
Sets the Lua module search path used by scripts specified by set_by_lua,
content_by_lua and others. The path string is in standard Lua path form,
and ";;" can be used to stand for the original search paths.
As from the "v0.5.0rc29" release, the special notation $prefix or
"${prefix}" can be used in the search path string to indicate the path
of the "server prefix" usually determined by the "-p PATH" command-line
option while starting the Nginx server.
lua_package_cpath
syntax: *lua_package_cpath <lua-style-cpath-str>*
default: *The content of LUA_CPATH environment variable or Lua's
compiled-in defaults.*
context: *main*
Sets the Lua C-module search path used by scripts specified by
set_by_lua, content_by_lua and others. The cpath string is in standard
Lua cpath form, and ";;" can be used to stand for the original cpath.
As from the "v0.5.0rc29" release, the special notation $prefix or
"${prefix}" can be used in the search path string to indicate the path
of the "server prefix" usually determined by the "-p PATH" command-line
option while starting the Nginx server.
init_by_lua
syntax: *init_by_lua <lua-script-str>*
context: *http*
phase: *loading-config*
Runs the Lua code specified by the argument "<lua-script-str>" on the
global Lua VM level when the Nginx master process (if any) is loading
the Nginx config file.
When Nginx receives the "HUP" signal and starts reloading the config
file, the Lua VM will also be re-created and "init_by_lua" will run
again on the new Lua VM.
Usually you can register (true) Lua global variables or pre-load Lua
modules at server start-up by means of this hook. Here is an example for
pre-loading Lua modules:
init_by_lua 'require "cjson"';
server {
location = /api {
content_by_lua '
ngx.say(cjson.encode({dog = 5, cat = 6}))
';
}
}
You can also initialize the lua_shared_dict shm storage at this phase.
Here is an example for this:
lua_shared_dict dogs 1m;
init_by_lua '
local dogs = ngx.shared.dogs;
dogs:set("Tom", 56)
';
server {
location = /api {
content_by_lua '
local dogs = ngx.shared.dogs;
ngx.say(dogs:get("Tom"))
';
}
}
But note that, the lua_shared_dict's shm storage will not be cleared
through a config reload (via the "HUP" signal, for example). So if you
do *not* want to re-initialize the shm storage in your "init_by_lua"
code in this case, then you just need to set a custom flag in the shm
storage and always check the flag in your "init_by_lua" code.
Because the Lua code in this context runs before Nginx forks its worker
processes (if any), data or code loaded here will enjoy the
Copy-on-write (COW) (<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copy-on-write>)
feature provided by many operating systems among all the worker
processes, thus saving a lot of memory.
Only a small set of the Nginx API for Lua is supported in this context:
* Logging APIs: ngx.log and print,
* Shared Dictionary API: ngx.shared.DICT.
More Nginx APIs for Lua may be supported in this context upon future
user requests.
Basically you can safely use Lua libraries that do blocking I/O in this
very context because blocking the master process during server start-up
is completely okay. Even the Nginx core does blocking I/O (at least on
resolving upstream's host names) at the configure-loading phase.
You should be very careful about potential security vulnerabilities in
your Lua code registered in this context because the Nginx master
process is often run under the "root" account.
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.5.5" release.
init_by_lua_file
syntax: *init_by_lua_file <path-to-lua-script-file>*
context: *http*
phase: *loading-config*
Equivalent to init_by_lua, except that the file specified by
"<path-to-lua-script-file>" contains the Lua code or Lua/LuaJIT bytecode
to be executed.
When a relative path like "foo/bar.lua" is given, they will be turned
into the absolute path relative to the "server prefix" path determined
by the "-p PATH" command-line option while starting the Nginx server.
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.5.5" release.
set_by_lua
syntax: *set_by_lua $res <lua-script-str> [$arg1 $arg2 ...]*
context: *server, server if, location, location if*
phase: *server-rewrite, rewrite*
Executes code specified in "<lua-script-str>" with optional input
arguments "$arg1 $arg2 ...", and returns string output to $res. The code
in "<lua-script-str>" can make API calls and can retrieve input
arguments from the "ngx.arg" table (index starts from 1 and increases
sequentially).
This directive is designed to execute short, fast running code blocks as
the Nginx event loop is blocked during code execution. Time consuming
code sequences should therefore be avoided.
Note that the following API functions are currently disabled within this
context:
* Output API functions (e.g., ngx.say and ngx.send_headers)
* Control API functions (e.g., ngx.exit)
* Subrequest API functions (e.g., ngx.location.capture and
ngx.location.capture_multi)
* Cosocket API functions (e.g., ngx.socket.tcp and ngx.req.socket).
In addition, note that this directive can only write out a value to a
single Nginx variable at a time. However, a workaround is possible using
the ngx.var.VARIABLE interface.
location /foo {
set $diff ''; # we have to predefine the $diff variable here
set_by_lua $sum '
local a = 32
local b = 56
ngx.var.diff = a - b; -- write to $diff directly
return a + b; -- return the $sum value normally
';
echo "sum = $sum, diff = $diff";
}
This directive can be freely mixed with all directives of the
[[HttpRewriteModule]], [[HttpSetMiscModule]], and [[HttpArrayVarModule]]
modules. All of these directives will run in the same order as they
appear in the config file.
set $foo 32;
set_by_lua $bar 'tonumber(ngx.var.foo) + 1';
set $baz "bar: $bar"; # $baz == "bar: 33"
As from the "v0.5.0rc29" release, Nginx variable interpolation is
disabled in the "<lua-script-str>" argument of this directive and
therefore, the dollar sign character ("$") can be used directly.
This directive requires the ngx_devel_kit
(<https://github.com/simpl/ngx_devel_kit>) module.
set_by_lua_file
syntax: *set_by_lua_file $res <path-to-lua-script-file> [$arg1 $arg2
...]*
context: *server, server if, location, location if*
phase: *server-rewrite, rewrite*
Equivalent to set_by_lua, except that the file specified by
"<path-to-lua-script-file>" contains the Lua code, or, as from the
"v0.5.0rc32" release, the Lua/LuaJIT bytecode to be executed.
Nginx variable interpolation is supported in the
"<path-to-lua-script-file>" argument string of this directive. But
special care must be taken for injection attacks.
When a relative path like "foo/bar.lua" is given, they will be turned
into the absolute path relative to the "server prefix" path determined
by the "-p PATH" command-line option while starting the Nginx server.
When the Lua code cache is turned on (by default), the user code is
loaded once at the first request and cached and the Nginx config must be
reloaded each time the Lua source file is modified. The Lua code cache
can be temporarily disabled during development by switching
lua_code_cache "off" in "nginx.conf" to avoid reloading Nginx.
This directive requires the ngx_devel_kit
(<https://github.com/simpl/ngx_devel_kit>) module.
content_by_lua
syntax: *content_by_lua <lua-script-str>*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *content*
Acts as a "content handler" and executes Lua code string specified in
"<lua-script-str>" for every request. The Lua code may make API calls
and is executed as a new spawned coroutine in an independent global
environment (i.e. a sandbox).
Do not use this directive and other content handler directives in the
same location. For example, this directive and the proxy_pass directive
should not be used in the same location.
content_by_lua_file
syntax: *content_by_lua_file <path-to-lua-script-file>*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *content*
Equivalent to content_by_lua, except that the file specified by
"<path-to-lua-script-file>" contains the Lua code, or, as from the
"v0.5.0rc32" release, the Lua/LuaJIT bytecode to be executed.
Nginx variables can be used in the "<path-to-lua-script-file>" string to
provide flexibility. This however carries some risks and is not
ordinarily recommended.
When a relative path like "foo/bar.lua" is given, they will be turned
into the absolute path relative to the "server prefix" path determined
by the "-p PATH" command-line option while starting the Nginx server.
When the Lua code cache is turned on (by default), the user code is
loaded once at the first request and cached and the Nginx config must be
reloaded each time the Lua source file is modified. The Lua code cache
can be temporarily disabled during development by switching
lua_code_cache "off" in "nginx.conf" to avoid reloading Nginx.
rewrite_by_lua
syntax: *rewrite_by_lua <lua-script-str>*
context: *http, server, location, location if*
phase: *rewrite tail*
Acts as a rewrite phase handler and executes Lua code string specified
in "<lua-script-str>" for every request. The Lua code may make API calls
and is executed as a new spawned coroutine in an independent global
environment (i.e. a sandbox).
Note that this handler always runs *after* the standard
[[HttpRewriteModule]]. So the following will work as expected:
location /foo {
set $a 12; # create and initialize $a
set $b ""; # create and initialize $b
rewrite_by_lua 'ngx.var.b = tonumber(ngx.var.a) + 1';
echo "res = $b";
}
because "set $a 12" and "set $b """ run *before* rewrite_by_lua.
On the other hand, the following will not work as expected:
? location /foo {
? set $a 12; # create and initialize $a
? set $b ''; # create and initialize $b
? rewrite_by_lua 'ngx.var.b = tonumber(ngx.var.a) + 1';
? if ($b = '13') {
? rewrite ^ /bar redirect;
? break;
? }
?
? echo "res = $b";
? }
because "if" runs *before* rewrite_by_lua even if it is placed after
rewrite_by_lua in the config.
The right way of doing this is as follows:
location /foo {
set $a 12; # create and initialize $a
set $b ''; # create and initialize $b
rewrite_by_lua '
ngx.var.b = tonumber(ngx.var.a) + 1
if tonumber(ngx.var.b) == 13 then
return ngx.redirect("/bar");
end
';
echo "res = $b";
}
Note that the ngx_eval (<http://www.grid.net.ru/nginx/eval.en.html>)
module can be approximated by using rewrite_by_lua. For example,
location / {
eval $res {
proxy_pass http://foo.com/check-spam;
}
if ($res = 'spam') {
rewrite ^ /terms-of-use.html redirect;
}
fastcgi_pass ...;
}
can be implemented in "ngx_lua" as:
location = /check-spam {
internal;
proxy_pass http://foo.com/check-spam;
}
location / {
rewrite_by_lua '
local res = ngx.location.capture("/check-spam")
if res.body == "spam" then
ngx.redirect("/terms-of-use.html")
end
';
fastcgi_pass ...;
}
Just as any other rewrite phase handlers, rewrite_by_lua also runs in
subrequests.
Note that when calling "ngx.exit(ngx.OK)" within a rewrite_by_lua
handler, the nginx request processing control flow will still continue
to the content handler. To terminate the current request from within a
rewrite_by_lua handler, calling ngx.exit with status >= 200
("ngx.HTTP_OK") and status < 300 ("ngx.HTTP_SPECIAL_RESPONSE") for
successful quits and "ngx.exit(ngx.HTTP_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR)" (or its
friends) for failures.
If the [[HttpRewriteModule]]'s rewrite directive is used to change the
URI and initiate location re-lookups (internal redirections), then any
rewrite_by_lua or rewrite_by_lua_file code sequences within the current
location will not be executed. For example,
location /foo {
rewrite ^ /bar;
rewrite_by_lua 'ngx.exit(503)';
}
location /bar {
...
}
Here the Lua code "ngx.exit(503)" will never run. This will be the case
if "rewrite ^ /bar last" is used as this will similarly initiate an
internal redirection. If the "break" modifier is used instead, there
will be no internal redirection and the "rewrite_by_lua" code will be
executed.
The "rewrite_by_lua" code will always run at the end of the "rewrite"
request-processing phase unless rewrite_by_lua_no_postpone is turned on.
rewrite_by_lua_file
syntax: *rewrite_by_lua_file <path-to-lua-script-file>*
context: *http, server, location, location if*
phase: *rewrite tail*
Equivalent to rewrite_by_lua, except that the file specified by
"<path-to-lua-script-file>" contains the Lua code, or, as from the
"v0.5.0rc32" release, the Lua/LuaJIT bytecode to be executed.
Nginx variables can be used in the "<path-to-lua-script-file>" string to
provide flexibility. This however carries some risks and is not
ordinarily recommended.
When a relative path like "foo/bar.lua" is given, they will be turned
into the absolute path relative to the "server prefix" path determined
by the "-p PATH" command-line option while starting the Nginx server.
When the Lua code cache is turned on (by default), the user code is
loaded once at the first request and cached and the Nginx config must be
reloaded each time the Lua source file is modified. The Lua code cache
can be temporarily disabled during development by switching
lua_code_cache "off" in "nginx.conf" to avoid reloading Nginx.
The "rewrite_by_lua_file" code will always run at the end of the
"rewrite" request-processing phase unless rewrite_by_lua_no_postpone is
turned on.
access_by_lua
syntax: *access_by_lua <lua-script-str>*
context: *http, server, location, location if*
phase: *access tail*
Acts as an access phase handler and executes Lua code string specified
in "<lua-script-str>" for every request. The Lua code may make API calls
and is executed as a new spawned coroutine in an independent global
environment (i.e. a sandbox).
Note that this handler always runs *after* the standard
[[HttpAccessModule]]. So the following will work as expected:
location / {
deny 192.168.1.1;
allow 192.168.1.0/24;
allow 10.1.1.0/16;
deny all;
access_by_lua '
local res = ngx.location.capture("/mysql", { ... })
...
';
# proxy_pass/fastcgi_pass/...
}
That is, if a client IP address is in the blacklist, it will be denied
before the MySQL query for more complex authentication is executed by
access_by_lua.
Note that the ngx_auth_request
(<http://mdounin.ru/hg/ngx_http_auth_request_module/>) module can be
approximated by using access_by_lua:
location / {
auth_request /auth;
# proxy_pass/fastcgi_pass/postgres_pass/...
}
can be implemented in "ngx_lua" as:
location / {
access_by_lua '
local res = ngx.location.capture("/auth")
if res.status == ngx.HTTP_OK then
return
end
if res.status == ngx.HTTP_FORBIDDEN then
ngx.exit(res.status)
end
ngx.exit(ngx.HTTP_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR)
';
# proxy_pass/fastcgi_pass/postgres_pass/...
}
As with other access phase handlers, access_by_lua will *not* run in
subrequests.
Note that when calling "ngx.exit(ngx.OK)" within a access_by_lua
handler, the nginx request processing control flow will still continue
to the content handler. To terminate the current request from within a
access_by_lua handler, calling ngx.exit with status >= 200
("ngx.HTTP_OK") and status < 300 ("ngx.HTTP_SPECIAL_RESPONSE") for
successful quits and "ngx.exit(ngx.HTTP_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR)" (or its
friends) for failures.
access_by_lua_file
syntax: *access_by_lua_file <path-to-lua-script-file>*
context: *http, server, location, location if*
phase: *access tail*
Equivalent to access_by_lua, except that the file specified by
"<path-to-lua-script-file>" contains the Lua code, or, as from the
"v0.5.0rc32" release, the Lua/LuaJIT bytecode to be executed.
Nginx variables can be used in the "<path-to-lua-script-file>" string to
provide flexibility. This however carries some risks and is not
ordinarily recommended.
When a relative path like "foo/bar.lua" is given, they will be turned
into the absolute path relative to the "server prefix" path determined
by the "-p PATH" command-line option while starting the Nginx server.
When the Lua code cache is turned on (by default), the user code is
loaded once at the first request and cached and the Nginx config must be
reloaded each time the Lua source file is modified. The Lua code cache
can be temporarily disabled during development by switching
lua_code_cache "off" in "nginx.conf" to avoid repeatedly reloading
Nginx.
header_filter_by_lua
syntax: *header_filter_by_lua <lua-script-str>*
context: *http, server, location, location if*
phase: *output-header-filter*
Uses Lua code specified in "<lua-script-str>" to define an output header
filter.
Note that the following API functions are currently disabled within this
context:
* Output API functions (e.g., ngx.say and ngx.send_headers)
* Control API functions (e.g., ngx.exit and ngx.exec)
* Subrequest API functions (e.g., ngx.location.capture and
ngx.location.capture_multi)
* Cosocket API functions (e.g., ngx.socket.tcp and ngx.req.socket).
Here is an example of overriding a response header (or adding one if
absent) in our Lua header filter:
location / {
proxy_pass http://mybackend;
header_filter_by_lua 'ngx.header.Foo = "blah"';
}
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.2.1rc20" release.
header_filter_by_lua_file
syntax: *header_filter_by_lua_file <path-to-lua-script-file>*
context: *http, server, location, location if*
phase: *output-header-filter*
Equivalent to header_filter_by_lua, except that the file specified by
"<path-to-lua-script-file>" contains the Lua code, or as from the
"v0.5.0rc32" release, the Lua/LuaJIT bytecode to be executed.
When a relative path like "foo/bar.lua" is given, they will be turned
into the absolute path relative to the "server prefix" path determined
by the "-p PATH" command-line option while starting the Nginx server.
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.2.1rc20" release.
body_filter_by_lua
syntax: *body_filter_by_lua <lua-script-str>*
context: *http, server, location, location if*
phase: *output-body-filter*
Uses Lua code specified in "<lua-script-str>" to define an output body
filter.
The input data chunk is passed via ngx.arg[1] (as a Lua string value)
and the "eof" flag indicating the end of the response body data stream
is passed via ngx.arg[2] (as a Lua boolean value).
Behind the scene, the "eof" flag is just the "last_buf" flag of the
nginx chain link buffers. And in the context of an Nginx subrequest,
there is no "eof" flag at all, due to the underlying limitation in the
Nginx core.
The output data stream can be aborted immediately by running the
following Lua statement:
return ngx.ERROR
This will truncate the response body and usually result in incomplete
and also invalid responses.
The Lua code can pass its own modified version of the input data chunk
to the downstream Nginx output body filters by overriding ngx.arg[1]
with a Lua string or a Lua table of strings. For example, to transform
all the lowercase letters in the response body, we can just write:
location / {
proxy_pass http://mybackend;
body_filter_by_lua 'ngx.arg[1] = string.upper(ngx.arg[1])';
}
When setting "nil" or an empty Lua string value to "ngx.arg[1]", no data
chunk will be passed to the downstream Nginx output filters at all.
Likewise, new "eof" flag can also be specified by setting a boolean
value to ngx.arg[2]. For example,
location /t {
echo hello world;
echo hiya globe;
body_filter_by_lua '
local chunk = ngx.arg[1]
if string.match(chunk, "hello") then
ngx.arg[2] = true -- new eof
return
end
-- just throw away any remaining chunk data
ngx.arg[1] = nil
';
}
Then "GET /t" will just return the output
hello world
That is, when the body filter sees a chunk containing the word "hello",
then it will set the "eof" flag to true immediately, resulting in
truncated but still valid responses.
When the Lua code may change the length of the response body, then it is
required to always clear out the "Content-Length" response header (if
any) in a header filter to enforce streaming output, as in
location /foo {
# fastcgi_pass/proxy_pass/...
header_filter_by_lua 'ngx.header.content_length = nil';
body_filter_by_lua 'ngx.arg[1] = {string.len(arg[1]), "\n"}'
}
Note that the following API functions are currently disabled within this
context:
* Output API functions (e.g., ngx.say and ngx.send_headers)
* Control API functions (e.g., ngx.exit and ngx.exec)
* Subrequest API functions (e.g., ngx.location.capture and
ngx.location.capture_multi)
* Cosocket API functions (e.g., ngx.socket.tcp and ngx.req.socket).
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc32" release.
body_filter_by_lua_file
syntax: *body_filter_by_lua_file <path-to-lua-script-file>*
context: *http, server, location, location if*
phase: *output-body-filter*
Equivalent to body_filter_by_lua, except that the file specified by
"<path-to-lua-script-file>" contains the Lua code, or, as from the
"v0.5.0rc32" release, the Lua/LuaJIT bytecode to be executed.
When a relative path like "foo/bar.lua" is given, they will be turned
into the absolute path relative to the "server prefix" path determined
by the "-p PATH" command-line option while starting the Nginx server.
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc32" release.
log_by_lua
syntax: *log_by_lua <lua-script-str>*
context: *http, server, location, location if*
phase: *log*
Run the Lua source code inlined as the "<lua-script-str>" at the "log"
request processing phase. This does not replace the current access logs,
but runs after.
Note that the following API functions are currently disabled within this
context:
* Output API functions (e.g., ngx.say and ngx.send_headers)
* Control API functions (e.g., ngx.exit)
* Subrequest API functions (e.g., ngx.location.capture and
ngx.location.capture_multi)
* Cosocket API functions (e.g., ngx.socket.tcp and ngx.req.socket).
Here is an example of gathering average data for
$upstream_response_time:
lua_shared_dict log_dict 5M;
server {
location / {
proxy_pass http://mybackend;
log_by_lua '
local log_dict = ngx.shared.log_dict
local upstream_time = tonumber(ngx.var.upstream_response_time)
local sum = log_dict:get("upstream_time-sum") or 0
sum = sum + upstream_time
log_dict:set("upstream_time-sum", sum)
local newval, err = log_dict:incr("upstream_time-nb", 1)
if not newval and err == "not found" then
log_dict:add("upstream_time-nb", 0)
log_dict:incr("upstream_time-nb", 1)
end
';
}
location = /status {
content_by_lua '
local log_dict = ngx.shared.log_dict
local sum = log_dict:get("upstream_time-sum")
local nb = log_dict:get("upstream_time-nb")
if nb and sum then
ngx.say("average upstream response time: ", sum / nb,
" (", nb, " reqs)")
else
ngx.say("no data yet")
end
';
}
}
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc31" release.
log_by_lua_file
syntax: *log_by_lua_file <path-to-lua-script-file>*
context: *http, server, location, location if*
phase: *log*
Equivalent to log_by_lua, except that the file specified by
"<path-to-lua-script-file>" contains the Lua code, or, as from the
"v0.5.0rc32" release, the Lua/LuaJIT bytecode to be executed.
When a relative path like "foo/bar.lua" is given, they will be turned
into the absolute path relative to the "server prefix" path determined
by the "-p PATH" command-line option while starting the Nginx server.
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc31" release.
lua_need_request_body
syntax: *lua_need_request_body <on|off>*
default: *off*
context: *main | server | location*
phase: *depends on usage*
Determines whether to force the request body data to be read before
running rewrite/access/access_by_lua* or not. The Nginx core does not
read the client request body by default and if request body data is
required, then this directive should be turned "on" or the
ngx.req.read_body function should be called within the Lua code.
To read the request body data within the $request_body variable,
client_body_buffer_size must have the same value as
client_max_body_size. Because when the content length exceeds
client_body_buffer_size but less than client_max_body_size, Nginx will
automatically buffer the data into a temporary file on the disk, which
will lead to empty value in the $request_body variable.
If the current location includes rewrite_by_lua or rewrite_by_lua_file
directives, then the request body will be read just before the
rewrite_by_lua or rewrite_by_lua_file code is run (and also at the
"rewrite" phase). Similarly, if only content_by_lua is specified, the
request body will not be read until the content handler's Lua code is
about to run (i.e., the request body will be read during the content
phase).
It is recommended however, to use the ngx.req.read_body and
ngx.req.discard_body functions for finer control over the request body
reading process instead.
This also applies to access_by_lua and access_by_lua_file.
lua_shared_dict
syntax: *lua_shared_dict <name> <size>*
default: *no*
context: *http*
phase: *depends on usage*
Declares a shared memory zone, "<name>", to serve as storage for the shm
based Lua dictionary "ngx.shared.<name>".
The "<size>" argument accepts size units such as "k" and "m":
http {
lua_shared_dict dogs 10m;
...
}
See ngx.shared.DICT for details.
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc22" release.
lua_socket_connect_timeout
syntax: *lua_socket_connect_timeout <time>*
default: *lua_socket_connect_timeout 60s*
context: *http, server, location*
This directive controls the default timeout value used in
TCP/unix-domain socket object's connect method and can be overridden by
the settimeout method.
The "<time>" argument can be an integer, with an optional time unit,
like "s" (second), "ms" (millisecond), "m" (minute). The default time
unit is "s", i.e., "second". The default setting is "60s".
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc1" release.
lua_socket_send_timeout
syntax: *lua_socket_send_timeout <time>*
default: *lua_socket_send_timeout 60s*
context: *http, server, location*
Controls the default timeout value used in TCP/unix-domain socket
object's send method and can be overridden by the settimeout method.
The "<time>" argument can be an integer, with an optional time unit,
like "s" (second), "ms" (millisecond), "m" (minute). The default time
unit is "s", i.e., "second". The default setting is "60s".
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc1" release.
lua_socket_send_lowat
syntax: *lua_socket_send_lowat <size>*
default: *lua_socket_send_lowat 0*
context: *http, server, location*
Controls the "lowat" (low water) value for the cosocket send buffer.
lua_socket_read_timeout
syntax: *lua_socket_read_timeout <time>*
default: *lua_socket_read_timeout 60s*
context: *http, server, location*
phase: *depends on usage*
This directive controls the default timeout value used in
TCP/unix-domain socket object's receive method and iterator functions
returned by the receiveuntil method. This setting can be overridden by
the settimeout method.
The "<time>" argument can be an integer, with an optional time unit,
like "s" (second), "ms" (millisecond), "m" (minute). The default time
unit is "s", i.e., "second". The default setting is "60s".
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc1" release.
lua_socket_buffer_size
syntax: *lua_socket_buffer_size <size>*
default: *lua_socket_buffer_size 4k/8k*
context: *http, server, location*
Specifies the buffer size used by cosocket reading operations.
This buffer does not have to be that big to hold everything at the same
time because cosocket supports 100% non-buffered reading and parsing. So
even 1 byte buffer size should still work everywhere but the performance
could be terrible.
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc1" release.
lua_socket_pool_size
syntax: *lua_socket_pool_size <size>*
default: *lua_socket_pool_size 30*
context: *http, server, location*
Specifies the size limit (in terms of connection count) for every
cosocket connection pool associated with every remote server (i.e.,
identified by either the host-port pair or the unix domain socket file
path).
Default to 30 connections for every pool.
When the connection pool is exceeding the size limit, the least recently
used (idle) connection already in the pool will be closed automatically
to make room for the current connection.
Note that the cosocket connection pool is per nginx worker process
rather than per nginx server instance, so so size limit specified here
also applies to every single nginx worker process.
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc1" release.
lua_socket_keepalive_timeout
syntax: *lua_socket_keepalive_timeout <time>*
default: *lua_socket_keepalive_timeout 60s*
context: *http, server, location*
This directive controls the default maximal idle time of the connections
in the cosocket built-in connection pool. When this timeout reaches,
idle connections will be closed automatically and removed from the pool.
This setting can be overridden by cosocket objects' setkeepalive method.
The "<time>" argument can be an integer, with an optional time unit,
like "s" (second), "ms" (millisecond), "m" (minute). The default time
unit is "s", i.e., "second". The default setting is "60s".
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc1" release.
lua_http10_buffering
syntax: *lua_http10_buffering on|off*
default: *lua_http10_buffering on*
context: *http, server, location, location-if*
Enables or disables the automatic response caching for HTTP 1.0 (or
older) requests. This buffering mechanism is mainly used for HTTP 1.0
keep-alive which replies on a proper "Content-Length" response header.
If the Lua code explicitly sets a "Content-Length" response header
before sending the headers (either explicitly via ngx.send_headers or
implicitly via the first ngx.say or ngx.print call).
To output very large response data in a streaming fashion (via the
ngx.flush call, for example), this directive MUST be turned off to
minimize memory usage.
This directive is turned "on" by default.
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc19" release.
rewrite_by_lua_no_postpone
syntax: *rewrite_by_lua_no_postpone on|off*
default: *rewrite_by_lua_no_postpone off*
context: *http, server, location, location-if*
Controls whether or not to disable postponing rewrite_by_lua and
rewrite_by_lua_file directives to run at the end of the "rewrite"
request-processing phase. By default, this directive is turned off and
the Lua code is postponed to run at the end of the "rewrite" phase.
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc29" release.
lua_transform_underscores_in_response_headers
syntax: *lua_transform_underscores_in_response_headers on|off*
default: *lua_transform_underscores_in_response_headers on*
context: *http, server, location, location-if*
Controls whether to transform underscores ("_") in the response header
names specified in the ngx.header.HEADER API to hypens ("-").
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc32" release.
Nginx API for Lua
Introduction
The various *_by_lua and *_by_lua_file configuration directives serve as
gateways to the Lua API within the "nginx.conf" file. The Nginx Lua API
described below can only be called within the user Lua code run in the
context of these configuration directives.
The API is exposed to Lua in the form of two standard packages "ngx" and
"ndk". These packages are in the default global scope within "ngx_lua"
and are always available within "ngx_lua" directives.
The packages can be introduced into external Lua modules by using the
package.seeall
(<http://www.lua.org/manual/5.1/manual.html#pdf-package.seeall>) option:
module("my_module", package.seeall)
function say(a) ngx.say(a) end
Alternatively, they can be imported to external Lua modules by using
file scoped local Lua variables:
local ngx = ngx
module("my_module")
function say(a) ngx.say(a) end
It is also possible to directly require the packages in external Lua
modules:
local ngx = require "ngx"
local ndk = require "ndk"
The ability to require these packages was introduced in the "v0.2.1rc19"
release.
Network I/O operations in user code should only be done through the
Nginx Lua API calls as the Nginx event loop may be blocked and
performance drop off dramatically otherwise. Disk operations with
relatively small amount of data can be done using the standard Lua "io"
library but huge file reading and writing should be avoided wherever
possible as they may block the Nginx process significantly. Delegating
all network and disk I/O operations to Nginx's subrequests (via the
ngx.location.capture method and similar) is strongly recommended for
maximum performance.
ngx.arg
syntax: *val = ngx.arg[index]*
context: *set_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua**
When this is used in the context of the set_by_lua or set_by_lua_file
directives, this table is read-only and holds the input arguments to the
config directives:
value = ngx.arg[n]
Here is an example
location /foo {
set $a 32;
set $b 56;
set_by_lua $res
'return tonumber(ngx.arg[1]) + tonumber(ngx.arg[2])'
$a $b;
echo $sum;
}
that writes out 88, the sum of 32 and 56.
When this table is used in the context of body_filter_by_lua or
body_filter_by_lua_file, the first element holds the input data chunk to
the output filter code and the second element holds the boolean flag for
the "eof" flag indicating the end of the whole output data stream.
The data chunk and "eof" flag passed to the downstream Nginx output
filters can also be overridden by assigning values directly to the
corresponding table elements. When setting "nil" or an empty Lua string
value to "ngx.arg[1]", no data chunk will be passed to the downstream
Nginx output filters at all.
ngx.var.VARIABLE
syntax: *ngx.var.VAR_NAME*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Read and write Nginx variable values.
value = ngx.var.some_nginx_variable_name
ngx.var.some_nginx_variable_name = value
Note that only already defined nginx variables can be written to. For
example:
location /foo {
set $my_var ''; # this line is required to create $my_var at config time
content_by_lua '
ngx.var.my_var = 123;
...
';
}
That is, nginx variables cannot be created on-the-fly.
Some special nginx variables like $args and $limit_rate can be assigned
a value, some are not, like $arg_PARAMETER.
Nginx regex group capturing variables $1, $2, $3, and etc, can be read
by this interface as well, by writing "ngx.var[1]", "ngx.var[2]",
"ngx.var[3]", and etc.
Setting "ngx.var.Foo" to a "nil" value will unset the $Foo Nginx
variable.
ngx.var.args = nil
Core constants
context: *init_by_lua*, set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*,
content_by_lua*, header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua,
*log_by_lua**
ngx.OK (0)
ngx.ERROR (-1)
ngx.AGAIN (-2)
ngx.DONE (-4)
ngx.DECLINED (-5)
Note that only three of these constants are utilized by the Nginx API
for Lua (i.e., ngx.exit accepts "NGX_OK", "NGX_ERROR", and
"NGX_DECLINED" as input).
ngx.null
The "ngx.null" constant is a "NULL" light userdata usually used to
represent nil values in Lua tables etc and is similar to the lua-cjson
(<http://www.kyne.com.au/~mark/software/lua-cjson.php>) library's
"cjson.null" constant. This constant was first introduced in the
"v0.5.0rc5" release.
The "ngx.DECLINED" constant was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc19"
release.
HTTP method constants
context: *init_by_lua*, set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*,
content_by_lua*, header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua, log_by_lua**
ngx.HTTP_GET
ngx.HTTP_HEAD
ngx.HTTP_PUT
ngx.HTTP_POST
ngx.HTTP_DELETE
ngx.HTTP_OPTIONS (first introduced in the v0.5.0rc24 release)
These constants are usually used in ngx.location.capture and
ngx.location.capture_multi method calls.
HTTP status constants
context: *init_by_lua*, set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*,
content_by_lua*, header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua, log_by_lua**
value = ngx.HTTP_OK (200)
value = ngx.HTTP_CREATED (201)
value = ngx.HTTP_SPECIAL_RESPONSE (300)
value = ngx.HTTP_MOVED_PERMANENTLY (301)
value = ngx.HTTP_MOVED_TEMPORARILY (302)
value = ngx.HTTP_SEE_OTHER (303)
value = ngx.HTTP_NOT_MODIFIED (304)
value = ngx.HTTP_BAD_REQUEST (400)
value = ngx.HTTP_UNAUTHORIZED (401)
value = ngx.HTTP_FORBIDDEN (403)
value = ngx.HTTP_NOT_FOUND (404)
value = ngx.HTTP_NOT_ALLOWED (405)
value = ngx.HTTP_GONE (410)
value = ngx.HTTP_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR (500)
value = ngx.HTTP_METHOD_NOT_IMPLEMENTED (501)
value = ngx.HTTP_SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE (503)
value = ngx.HTTP_GATEWAY_TIMEOUT (504) (first added in the v0.3.1rc38 release)
Nginx log level constants
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua, log_by_lua**
ngx.STDERR
ngx.EMERG
ngx.ALERT
ngx.CRIT
ngx.ERR
ngx.WARN
ngx.NOTICE
ngx.INFO
ngx.DEBUG
These constants are usually used by the ngx.log method.
print
syntax: *print(...)*
context: *init_by_lua*, set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*,
content_by_lua*, header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua, log_by_lua**
Writes argument values into the nginx "error.log" file with the
"ngx.NOTICE" log level.
It is equivalent to
ngx.log(ngx.NOTICE, ...)
Lua "nil" arguments are accepted and result in literal "nil" strings
while Lua booleans result in literal "true" or "false" strings. And the
"ngx.null" constant will yield the "null" string output.
There is a hard coded 2048 byte limitation on error message lengths in
the Nginx core. This limit includes trailing newlines and leading time
stamps. If the message size exceeds this limit, Nginx will truncate the
message text accordingly. This limit can be manually modified by editing
the "NGX_MAX_ERROR_STR" macro definition in the "src/core/ngx_log.h"
file in the Nginx source tree.
ngx.ctx
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua, log_by_lua**
This table can be used to store per-request Lua context data and has a
life time identical to the current request (as with the Nginx
variables).
Consider the following example,
location /test {
rewrite_by_lua '
ngx.say("foo = ", ngx.ctx.foo)
ngx.ctx.foo = 76
';
access_by_lua '
ngx.ctx.foo = ngx.ctx.foo + 3
';
content_by_lua '
ngx.say(ngx.ctx.foo)
';
}
Then "GET /test" will yield the output
foo = nil
79
That is, the "ngx.ctx.foo" entry persists across the rewrite, access,
and content phases of a request.
Every request, including subrequests, has its own copy of the table. For
example:
location /sub {
content_by_lua '
ngx.say("sub pre: ", ngx.ctx.blah)
ngx.ctx.blah = 32
ngx.say("sub post: ", ngx.ctx.blah)
';
}
location /main {
content_by_lua '
ngx.ctx.blah = 73
ngx.say("main pre: ", ngx.ctx.blah)
local res = ngx.location.capture("/sub")
ngx.print(res.body)
ngx.say("main post: ", ngx.ctx.blah)
';
}
Then "GET /main" will give the output
main pre: 73
sub pre: nil
sub post: 32
main post: 73
Here, modification of the "ngx.ctx.blah" entry in the subrequest does
not affect the one in the parent request. This is because they have two
separate versions of "ngx.ctx.blah".
Internal redirection will destroy the original request "ngx.ctx" data
(if any) and the new request will have an empty "ngx.ctx" table. For
instance,
location /new {
content_by_lua '
ngx.say(ngx.ctx.foo)
';
}
location /orig {
content_by_lua '
ngx.ctx.foo = "hello"
ngx.exec("/new")
';
}
Then "GET /orig" will give
nil
rather than the original "hello" value.
Arbitrary data values, including Lua closures and nested tables, can be
inserted into this "magic" table. It also allows the registration of
custom meta methods.
Overriding "ngx.ctx" with a new Lua table is also supported, for
example,
ngx.ctx = { foo = 32, bar = 54 }
ngx.location.capture
syntax: *res = ngx.location.capture(uri, options?)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Issue a synchronous but still non-blocking *Nginx Subrequest* using
"uri".
Nginx's subrequests provide a powerful way to make non-blocking internal
requests to other locations configured with disk file directory or *any*
other nginx C modules like "ngx_proxy", "ngx_fastcgi", "ngx_memc",
"ngx_postgres", "ngx_drizzle", and even "ngx_lua" itself and etc etc
etc.
Also note that subrequests just mimic the HTTP interface but there is
*no* extra HTTP/TCP traffic *nor* IPC involved. Everything works
internally, efficiently, on the C level.
Subrequests are completely different from HTTP 301/302 redirection (via
ngx.redirect) and internal redirection (via ngx.exec).
Here is a basic example:
res = ngx.location.capture(uri)
Returns a Lua table with three slots ("res.status", "res.header", and
"res.body").
"res.header" holds all the response headers of the subrequest and it is
a normal Lua table. For multi-value response headers, the value is a Lua
(array) table that holds all the values in the order that they appear.
For instance, if the subrequest response headers contain the following
lines:
Set-Cookie: a=3
Set-Cookie: foo=bar
Set-Cookie: baz=blah
Then "res.header["Set-Cookie"]" will be evaluated to the table value
"{"a=3", "foo=bar", "baz=blah"}".
URI query strings can be concatenated to URI itself, for instance,
res = ngx.location.capture('/foo/bar?a=3&b=4')
Named locations like @foo are not allowed due to a limitation in the
nginx core. Use normal locations combined with the "internal" directive
to prepare internal-only locations.
An optional option table can be fed as the second argument, which
supports the options:
* "method" specify the subrequest's request method, which only accepts
constants like "ngx.HTTP_POST". =item *
"body" specify the subrequest's request body (string value only).
=item *
"args" specify the subrequest's URI query arguments (both string
value and Lua tables are accepted) =item *
"ctx" specify a Lua table to be the ngx.ctx table for the
subrequest. It can be the current request's ngx.ctx table, which
effectively makes the parent and its subrequest to share exactly the
same context table. This option was first introduced in the
"v0.3.1rc25" release. =item *
"vars" take a Lua table which holds the values to set the specified
Nginx variables in the subrequest as this option's value. This
option was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc31" release. =item *
"copy_all_vars" specify whether to copy over all the Nginx variable
values of the current request to the subrequest in question.
modifications of the nginx variables in the subrequest will not
affect the current (parent) request. This option was first
introduced in the "v0.3.1rc31" release. =item *
"share_all_vars" specify whether to share all the Nginx variables of
the subrequest with the current (parent) request. modifications of
the Nginx variables in the subrequest will affect the current
(parent) request.
Issuing a POST subrequest, for example, can be done as follows
res = ngx.location.capture(
'/foo/bar',
{ method = ngx.HTTP_POST, body = 'hello, world' }
)
See HTTP method constants methods other than POST. The "method" option
is "ngx.HTTP_GET" by default.
The "args" option can specify extra URI arguments, for instance,
ngx.location.capture('/foo?a=1',
{ args = { b = 3, c = ':' } }
)
is equivalent to
ngx.location.capture('/foo?a=1&b=3&c=%3a')
that is, this method will automatically escape argument keys and values
according to URI rules and concatenating them together into a complete
query string. The format for the Lua table passed as the "args" argument
is identical to the format used in the ngx.encode_args method.
The "args" option can also take plain query strings:
ngx.location.capture('/foo?a=1',
{ args = 'b=3&c=%3a' } }
)
This is functionally identical to the previous examples.
The "share_all_vars" option controls whether to share nginx variables
among the current request and its subrequests. If this option is set to
"true", then the current request and associated subrequests will share
the same Nginx variable scope. Hence, changes to Nginx variables made by
a subrequest will affect the current request.
Care should be taken in using this option as variable scope sharing can
have unexpected side effects. The "args", "vars", or "copy_all_vars"
options are generally preferable instead.
This option is set to "false" by default
location /other {
set $dog "$dog world";
echo "$uri dog: $dog";
}
location /lua {
set $dog 'hello';
content_by_lua '
res = ngx.location.capture("/other",
{ share_all_vars = true });
ngx.print(res.body)
ngx.say(ngx.var.uri, ": ", ngx.var.dog)
';
}
Accessing location "/lua" gives
/other dog: hello world
/lua: hello world
The "copy_all_vars" option provides a copy of the parent request's Nginx
variables to subrequests when such subrequests are issued. Changes made
to these variables by such subrequests will not affect the parent
request or any other subrequests sharing the parent request's variables.
location /other {
set $dog "$dog world";
echo "$uri dog: $dog";
}
location /lua {
set $dog 'hello';
content_by_lua '
res = ngx.location.capture("/other",
{ copy_all_vars = true });
ngx.print(res.body)
ngx.say(ngx.var.uri, ": ", ngx.var.dog)
';
}
Request "GET /lua" will give the output
/other dog: hello world
/lua: hello
Note that if both "share_all_vars" and "copy_all_vars" are set to true,
then "share_all_vars" takes precedence.
In addition to the two settings above, it is possible to specify values
for variables in the subrequest using the "vars" option. These variables
are set after the sharing or copying of variables has been evaluated,
and provides a more efficient method of passing specific values to a
subrequest over encoding them as URL arguments and unescaping them in
the Nginx config file.
location /other {
content_by_lua '
ngx.say("dog = ", ngx.var.dog)
ngx.say("cat = ", ngx.var.cat)
';
}
location /lua {
set $dog '';
set $cat '';
content_by_lua '
res = ngx.location.capture("/other",
{ vars = { dog = "hello", cat = 32 }});
ngx.print(res.body)
';
}
Accessing "/lua" will yield the output
dog = hello
cat = 32
The "ctx" option can be used to specify a custom Lua table to serve as
the ngx.ctx table for the subrequest.
location /sub {
content_by_lua '
ngx.ctx.foo = "bar";
';
}
location /lua {
content_by_lua '
local ctx = {}
res = ngx.location.capture("/sub", { ctx = ctx })
ngx.say(ctx.foo);
ngx.say(ngx.ctx.foo);
';
}
Then request "GET /lua" gives
bar
nil
It is also possible to use this "ctx" option to share the same ngx.ctx
table between the current (parent) request and the subrequest:
location /sub {
content_by_lua '
ngx.ctx.foo = "bar";
';
}
location /lua {
content_by_lua '
res = ngx.location.capture("/sub", { ctx = ngx.ctx })
ngx.say(ngx.ctx.foo);
';
}
Request "GET /lua" yields the output
bar
Note that subrequests issued by ngx.location.capture inherit all the
request headers of the current request by default and that this may have
unexpected side effects on the subrequest responses. For example, when
using the standard "ngx_proxy" module to serve subrequests, an
"Accept-Encoding: gzip" header in the main request may result in gzipped
responses that cannot be handled properly in Lua code. Original request
headers should be ignored by setting proxy_pass_request_headers to "off"
in subrequest locations.
There is a hard-coded upper limit on the number of concurrent
subrequests possible for every main request. In older versions of Nginx,
the limit was 50 concurrent subrequests and in more recent versions,
Nginx "1.1.x" onwards, this was increased to 200 concurrent subrequests.
When this limit is exceeded, the following error message is added to the
"error.log" file:
[error] 13983#0: *1 subrequests cycle while processing "/uri"
The limit can be manually modified if required by editing the definition
of the "NGX_HTTP_MAX_SUBREQUESTS" macro in the
"nginx/src/http/ngx_http_request.h" file in the Nginx source tree.
Please also refer to restrictions on capturing locations that include
Echo Module directives.
ngx.location.capture_multi
syntax: *res1, res2, ... = ngx.location.capture_multi({ {uri, options?},
{uri, options?}, ... })*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Just like ngx.location.capture, but supports multiple subrequests
running in parallel.
This function issues several parallel subrequests specified by the input
table and returns their results in the same order. For example,
res1, res2, res3 = ngx.location.capture_multi{
{ "/foo", { args = "a=3&b=4" } },
{ "/bar" },
{ "/baz", { method = ngx.HTTP_POST, body = "hello" } },
}
if res1.status == ngx.HTTP_OK then
...
end
if res2.body == "BLAH" then
...
end
This function will not return until all the subrequests terminate. The
total latency is the longest latency of the individual subrequests
rather than the sum.
Lua tables can be used for both requests and responses when the number
of subrequests to be issued is not known in advance:
-- construct the requests table
local reqs = {}
table.insert(reqs, { "/mysql" })
table.insert(reqs, { "/postgres" })
table.insert(reqs, { "/redis" })
table.insert(reqs, { "/memcached" })
-- issue all the requests at once and wait until they all return
local resps = { ngx.location.capture_multi(reqs) }
-- loop over the responses table
for i, resp in ipairs(resps) do
-- process the response table "resp"
end
The ngx.location.capture function is just a special form of this
function. Logically speaking, the ngx.location.capture can be
implemented like this
ngx.location.capture =
function (uri, args)
return ngx.location.capture_multi({ {uri, args} })
end
Please also refer to restrictions on capturing locations that include
Echo Module directives.
ngx.status
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua, log_by_lua**
Read and write the current request's response status. This should be
called before sending out the response headers.
ngx.status = ngx.HTTP_CREATED
status = ngx.status
ngx.header.HEADER
syntax: *ngx.header.HEADER = VALUE*
syntax: *value = ngx.header.HEADER*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua, log_by_lua**
Set, add to, or clear the current request "HEADER" response header.
Underscores ("_") in the header names will be replaced by hyphens ("-")
by default. This transformation can be turned off via the
lua_transform_underscores_in_response_headers directive.
The header names are matched case-insensitively.
-- equivalent to ngx.header["Content-Type"] = 'text/plain'
ngx.header.content_type = 'text/plain';
ngx.header["X-My-Header"] = 'blah blah';
Multi-value headers can be set this way:
ngx.header['Set-Cookie'] = {'a=32; path=/', 'b=4; path=/'}
will yield
Set-Cookie: a=32; path=/
Set-Cookie: b=4; path=/
in the response headers.
Only Lua tables are accepted (Only the last element in the table will
take effect for standard headers such as "Content-Type" that only accept
a single value).
ngx.header.content_type = {'a', 'b'}
is equivalent to
ngx.header.content_type = 'b'
Setting a slot to "nil" effectively removes it from the response
headers:
ngx.header["X-My-Header"] = nil;
The same applies to assigning an empty table:
ngx.header["X-My-Header"] = {};
Setting "ngx.header.HEADER" after sending out response headers (either
explicitly with ngx.send_headers or implicitly with ngx.print and
similar) will throw out a Lua exception.
Reading "ngx.header.HEADER" will return the value of the response header
named "HEADER".
Underscores ("_") in the header names will also be replaced by dashes
("-") and the header names will be matched case-insensitively. If the
response header is not present at all, "nil" will be returned.
This is particularly useful in the context of header_filter_by_lua and
header_filter_by_lua_file, for example,
location /test {
set $footer '';
proxy_pass http://some-backend;
header_filter_by_lua '
if ngx.header["X-My-Header"] == "blah" then
ngx.var.footer = "some value"
end
';
echo_after_body $footer;
}
For multi-value headers, all of the values of header will be collected
in order and returned as a Lua table. For example, response headers
Foo: bar
Foo: baz
will result in
{"bar", "baz"}
to be returned when reading "ngx.header.Foo".
Note that "ngx.header" is not a normal Lua table and as such, it is not
possible to iterate through it using the Lua "ipairs" function.
For reading *request* headers, use the ngx.req.get_headers function
instead.
ngx.req.get_method
syntax: *method_name = ngx.req.get_method()*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua**
Retrieves the current request's request method name. Strings like "GET"
and "POST" are returned instead of numerical method constants.
If the current request is an Nginx subrequest, then the subrequest's
method name will be returned.
This method was first introduced in the "v0.5.6" release.
See also ngx.req.set_method.
ngx.req.set_method
syntax: *ngx.req.set_method(method_id)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua**
Overrides the current request's request method with the "request_id"
argument. Currently only numerical method constants are supported, like
"ngx.HTTP_POST" and "ngx.HTTP_GET".
If the current request is an Nginx subrequest, then the subrequest's
method will be overridden.
This method was first introduced in the "v0.5.6" release.
See also ngx.req.get_method.
ngx.req.set_uri
syntax: *ngx.req.set_uri(uri, jump?)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua**
Rewrite the current request's (parsed) URI by the "uri" argument. The
"uri" argument must be a Lua string and cannot be of zero length, or a
Lua exception will be thrown.
The optional boolean "jump" argument can trigger location rematch (or
location jump) as [[HttpRewriteModule]]'s rewrite directive, that is,
when "jump" is "true" (default to "false"), this function will never
return and it will tell Nginx to try re-searching locations with the new
URI value at the later "post-rewrite" phase and jumping to the new
location.
Location jump will not be triggered otherwise, and only the current
request's URI will be modified, which is also the default behavior. This
function will return but with no returned values when the "jump"
argument is "false" or absent altogether.
For example, the following nginx config snippet
rewrite ^ /foo last;
can be coded in Lua like this:
ngx.req.set_uri("/foo", true)
Similarly, Nginx config
rewrite ^ /foo break;
can be coded in Lua as
ngx.req.set_uri("/foo", false)
or equivalently,
ngx.req.set_uri("/foo")
The "jump" can only be set to "true" in rewrite_by_lua and
rewrite_by_lua_file. Use of jump in other contexts is prohibited and
will throw out a Lua exception.
A more sophisticated example involving regex substitutions is as follows
location /test {
rewrite_by_lua '
local uri = ngx.re.sub(ngx.var.uri, "^/test/(.*)", "$1", "o")
ngx.req.set_uri(uri)
';
proxy_pass http://my_backend;
}
which is functionally equivalent to
location /test {
rewrite ^/test/(.*) /$1 break;
proxy_pass http://my_backend;
}
Note that it is not possible to use this interface to rewrite URI
arguments and that ngx.req.set_uri_args should be used for this instead.
For instance, Nginx config
rewrite ^ /foo?a=3? last;
can be coded as
ngx.req.set_uri_args("a=3")
ngx.req.set_uri("/foo", true)
or
ngx.req.set_uri_args({a = 3})
ngx.req.set_uri("/foo", true)
This interface was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc14" release.
ngx.req.set_uri_args
syntax: *ngx.req.set_uri_args(args)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua**
Rewrite the current request's URI query arguments by the "args"
argument. The "args" argument can be either a Lua string, as in
ngx.req.set_uri_args("a=3&b=hello%20world")
or a Lua table holding the query arguments' key-value pairs, as in
ngx.req.set_uri_args({ a = 3, b = "hello world" })
where in the latter case, this method will automatically escape argument
keys and values according to the URI escaping rule.
Multi-value arguments are also supported:
ngx.req.set_uri_args({ a = 3, b = {5, 6} })
which will result in a query string like "a=3&b=5&b=6".
This interface was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc13" release.
See also ngx.req.set_uri.
ngx.req.get_uri_args
syntax: *args = ngx.req.get_uri_args(max_args?)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua, log_by_lua**
Returns a Lua table holding all the current request URL query arguments.
location = /test {
content_by_lua '
local args = ngx.req.get_uri_args()
for key, val in pairs(args) do
if type(val) == "table" then
ngx.say(key, ": ", table.concat(val, ", "))
else
ngx.say(key, ": ", val)
end
end
';
}
Then "GET /test?foo=bar&bar=baz&bar=blah" will yield the response body
foo: bar
bar: baz, blah
Multiple occurrences of an argument key will result in a table value
holding all the values for that key in order.
Keys and values are automatically unescaped according to URI escaping
rules. In the settings above, "GET /test?a%20b=1%61+2" will yield:
a b: 1a 2
Arguments without the "=<value>" parts are treated as boolean arguments.
"GET /test?foo&bar" will yield:
foo: true
bar: true
That is, they will take Lua boolean values "true". However, they are
different from arguments taking empty string values. "GET
/test?foo=&bar=" will give something like
foo:
bar:
Empty key arguments are discarded. "GET /test?=hello&=world" will yield
an empty output for instance.
Updating query arguments via the nginx variable $args (or "ngx.var.args"
in Lua) at runtime is also supported:
ngx.var.args = "a=3&b=42"
local args = ngx.req.get_uri_args()
Here the "args" table will always look like
{a = 3, b = 42}
regardless of the actual request query string.
Note that a maximum of 100 request arguments are parsed by default
(including those with the same name) and that additional request
arguments are silently discarded to guard against potential denial of
service attacks.
However, the optional "max_args" function argument can be used to
override this limit:
local args = ngx.req.get_uri_args(10)
This argument can be set to zero to remove the limit and to process all
request arguments received:
local args = ngx.req.get_uri_args(0)
Removing the "max_args" cap is strongly discouraged.
ngx.req.get_post_args
syntax: *ngx.req.get_post_args(max_args?)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua, log_by_lua**
Returns a Lua table holding all the current request POST query arguments
(of the MIME type "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"). Call
ngx.req.read_body to read the request body first or turn on the
lua_need_request_body directive to avoid Lua exception errors.
location = /test {
content_by_lua '
ngx.req.read_body()
local args = ngx.req.get_post_args()
for key, val in pairs(args) do
if type(val) == "table" then
ngx.say(key, ": ", table.concat(val, ", "))
else
ngx.say(key, ": ", val)
end
end
';
}
Then
# Post request with the body 'foo=bar&bar=baz&bar=blah'
$ curl --data 'foo=bar&bar=baz&bar=blah' localhost/test
will yield the response body like
foo: bar
bar: baz, blah
Multiple occurrences of an argument key will result in a table value
holding all of the values for that key in order.
Keys and values will be automatically unescaped according to URI
escaping rules.
With the settings above,
# POST request with body 'a%20b=1%61+2'
$ curl -d 'a%20b=1%61+2' localhost/test
will yield:
a b: 1a 2
Arguments without the "=<value>" parts are treated as boolean arguments.
"GET /test?foo&bar" will yield:
foo: true
bar: true
That is, they will take Lua boolean values "true". However, they are
different from arguments taking empty string values. "POST /test" with
request body "foo=&bar=" will return something like
foo:
bar:
Empty key arguments are discarded. "POST /test" with body
"=hello&=world" will yield empty outputs for instance.
Note that a maximum of 100 request arguments are parsed by default
(including those with the same name) and that additional request
arguments are silently discarded to guard against potential denial of
service attacks.
However, the optional "max_args" function argument can be used to
override this limit:
local args = ngx.req.get_post_args(10)
This argument can be set to zero to remove the limit and to process all
request arguments received:
local args = ngx.req.get_post_args(0)
Removing the "max_args" cap is strongly discouraged.
ngx.req.get_headers
syntax: *headers = ngx.req.get_headers(max_headers?)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua, log_by_lua**
Returns a Lua table holding all the current request headers.
local h = ngx.req.get_headers()
for k, v in pairs(h) do
...
end
To read an individual header:
ngx.say("Host: ", ngx.req.get_headers()["Host"])
Note that the ngx.var.HEADER API call, which uses core $http_HEADER
variables, may be more preferable for reading individual request
headers.
For multiple instances of request headers such as:
Foo: foo
Foo: bar
Foo: baz
the value of "ngx.req.get_headers()["Foo"]" will be a Lua (array) table
such as:
{"foo", "bar", "baz"}
Note that a maximum of 100 request headers are parsed by default
(including those with the same name) and that additional request headers
are silently discarded to guard against potential denial of service
attacks.
However, the optional "max_headers" function argument can be used to
override this limit:
local args = ngx.req.get_headers(10)
This argument can be set to zero to remove the limit and to process all
request headers received:
local args = ngx.req.get_headers(0)
Removing the "max_headers" cap is strongly discouraged.
ngx.req.set_header
syntax: *ngx.req.set_header(header_name, header_value)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*
Set the current request's request header named "header_name" to value
"header_value", overriding any existing ones. None of the current
request's subrequests will be affected.
Here is an example of setting the "Content-Length" header:
ngx.req.set_header("Content-Type", "text/css")
The "header_value" can take an array list of values, for example,
ngx.req.set_header("Foo", {"a", "abc"})
will produce two new request headers:
Foo: a
Foo: abc
and old "Foo" headers will be overridden if there is any.
When the "header_value" argument is "nil", the request header will be
removed. So
ngx.req.set_header("X-Foo", nil)
is equivalent to
ngx.req.clear_header("X-Foo")
ngx.req.read_body
syntax: *ngx.req.read_body()*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Reads the client request body synchronously without blocking the Nginx
event loop.
ngx.req.read_body()
local args = ngx.req.get_post_args()
If the request body is already read previously by turning on
lua_need_request_body or by using other modules, then this function does
not run and returns immediately.
If the request body has already been explicitly discarded, either by the
ngx.req.discard_body function or other modules, this function does not
run and returns immediately.
In case of errors, such as connection errors while reading the data,
this method will throw out a Lua exception *or* terminate the current
request with a 500 status code immediately.
The request body data read using this function can be retrieved later
via ngx.req.get_body_data or, alternatively, the temporary file name for
the body data cached to disk using ngx.req.get_body_file. This depends
on
1. whether the current request body is already larger than the
client_body_buffer_size,
2. and whether client_body_in_file_only has been switched on.
In cases where current request may have a request body and the request
body data is not required, The ngx.req.discard_body function must be
used to explicitly discard the request body to avoid breaking things
under HTTP 1.1 keepalive or HTTP 1.1 pipelining.
This function was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc17" release.
ngx.req.discard_body
syntax: *ngx.req.discard_body()*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Explicitly discard the request body, i.e., read the data on the
connection and throw it away immediately. Please note that ignoring
request body is not the right way to discard it, and that this function
must be called to avoid breaking things under HTTP 1.1 keepalive or HTTP
1.1 pipelining.
This function is an asynchronous call and returns immediately.
If the request body has already been read, this function does nothing
and returns immediately.
This function was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc17" release.
See also ngx.req.read_body.
ngx.req.get_body_data
syntax: *data = ngx.req.get_body_data()*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Retrieves in-memory request body data. It returns a Lua string rather
than a Lua table holding all the parsed query arguments. Use the
ngx.req.get_post_args function instead if a Lua table is required.
This function returns "nil" if
1. the request body has not been read,
2. the request body has been read into disk temporary files,
3. or the request body has zero size.
If the request body has not been read yet, call ngx.req.read_body first
(or turned on lua_need_request_body to force this module to read the
request body automatically, but this is not recommended).
If the request body has been read into disk files, try calling the
ngx.req.get_body_file function instead.
To force in-memory request bodies, try setting client_body_buffer_size
to the same size value in client_max_body_size.
Note that calling this function instead of using "ngx.var.request_body"
or "ngx.var.echo_request-body" is more efficient because it can save one
dynamic memory allocation and one data copy.
This function was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc17" release.
See also ngx.req.get_body_file.
ngx.req.get_body_file
syntax: *file_name = ngx.req.get_body_file()*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Retrieves the file name for the in-file request body data. Returns "nil"
if the request body has not been read or has been read into memory.
The returned file is read only and is usually cleaned up automatically
by Nginx's memory pool. It should not be manually modified, renamed, or
removed in Lua code.
If the request body has not been read yet, call ngx.req.read_body first
(or turned on lua_need_request_body to force this module to read the
request body automatically, but this is not recommended).
If the request body has been read into memory, try calling the
ngx.req.get_body_data function instead.
To force in-file request bodies, try turning on
client_body_in_file_only.
This function was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc17" release.
See also ngx.req.get_body_data.
ngx.req.set_body_data
syntax: *ngx.req.set_body_data(data)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Set the current request's request body using the in-memory data
specified by the "data" argument.
If the current request's request body has not been read, then it will be
properly discarded. When the current request's request body has been
read into memory or buffered into a disk file, then the old request
body's memory will be freed or the disk file will be cleaned up
immediately, respectively.
This function requires patching the Nginx core to function properly
because the Nginx core does not allow modifying request bodies by the
current design. Here is a patch for Nginx 1.0.11:
nginx-1.0.11-allow_request_body_updating.patch
(<https://github.com/agentzh/ngx_openresty/blob/master/patches/nginx-1.0
.11-allow_request_body_updating.patch>), and this patch should be
applied cleanly to other releases of Nginx as well.
This patch has already been applied to ngx_openresty
(<http://openresty.org/>) 1.0.8.17 and above.
This function was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc18" release.
See also ngx.req.set_body_file.
ngx.req.set_body_file
syntax: *ngx.req.set_body_file(file_name, auto_clean?)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Set the current request's request body using the in-file data specified
by the "file_name" argument.
If the optional "auto_clean" argument is given a "true" value, then this
file will be automatically removed at request completion or the next
time this function or ngx.req.set_body_data are called in the same
request. The "auto_clean" is default to "false".
Please ensure that the file specified by the "file_name" argument exists
and is readable by an Nginx worker process by setting its permission
properly to avoid Lua exception errors.
If the current request's request body has not been read, then it will be
properly discarded. When the current request's request body has been
read into memory or buffered into a disk file, then the old request
body's memory will be freed or the disk file will be cleaned up
immediately, respectively.
This function requires patching the Nginx core to function properly
because the Nginx core does not allow modifying request bodies by the
current design. Here is a patch for Nginx 1.0.9:
nginx-1.0.9-allow_request_body_updating.patch
(<https://github.com/agentzh/ngx_openresty/blob/master/patches/nginx-1.0
.9-allow_request_body_updating.patch>), and this patch should be applied
cleanly to other releases of Nginx as well. This patch has already been
applied to ngx_openresty (<http://openresty.org/>) 1.0.8.17 and above.
This function was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc18" release.
See also ngx.req.set_body_data.
ngx.req.socket
syntax: *tcpsock, err = ngx.req.socket()*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Returns a read-only cosocket object that wraps the downstream
connection. Only receive and receiveuntil methods are supported on this
object.
In case of error, "nil" will be returned as well as a string describing
the error.
The socket object returned by this method is usually used to read the
current request's body in a streaming fashion. Do not turn on the
lua_need_request_body directive, and do not mix this call with
ngx.req.read_body and ngx.req.discard_body.
If there is any request body data that has been pre-read into the Nginx
core's request header buffer, the resulting cosocket object will take
care of that automatically. So there will not be any data loss due to
potential body data pre-reading.
This function was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc1" release.
ngx.req.clear_header
syntax: *ngx.req.clear_header(header_name)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua**
Clear the current request's request header named "header_name". None of
the current request's subrequests will be affected.
ngx.exec
syntax: *ngx.exec(uri, args?)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Does an internal redirect to "uri" with "args".
ngx.exec('/some-location');
ngx.exec('/some-location', 'a=3&b=5&c=6');
ngx.exec('/some-location?a=3&b=5', 'c=6');
Named locations are also supported, but query strings are ignored. For
example,
location /foo {
content_by_lua '
ngx.exec("@bar");
';
}
location @bar {
...
}
The optional second "args" can be used to specify extra URI query
arguments, for example:
ngx.exec("/foo", "a=3&b=hello%20world")
Alternatively, a Lua table can be passed for the "args" argument for
"ngx_lua" to carry out URI escaping and string concatenation
automatically.
ngx.exec("/foo", { a = 3, b = "hello world" })
The result is exactly the same as the previous example. The format for
the Lua table passed as the "args" argument is identical to the format
used in the ngx.encode_args method.
Note that this is very different from ngx.redirect in that it is just an
internal redirect and no new HTTP traffic is involved.
This method never returns.
This method *must* be called before ngx.send_headers or explicit
response body outputs by either ngx.print or ngx.say.
It is strongly recommended to combine the "return" statement with this
call, i.e., "return ngx.exec(...)".
This method is similar to the echo_exec directive of the
[[HttpEchoModule]].
ngx.redirect
syntax: *ngx.redirect(uri, status?)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Issue an "HTTP 301" or 302 redirection to "uri".
The optional "status" parameter specifies whether 301 or 302 to be used.
It is 302 ("ngx.HTTP_MOVED_TEMPORARILY") by default.
Here is an example assuming the current server name is "localhost" and
that it is listening on Port 1984:
return ngx.redirect("/foo")
which is equivalent to
return ngx.redirect("http://localhost:1984/foo", ngx.HTTP_MOVED_TEMPORARILY)
We can also use the numerical code directly as the second "status"
argument:
return ngx.redirect("/foo", 301)
This method *must* be called before ngx.send_headers or explicit
response body outputs by either ngx.print or ngx.say.
This method never returns.
This method is very much like the rewrite directive with the "redirect"
modifier in the standard [[HttpRewriteModule]], for example, this
"nginx.conf" snippet
rewrite ^ /foo? redirect; # nginx config
is equivalent to the following Lua code
return ngx.redirect('/foo'); -- Lua code
while
rewrite ^ /foo? permanent; # nginx config
is equivalent to
return ngx.redirect('/foo', ngx.HTTP_MOVED_PERMANENTLY) -- Lua code
URI arguments can be specified as well, for example:
return ngx.redirect('/foo?a=3&b=4')
It is strongly recommended to combine the "return" statement with this
call, i.e., "return ngx.redirect(...)".
ngx.send_headers
syntax: *ngx.send_headers()*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Explicitly send out the response headers.
Note that there is normally no need to manually send out response
headers as "ngx_lua" will automatically send headers out before content
is output with ngx.say or ngx.print or when content_by_lua exits
normally.
ngx.headers_sent
syntax: *value = ngx.headers_sent*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Returns "true" if the response headers have been sent (by "ngx_lua"),
and "false" otherwise.
This API was first introduced in "ngx_lua" v0.3.1rc6.
ngx.print
syntax: *ngx.print(...)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Emits arguments concatenated to the HTTP client (as response body). If
response headers have not been sent, this function will send headers out
first and then output body data.
Lua "nil" values will output "nil" strings and Lua boolean values will
output "true" and "false" literal strings respectively.
Nested arrays of strings are permitted and the elements in the arrays
will be sent one by one:
local table = {
"hello, ",
{"world: ", true, " or ", false,
{": ", nil}}
}
ngx.print(table)
will yield the output
hello, world: true or false: nil
Non-array table arguments will cause a Lua exception to be thrown.
The "ngx.null" constant will yield the "null" string output.
This is an asynchronous call and will return immediately without waiting
for all the data to be written into the system send buffer. To run in
synchronous mode, call "ngx.flush(true)" after calling "ngx.print". This
can be particularly useful for streaming output. See ngx.flush for more
details.
ngx.say
syntax: *ngx.say(...)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Just as ngx.print but also emit a trailing newline.
ngx.log
syntax: *ngx.log(log_level, ...)*
context: *init_by_lua*, set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*,
content_by_lua*, header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*,
log_by_lua**
Log arguments concatenated to error.log with the given logging level.
Lua "nil" arguments are accepted and result in literal "nil" string
while Lua booleans result in literal "true" or "false" string outputs.
And the "ngx.null" constant will yield the "null" string output.
The "log_level" argument can take constants like "ngx.ERR" and
"ngx.WARN". Check out Nginx log level constants for details.
There is a hard coded 2048 byte limitation on error message lengths in
the Nginx core. This limit includes trailing newlines and leading time
stamps. If the message size exceeds this limit, Nginx will truncate the
message text accordingly. This limit can be manually modified by editing
the "NGX_MAX_ERROR_STR" macro definition in the "src/core/ngx_log.h"
file in the Nginx source tree.
ngx.flush
syntax: *ngx.flush(wait?)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Flushes response output to the client.
"ngx.flush" accepts an optional boolean "wait" argument (Default:
"false") first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc34" release. When called with
the default argument, it issues an asynchronous call (Returns
immediately without waiting for output data to be written into the
system send buffer). Calling the function with the "wait" argument set
to "true" switches to synchronous mode.
In synchronous mode, the function will not return until all output data
has been written into the system send buffer or until the send_timeout
setting has expired. Note that using the Lua coroutine mechanism means
that this function does not block the Nginx event loop even in the
synchronous mode.
When "ngx.flush(true)" is called immediately after ngx.print or ngx.say,
it causes the latter functions to run in synchronous mode. This can be
particularly useful for streaming output.
Note that "ngx.flush" is non functional when in the HTTP 1.0 output
buffering mode. See HTTP 1.0 support.
ngx.exit
syntax: *ngx.exit(status)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
When "status >= 200" (i.e., "ngx.HTTP_OK" and above), it will interrupt
the execution of the current request and return status code to nginx.
When "status == 0" (i.e., "ngx.OK"), it will only quit the current phase
handler (or the content handler if the content_by_lua directive is used)
and continue to run later phases (if any) for the current request.
The "status" argument can be "ngx.OK", "ngx.ERROR",
"ngx.HTTP_NOT_FOUND", "ngx.HTTP_MOVED_TEMPORARILY", or other HTTP status
constants.
To return an error page with custom contents, use code snippets like
this:
ngx.status = ngx.HTTP_GONE
ngx.say("This is our own content")
-- to cause quit the whole request rather than the current phase handler
ngx.exit(ngx.HTTP_OK)
The effect in action:
$ curl -i http://localhost/test
HTTP/1.1 410 Gone
Server: nginx/1.0.6
Date: Thu, 15 Sep 2011 00:51:48 GMT
Content-Type: text/plain
Transfer-Encoding: chunked
Connection: keep-alive
This is our own content
Number literals can be used directly as the argument, for instance,
ngx.exit(501)
Note that while this method accepts all HTTP status constants as input,
it only accepts "NGX_OK" and "NGX_ERROR" of the core constants.
It is strongly recommended to combine the "return" statement with this
call, i.e., "return ngx.exit(...)".
ngx.eof
syntax: *ngx.eof()*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Explicitly specify the end of the response output stream.
ngx.sleep
syntax: *ngx.sleep(seconds)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Sleeps for the specified seconds without blocking. One can specify time
resolution up to 0.001 seconds (i.e., one milliseconds).
Behind the scene, this method makes use of the Nginx timers.
This method was introduced in the "0.5.0rc30" release.
ngx.escape_uri
syntax: *newstr = ngx.escape_uri(str)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Escape "str" as a URI component.
ngx.unescape_uri
syntax: *newstr = ngx.unescape_uri(str)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Unescape "str" as an escaped URI component.
For example,
ngx.say(ngx.unescape_uri("b%20r56+7"))
gives the output
b r56 7
ngx.encode_args
syntax: *str = ngx.encode_args(table)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Encode the Lua table to a query args string according to the URI encoded
rules.
For example,
ngx.encode_args({foo = 3, ["b r"] = "hello world"})
yields
foo=3&b%20r=hello%20world
The table keys must be Lua strings.
Multi-value query args are also supported. Just use a Lua table for the
argument's value, for example:
ngx.encode_args({baz = {32, "hello"}})
gives
baz=32&baz=hello
If the value table is empty and the effect is equivalent to the "nil"
value.
Boolean argument values are also supported, for instance,
ngx.encode_args({a = true, b = 1})
yields
a&b=1
If the argument value is "false", then the effect is equivalent to the
"nil" value.
This method was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc27" release.
ngx.decode_args
syntax: *table = ngx.decode_args(str, max_args?)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Decodes a URI encoded query-string into a Lua table. This is the inverse
function of ngx.encode_args.
The optional "max_args" argument can be used to specify the maximum
number of arguments parsed from the "str" argument. By default, a
maximum of 100 request arguments are parsed (including those with the
same name) and that additional URI arguments are silently discarded to
guard against potential denial of service attacks.
This argument can be set to zero to remove the limit and to process all
request arguments received:
local args = ngx.decode_args(str, 0)
Removing the "max_args" cap is strongly discouraged.
This method was introduced in the "v0.5.0rc29".
ngx.encode_base64
syntax: *newstr = ngx.encode_base64(str)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Encode "str" to a base64 digest.
ngx.decode_base64
syntax: *newstr = ngx.decode_base64(str)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Decodes the "str" argument as a base64 digest to the raw form. Returns
"nil" if "str" is not well formed.
ngx.crc32_short
syntax: *intval = ngx.crc32_short(str)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Calculates the CRC-32 (Cyclic Redundancy Code) digest for the "str"
argument.
This method performs better on relatively short "str" inputs (i.e., less
than 30 ~ 60 bytes), as compared to ngx.crc32_long. The result is
exactly the same as ngx.crc32_long.
Behind the scene, it is just a thin wrapper around the "ngx_crc32_short"
function defined in the Nginx core.
This API was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc8" release.
ngx.crc32_long
syntax: *intval = ngx.crc32_long(str)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Calculates the CRC-32 (Cyclic Redundancy Code) digest for the "str"
argument.
This method performs better on relatively long "str" inputs (i.e.,
longer than 30 ~ 60 bytes), as compared to ngx.crc32_short. The result
is exactly the same as ngx.crc32_short.
Behind the scene, it is just a thin wrapper around the "ngx_crc32_long"
function defined in the Nginx core.
This API was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc8" release.
ngx.hmac_sha1
syntax: *digest = ngx.hmac_sha1(secret_key, str)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Computes the HMAC-SHA1 (<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMAC>) digest of
the argument "str" and turns the result using the secret key
"<secret_key>".
The raw binary form of the "HMAC-SHA1" digest will be generated, use
ngx.encode_base64, for example, to encode the result to a textual
representation if desired.
For example,
local key = "thisisverysecretstuff"
local src = "some string we want to sign"
local digest = ngx.hmac_sha1(key, src)
ngx.say(ngx.encode_base64(digest))
yields the output
R/pvxzHC4NLtj7S+kXFg/NePTmk=
This API requires the OpenSSL library enabled in the Nginx build
(usually by passing the "--with-http_ssl_module" option to the
"./configure" script).
This function was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc29" release.
ngx.md5
syntax: *digest = ngx.md5(str)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Returns the hexadecimal representation of the MD5 digest of the "str"
argument.
For example,
location = /md5 {
content_by_lua 'ngx.say(ngx.md5("hello"))';
}
yields the output
5d41402abc4b2a76b9719d911017c592
See ngx.md5_bin if the raw binary MD5 digest is required.
ngx.md5_bin
syntax: *digest = ngx.md5_bin(str)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Returns the binary form of the MD5 digest of the "str" argument.
See ngx.md5 if the hexadecimal form of the MD5 digest is required.
ngx.sha1_bin
syntax: *digest = ngx.sha1_bin(str)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Returns the binary form of the SHA-1 digest of the "str" argument.
This function requires SHA-1 support in the Nginx build. (This usually
just means OpenSSL should be installed while building Nginx).
This function was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc6".
ngx.today
syntax: *str = ngx.today()*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Returns current date (in the format "yyyy-mm-dd") from the nginx cached
time (no syscall involved unlike Lua's date library).
This is the local time.
ngx.time
syntax: *secs = ngx.time()*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Returns the elapsed seconds from the epoch for the current time stamp
from the nginx cached time (no syscall involved unlike Lua's date
library).
Updates of the Nginx time cache an be forced by calling ngx.update_time
first.
ngx.now
syntax: *secs = ngx.now()*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Returns a floating-point number for the elapsed time in seconds
(including milliseconds as the decimal part) from the epoch for the
current time stamp from the nginx cached time (no syscall involved
unlike Lua's date library).
Use the Nginx core timer_resolution directive to adjust the accuracy or
forcibly update the Nginx time cache by calling ngx.update_time first.
This API was first introduced in "v0.3.1rc32".
ngx.update_time
syntax: *ngx.update_time()*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Forcibly updates the Nginx current time cache. This call involves a
syscall and thus has some overhead, so do not abuse it.
This API was first introduced in "v0.3.1rc32".
ngx.localtime
syntax: *str = ngx.localtime()*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Returns the current time stamp (in the format "yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss") of
the nginx cached time (no syscall involved unlike Lua's os.date
(<http://www.lua.org/manual/5.1/manual.html#pdf-os.date>) function).
This is the local time.
ngx.utctime
syntax: *str = ngx.utctime()*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Returns the current time stamp (in the format "yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss") of
the nginx cached time (no syscall involved unlike Lua's os.date
(<http://www.lua.org/manual/5.1/manual.html#pdf-os.date>) function).
This is the UTC time.
ngx.cookie_time
syntax: *str = ngx.cookie_time(sec)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Returns a formated string can be used as the cookie expiration time. The
parameter "sec" is the time stamp in seconds (like those returned from
ngx.time).
ngx.say(ngx.cookie_time(1290079655))
-- yields "Thu, 18-Nov-10 11:27:35 GMT"
ngx.http_time
syntax: *str = ngx.http_time(sec)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Returns a formated string can be used as the http header time (for
example, being used in "Last-Modified" header). The parameter "sec" is
the time stamp in seconds (like those returned from ngx.time).
ngx.say(ngx.http_time(1290079655))
-- yields "Thu, 18 Nov 10 11:27:35 GMT"
ngx.parse_http_time
syntax: *sec = ngx.parse_http_time(str)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Parse the http time string (as returned by ngx.http_time) into seconds.
Returns the seconds or "nil" if the input string is in bad forms.
local time = ngx.parse_http_time("Thu, 18 Nov 10 11:27:35 GMT")
if time == nil then
...
end
ngx.is_subrequest
syntax: *value = ngx.is_subrequest*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Returns "true" if the current request is an nginx subrequest, or "false"
otherwise.
ngx.re.match
syntax: *captures = ngx.re.match(subject, regex, options?, ctx?)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Matches the "subject" string using the Perl-compatible regular
expression "regex" with the optional "options".
Only the first occurrence of the match is returned, or "nil" if no match
is found. In case of fatal errors, like seeing bad "UTF-8" sequences in
"UTF-8" mode, a Lua exception will be raised.
When a match is found, a Lua table "captures" is returned, where
"captures[0]" holds the whole substring being matched, and "captures[1]"
holds the first parenthesized sub-pattern's capturing, "captures[2]" the
second, and so on.
local m = ngx.re.match("hello, 1234", "[0-9]+")
-- m[0] == "1234"
local m = ngx.re.match("hello, 1234", "([0-9])[0-9]+")
-- m[0] == "1234"
-- m[1] == "1"
Unmatched sub-patterns will have "nil" values in their "captures" table
fields.
local m = ngx.re.match("hello, world", "(world)|(hello)")
-- m[0] == "hello"
-- m[1] == nil
-- m[2] == "hello"
Specify "options" to control how the match operation will be performed.
The following option characters are supported:
a anchored mode (only match from the beginning)
d enable the DFA mode (or the longest token match semantics).
this requires PCRE 6.0+ or else a Lua exception will be thrown.
first introduced in ngx_lua v0.3.1rc30.
i case insensitive mode (similar to Perl's /i modifier)
j enable PCRE JIT compilation, this requires PCRE 8.21+ which
must be built with the --enable-jit option. for optimum performance,
this option should always be used together with the 'o' option.
first introduced in ngx_lua v0.3.1rc30.
m multi-line mode (similar to Perl's /m modifier)
o compile-once mode (similar to Perl's /o modifier),
to enable the worker-process-level compiled-regex cache
s single-line mode (similar to Perl's /s modifier)
u UTF-8 mode. this requires PCRE to be built with
the --enable-utf8 option or else a Lua exception will be thrown.
x extended mode (similar to Perl's /x modifier)
These options can be combined:
local m = ngx.re.match("hello, world", "HEL LO", "ix")
-- m[0] == "hello"
local m = ngx.re.match("hello, 美好生活", "HELLO, (.{2})", "iu")
-- m[0] == "hello, 美好"
-- m[1] == "美好"
The "o" option is useful for performance tuning, because the regex
pattern in question will only be compiled once, cached in the
worker-process level, and shared among all requests in the current Nginx
worker process. The upper limit of the regex cache can be tuned via the
lua_regex_cache_max_entries directive.
The optional fourth argument, "ctx", can be a Lua table holding an
optional "pos" field. When the "pos" field in the "ctx" table argument
is specified, "ngx.re.match" will start matching from that offset.
Regardless of the presence of the "pos" field in the "ctx" table,
"ngx.re.match" will always set this "pos" field to the position *after*
the substring matched by the whole pattern in case of a successful
match. When match fails, the "ctx" table will be left intact.
local ctx = {}
local m = ngx.re.match("1234, hello", "[0-9]+", "", ctx)
-- m[0] = "1234"
-- ctx.pos == 4
local ctx = { pos = 2 }
local m = ngx.re.match("1234, hello", "[0-9]+", "", ctx)
-- m[0] = "34"
-- ctx.pos == 4
The "ctx" table argument combined with the "a" regex modifier can be
used to construct a lexer atop "ngx.re.match".
Note that, the "options" argument is not optional when the "ctx"
argument is specified and that the empty Lua string ("") must be used as
placeholder for "options" if no meaningful regex options are required.
This method requires the PCRE library enabled in Nginx. (Known Issue
With Special PCRE Sequences).
To confirm that PCRE JIT is enabled, activate the Nginx debug log by
adding the "--with-debug" option to Nginx or ngx_openresty's
"./configure" script. Then, enable the "debug" error log level in
"error_log" directive. The following message will be generated if PCRE
JIT is enabled:
pcre JIT compiling result: 1
This feature was introduced in the "v0.2.1rc11" release.
ngx.re.gmatch
syntax: *iterator = ngx.re.gmatch(subject, regex, options?)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Similar to ngx.re.match, but returns a Lua iterator instead, so as to
let the user programmer iterate all the matches over the "<subject>"
string argument with the PCRE "regex".
Here is a small example to demonstrate its basic usage:
local iterator = ngx.re.gmatch("hello, world!", "([a-z]+)", "i")
local m
m = iterator() -- m[0] == m[1] == "hello"
m = iterator() -- m[0] == m[1] == "world"
m = iterator() -- m == nil
More often we just put it into a Lua "for" loop:
for m in ngx.re.gmatch("hello, world!", "([a-z]+)", "i")
ngx.say(m[0])
ngx.say(m[1])
end
The optional "options" argument takes exactly the same semantics as the
ngx.re.match method.
The current implementation requires that the iterator returned should
only be used in a single request. That is, one should *not* assign it to
a variable belonging to persistent namespace like a Lua package.
This method requires the PCRE library enabled in Nginx. (Known Issue
With Special PCRE Sequences).
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.2.1rc12" release.
ngx.re.sub
syntax: *newstr, n = ngx.re.sub(subject, regex, replace, options?)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Substitutes the first match of the Perl-compatible regular expression
"regex" on the "subject" argument string with the string or function
argument "replace". The optional "options" argument has exactly the same
meaning as in ngx.re.match.
This method returns the resulting new string as well as the number of
successful substitutions, or throw out a Lua exception when an error
occurred (syntax errors in the "<replace>" string argument, for
example).
When the "replace" is a string, then it is treated as a special template
for string replacement. For example,
local newstr, n = ngx.re.sub("hello, 1234", "([0-9])[0-9]", "[$0][$1]")
-- newstr == "hello, [12][1]34"
-- n == 1
where $0 referring to the whole substring matched by the pattern and $1
referring to the first parenthesized capturing substring.
Curly braces can also be used to disambiguate variable names from the
background string literals:
local newstr, n = ngx.re.sub("hello, 1234", "[0-9]", "${0}00")
-- newstr == "hello, 10034"
-- n == 1
Literal dollar sign characters ("$") in the "replace" string argument
can be escaped by another dollar sign, for instance,
local newstr, n = ngx.re.sub("hello, 1234", "[0-9]", "$$")
-- newstr == "hello, $234"
-- n == 1
Do not use backlashes to escape dollar signs; it will not work as
expected.
When the "replace" argument is of type "function", then it will be
invoked with the "match table" as the argument to generate the replace
string literal for substitution. The "match table" fed into the
"replace" function is exactly the same as the return value of
ngx.re.match. Here is an example:
local func = function (m)
return "[" .. m[0] .. "][" .. m[1] .. "]"
end
local newstr, n = ngx.re.sub("hello, 1234", "( [0-9] ) [0-9]", func, "x")
-- newstr == "hello, [12][1]34"
-- n == 1
The dollar sign characters in the return value of the "replace" function
argument are not special at all.
This method requires the PCRE library enabled in Nginx. (Known Issue
With Special PCRE Sequences).
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.2.1rc13" release.
ngx.re.gsub
syntax: *newstr, n = ngx.re.gsub(subject, regex, replace, options?)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Just like ngx.re.sub, but does global substitution.
Here is some examples:
local newstr, n = ngx.re.gsub("hello, world", "([a-z])[a-z]+", "[$0,$1]", "i")
-- newstr == "[hello,h], [world,w]"
-- n == 2
local func = function (m)
return "[" .. m[0] .. "," .. m[1] .. "]"
end
local newstr, n = ngx.re.gsub("hello, world", "([a-z])[a-z]+", func, "i")
-- newstr == "[hello,h], [world,w]"
-- n == 2
This method requires the PCRE library enabled in Nginx. (Known Issue
With Special PCRE Sequences).
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.2.1rc15" release.
ngx.shared.DICT
syntax: *dict = ngx.shared.DICT*
context: *init_by_lua*, set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*,
content_by_lua*, header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*,
log_by_lua**
Fetching the shm-based Lua dictionary object for the shared memory zone
named "DICT" defined by the lua_shared_dict directive.
The resulting object "dict" has the following methods:
* get
* set
* add
* replace
* incr
* delete
* flush_all
Here is an example:
http {
lua_shared_dict dogs 10m;
server {
location /set {
content_by_lua '
local dogs = ngx.shared.dogs
dogs:set("Jim", 8)
ngx.say("STORED")
';
}
location /get {
content_by_lua '
local dogs = ngx.shared.dogs
ngx.say(dogs:get("Jim"))
';
}
}
}
Let us test it:
$ curl localhost/set
STORED
$ curl localhost/get
8
$ curl localhost/get
8
The number 8 will be consistently output when accessing "/get"
regardless of how many Nginx workers there are because the "dogs"
dictionary resides in the shared memory and visible to *all* of the
worker processes.
The shared dictionary will retain its contents through a server config
reload (either by sending the "HUP" signal to the Nginx process or by
using the "-s reload" command-line option).
The contents in the dictionary storage will be lost, however, when the
Nginx server quits.
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc22" release.
ngx.shared.DICT.get
syntax: *value, flags = ngx.shared.DICT:get(key)*
context: *set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua*,
header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*, log_by_lua**
Retrieving the value in the dictionary ngx.shared.DICT for the key
"key". If the key does not exist or has been expired, then "nil" will be
returned.
The value returned will have the original data type when they were
inserted into the dictionary, for example, Lua booleans, numbers, or
strings.
The first argument to this method must be the dictionary object itself,
for example,
local cats = ngx.shared.cats
local value, flags = cats.get(cats, "Marry")
or use Lua's syntactic sugar for method calls:
local cats = ngx.shared.cats
local value, flags = cats:get("Marry")
These two forms are fundamentally equivalent.
If the user flags is 0 (the default), then no flags value will be
returned.
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc22" release.
See also ngx.shared.DICT.
ngx.shared.DICT.set
syntax: *success, err, forcible = ngx.shared.DICT:set(key, value,
exptime?, flags?)*
context: *init_by_lua*, set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*,
content_by_lua*, header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*,
log_by_lua**
Unconditionally sets a key-value pair into the shm-based dictionary
ngx.shared.DICT. Returns three values:
* "success": boolean value to indicate whether the key-value pair is
stored or not.
* "err": textual error message, can be "no memory".
* "forcible": a boolean value to indicate whether other valid items
have been removed forcibly when out of storage in the shared memory
zone.
The "value" argument inserted can be Lua booleans, numbers, strings, or
"nil". Their value type will also be stored into the dictionary and the
same data type can be retrieved later via the get method.
The optional "exptime" argument specifies expiration time (in seconds)
for the inserted key-value pair. The time resolution is 0.001 seconds.
If the "exptime" takes the value 0 (which is the default), then the item
will never be expired.
The optional "flags" argument specifies a user flags value associated
with the entry to be stored. It can also be retrieved later with the
value. The user flags is stored as an unsigned 32-bit integer
internally. Defaults to 0. The user flags argument was first introduced
in the "v0.5.0rc2" release.
When it fails to allocate memory for the current key-value item, then
"set" will try removing existing items in the storage according to the
Least-Recently Used (LRU) algorithm. Note that, LRU takes priority over
expiration time here. If up to tens of existing items have been removed
and the storage left is still insufficient (either due to the total
capacity limit specified by lua_shared_dict or memory segmentation),
then the "err" return value will be "no memory" and "success" will be
"false".
If this method succeeds in storing the current item by forcibly removing
other not-yet-expired items in the dictionary via LRU, the "forcible"
return value will be "true". If it stores the item without forcibly
removing other valid items, then the return value "forcible" will be
"false".
The first argument to this method must be the dictionary object itself,
for example,
local cats = ngx.shared.cats
local succ, err, forcible = cats.set(cats, "Marry", "it is a nice cat!")
or use Lua's syntactic sugar for method calls:
local cats = ngx.shared.cats
local succ, err, forcible = cats:set("Marry", "it is a nice cat!")
These two forms are fundamentally equivalent.
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc22" release.
See also ngx.shared.DICT.
ngx.shared.DICT.add
syntax: *success, err, forcible = ngx.shared.DICT:add(key, value,
exptime?, flags?)*
context: *init_by_lua*, set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*,
content_by_lua*, header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*,
log_by_lua**
Just like the set method, but only stores the key-value pair into the
dictionary ngx.shared.DICT if the key does *not* exist.
If the "key" argument already exists in the dictionary (and not expired
for sure), the "success" return value will be "false" and the "err"
return value will be "exists".
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc22" release.
See also ngx.shared.DICT.
ngx.shared.DICT.replace
syntax: *success, err, forcible = ngx.shared.DICT:replace(key, value,
exptime?, flags?)*
context: *init_by_lua*, set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*,
content_by_lua*, header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*,
log_by_lua**
Just like the set method, but only stores the key-value pair into the
dictionary ngx.shared.DICT if the key *does* exist.
If the "key" argument does *not* exist in the dictionary (or expired
already), the "success" return value will be "false" and the "err"
return value will be "not found".
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc22" release.
See also ngx.shared.DICT.
ngx.shared.DICT.delete
syntax: *ngx.shared.DICT:delete(key)*
context: *init_by_lua*, set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*,
content_by_lua*, header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*,
log_by_lua**
Unconditionally removes the key-value pair from the shm-based dictionary
ngx.shared.DICT.
It is equivalent to "ngx.shared.DICT:set(key, nil)".
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc22" release.
See also ngx.shared.DICT.
ngx.shared.DICT.incr
syntax: *newval, err = ngx.shared.DICT:incr(key, value)*
context: *init_by_lua*, set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*,
content_by_lua*, header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*,
log_by_lua**
Increments the (numerical) value for "key" in the shm-based dictionary
ngx.shared.DICT by the step value "value". Returns the new resulting
number if the operation is successfully completed or "nil" and an error
message otherwise.
The key must already exist in the dictionary, otherwise it will return
"nil" and "not found".
If the original value is not a valid Lua number in the dictionary, it
will return "nil" and "not a number".
The "value" argument can be any valid Lua numbers, like negative numbers
or floating-point numbers.
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.3.1rc22" release.
See also ngx.shared.DICT.
ngx.shared.DICT.flush_all
syntax: *ngx.shared.DICT:flush_all()*
context: *init_by_lua*, set_by_lua*, rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*,
content_by_lua*, header_filter_by_lua*, body_filter_by_lua*,
log_by_lua**
Flushes out all the items in the dictionary.
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc17" release.
See also ngx.shared.DICT.
ngx.socket.udp
syntax: *udpsock = ngx.socket.udp()*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Creates and returns a UDP or datagram-oriented unix domain socket object
(also known as one type of the "cosocket" objects). The following
methods are supported on this object:
* setpeername
* send
* receive
* close
* settimeout
It is intended to be compatible with the UDP API of the LuaSocket
(<http://w3.impa.br/~diego/software/luasocket/udp.html>) library but is
100% nonblocking out of the box.
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.5.7" release.
See also ngx.socket.tcp.
udpsock:setpeername
syntax: *ok, err = udpsock:setpeername(host, port)*
syntax: *ok, err =
udpsock:setpeername("unix:/path/to/unix-domain.socket")*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Attempts to connect a UDP socket object to a remote server or to a
datagram unix domain socket file. Because the datagram protocol is
actually connection-less, this method does not really establish a
"connection", but only just set the name of the remote peer for
subsequent read/write operations.
Both IP addresses and domain names can be specified as the "host"
argument. In case of domain names, this method will use Nginx core's
dynamic resolver to parse the domain name without blocking and it is
required to configure the resolver directive in the "nginx.conf" file
like this:
resolver 8.8.8.8; # use Google's public DNS nameserver
If the nameserver returns multiple IP addresses for the host name, this
method will pick up one randomly.
In case of error, the method returns "nil" followed by a string
describing the error. In case of success, the method returns 1.
Here is an example for connecting to a UDP (memcached) server:
location /test {
resolver 8.8.8.8;
content_by_lua '
local sock = ngx.socket.udp()
local ok, err = sock:setpeername("my.memcached.server.domain", 11211)
if not ok then
ngx.say("failed to connect to memcached: ", err)
return
end
ngx.say("successfully connected to memcached!")
sock:close()
';
}
Connecting to a datagram unix domain socket file is also possible:
local sock = ngx.socket.udp()
local ok, err = sock:setpeername("unix:/tmp/some-datagram-service.sock")
if not ok then
ngx.say("failed to connect to the datagram unix domain socket: ", err)
return
end
assuming the datagram service is listening on the unix domain socket
file "/tmp/some-datagram-service.sock".
Calling this method on an already connected socket object will cause the
original connection to be closed first.
This method was first introduced in the "v0.5.7" release.
udpsock:send
syntax: *ok, err = udpsock:send(data)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Sends data on the current UDP or datagram unix domain socket object.
In case of success, it returns 1. Otherwise, it returns "nil" and a
string describing the error.
The input argument "data" can either be a Lua string or a (nested) Lua
table holding string fragments. In case of table arguments, this method
will automatically copy all the string elements piece by piece to the
underlying Nginx socket send buffers, which is usually optimal than
doing string concatenation operations on the Lua land.
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.5.7" release.
udpsock:receive
syntax: *data, err = udpsock:receive(size?)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Receives data from the UDP or datagram unix domain socket object with an
optional receive buffer size argument, "size".
This method is a synchronous operation and is 100% nonblocking.
In case of success, it returns the data received; in case of error, it
returns "nil" with a string describing the error.
If the "size" argument is specified, then this method will use this size
as the receive buffer size. But when this size is greater than 8192,
then 8192 will be used instead.
If no argument is specified, then the maximal buffer size, 8192 is
assumed.
Timeout for the reading operation is controlled by the
lua_socket_read_timeout config directive and the settimeout method. And
the latter takes priority. For example:
sock:settimeout(1000) -- one second timeout
local data, err = sock:receive()
if not data then
ngx.say("failed to read a packet: ", data)
return
end
ngx.say("successfully read a packet: ", data)
It is important here to call the settimeout method *before* calling this
method.
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.5.7" release.
udpsock:close
syntax: *ok, err = udpsock:close()*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Closes the current UDP or datagram unix domain socket. It returns the 1
in case of success and returns "nil" with a string describing the error
otherwise.
For socket objects that have not invoked this method, they (and their
connections) will be automatically closed when the socket object is
released by the Lua GC (Garbage Collector) or the current client HTTP
request finishes processing.
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.5.7" release.
udpsock:settimeout
syntax: *udpsock:settimeout(time)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Set the timeout value in milliseconds for subsequent socket operations
(like receive).
Settings done by this method takes priority over those config
directives, like lua_socket_read_timeout.
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.5.7" release.
ngx.socket.tcp
syntax: *tcpsock = ngx.socket.tcp()*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Creates and returns a TCP or stream-oriented unix domain socket object
(also known as one type of the "cosocket" objects). The following
methods are supported on this object:
* connect
* send
* receive
* close
* settimeout
* setoption
* receiveuntil
* setkeepalive
* getreusedtimes
It is intended to be compatible with the TCP API of the LuaSocket
(<http://w3.impa.br/~diego/software/luasocket/tcp.html>) library but is
100% nonblocking out of the box. Also, we introduce some new APIs to
provide more functionalities.
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc1" release.
See also ngx.socket.udp.
tcpsock:connect
syntax: *ok, err = tcpsock:connect(host, port, options_table?)*
syntax: *ok, err = tcpsock:connect("unix:/path/to/unix-domain.socket",
options_table?)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Attempts to connect a TCP socket object to a remote server or to a
stream unix domain socket file without blocking.
Before actually resolving the host name and connecting to the remote
backend, this method will always look up the connection pool for matched
idle connections created by previous calls of this method (or the
ngx.socket.connect function).
Both IP addresses and domain names can be specified as the "host"
argument. In case of domain names, this method will use Nginx core's
dynamic resolver to parse the domain name without blocking and it is
required to configure the resolver directive in the "nginx.conf" file
like this:
resolver 8.8.8.8; # use Google's public DNS nameserver
If the nameserver returns multiple IP addresses for the host name, this
method will pick up one randomly.
In case of error, the method returns "nil" followed by a string
describing the error. In case of success, the method returns 1.
Here is an example for connecting to a TCP server:
location /test {
resolver 8.8.8.8;
content_by_lua '
local sock = ngx.socket.tcp()
local ok, err = sock:connect("www.google.com", 80)
if not ok then
ngx.say("failed to connect to google: ", err)
return
end
ngx.say("successfully connected to google!")
sock:close()
';
}
Connecting to a Unix Domain Socket file is also possible:
local sock = ngx.socket.tcp()
local ok, err = sock:connect("unix:/tmp/memcached.sock")
if not ok then
ngx.say("failed to connect to the memcached unix domain socket: ", err)
return
end
assuming memcached (or something else) is listening on the unix domain
socket file "/tmp/memcached.sock".
Timeout for the connecting operation is controlled by the
lua_socket_connect_timeout config directive and the settimeout method.
And the latter takes priority. For example:
local sock = ngx.socket.tcp()
sock:settimeout(1000) -- one second timeout
local ok, err = sock:connect(host, port)
It is important here to call the settimeout method *before* calling this
method.
Calling this method on an already connected socket object will cause the
original connection to be closed first.
An optional Lua table can be specified as the last argument to this
method to specify various connect options:
* "pool" specify a custom name for the connection pool being used. If
omitted, then the connection pool name will be automatically
generated from the string template "<host>:<port>" or
"<unix-socket-path>".
The support for the options table argument was first introduced in the
"v0.5.7" release.
This method was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc1" release.
tcpsock:send
syntax: *bytes, err = tcpsock:send(data)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Sends data without blocking on the current TCP or Unix Domain Socket
connection.
This method is a synchronous operation that will not return until *all*
the data has been flushed into the system socket send buffer or an error
occurs.
In case of success, it returns the total number of bytes that have been
sent. Otherwise, it returns "nil" and a string describing the error.
The input argument "data" can either be a Lua string or a (nested) Lua
table holding string fragments. In case of table arguments, this method
will automatically copy all the string elements piece by piece to the
underlying Nginx socket send buffers, which is usually optimal than
doing string concatenation operations on the Lua land.
Timeout for the sending operation is controlled by the
lua_socket_send_timeout config directive and the settimeout method. And
the latter takes priority. For example:
sock:settimeout(1000) -- one second timeout
local bytes, err = sock:send(request)
It is important here to call the settimeout method *before* calling this
method.
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc1" release.
tcpsock:receive
syntax: *data, err, partial = tcpsock:receive(size)*
syntax: *data, err, partial = tcpsock:receive(pattern?)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Receives data from the connected socket according to the reading pattern
or size.
This method is a synchronous operation just like the send method and is
100% nonblocking.
In case of success, it returns the data received; in case of error, it
returns "nil" with a string describing the error and the partial data
received so far.
If a number-like argument is specified (including strings that look like
numbers), then it is interpreted as a size. This method will not return
until it reads exactly this size of data or an error occurs.
If a non-number-like string argument is specified, then it is
interpreted as a "pattern". The following patterns are supported:
* '*a': reads from the socket until the connection is closed. No
end-of-line translation is performed;
* '*l': reads a line of text from the socket. The line is terminated
by a "Line Feed" (LF) character (ASCII 10), optionally preceded by a
"Carriage Return" (CR) character (ASCII 13). The CR and LF
characters are not included in the returned line. In fact, all CR
characters are ignored by the pattern.
If no argument is specified, then it is assumed to be the pattern '*l',
that is, the line reading pattern.
Timeout for the reading operation is controlled by the
lua_socket_read_timeout config directive and the settimeout method. And
the latter takes priority. For example:
sock:settimeout(1000) -- one second timeout
local line, err, partial = sock:receive()
if not line then
ngx.say("failed to read a line: ", err)
return
end
ngx.say("successfully read a line: ", line)
It is important here to call the settimeout method *before* calling this
method.
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc1" release.
tcpsock:receiveuntil
syntax: *iterator = tcpsock:receiveuntil(pattern, options?)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
This method returns an iterator Lua function that can be called to read
the data stream until it sees the specified pattern or an error occurs.
Here is an example for using this method to read a data stream with the
boundary sequence "--abcedhb":
local reader = sock:receiveuntil("\r\n--abcedhb")
local data, err, partial = reader()
if not data then
ngx.say("failed to read the data stream: ", err)
end
ngx.say("read the data stream: ", data)
When called without any argument, the iterator function returns the
received data right *before* the specified pattern string in the
incoming data stream. So for the example above, if the incoming data
stream is 'hello, world! -agentzh\r\n--abcedhb blah blah', then the
string 'hello, world! -agentzh' will be returned.
In case of error, the iterator function will return "nil" along with a
string describing the error and the partial data bytes that have been
read so far.
The iterator function can be called multiple times and can be mixed
safely with other cosocket method calls or other iterator function
calls.
The iterator function behaves differently (i.e., like a real iterator)
when it is called with a "size" argument. That is, it will read that
"size" of data on each invocation and will return "nil" at the last
invocation (either sees the boundary pattern or meets an error). For the
last successful invocation of the iterator function, the "err" return
value will be "nil" too. The iterator function will automatically reset
after its last successful invocation that returns "nil" data and "nil"
error. Consider the following example:
local reader = sock:receiveuntil("\r\n--abcedhb")
while true then
local data, err, partial = reader(4)
if not data then
if err then
ngx.say("failed to read the data stream: ", err)
break
end
ngx.say("read done")
break
end
ngx.say("read chunk: [", data, "]")
end
Then for the incoming data stream 'hello, world! -agentzh\r\n--abcedhb
blah blah', we shall get the following output from the sample code
above:
read chunk: [hell]
read chunk: [o, w]
read chunk: [orld]
read chunk: [! -a]
read chunk: [gent]
read chunk: [zh]
read done
Note that, the actual data returned *might* be a little longer than the
size limit specified by the "size" argument when the boundary pattern
has ambiguity for streaming parsing. Near the boundary of the data
stream, the data string actually returned could also be shorter than the
size limit.
Timeout for the iterator function's reading operation is controlled by
the lua_socket_read_timeout config directive and the settimeout method.
And the latter takes priority. For example:
local readline = sock:receiveuntil("\r\n")
sock:settimeout(1000) -- one second timeout
line, err, partial = readline()
if not line then
ngx.say("failed to read a line: ", err)
return
end
ngx.say("successfully read a line: ", line)
It is important here to call the settimeout method *before* calling the
iterator function (note that the "receiveuntil" call is irrelevant
here).
As from the "v0.5.1" release, this method also takes an optional
"options" table argument to control the behavior. The following options
are supported:
* "inclusive"
The "inclusive" takes a boolean value to control whether to include the
pattern string in the returned data string. Default to "false". For
example,
local reader = tcpsock:receiveuntil("_END_", { inclusive = true })
local data = reader()
ngx.say(data)
Then for the input data stream "hello world _END_ blah blah blah", then
the example above will output "hello world _END_", including the pattern
string "_END_" itself.
This method was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc1" release.
tcpsock:close
syntax: *ok, err = tcpsock:close()*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Closes the current TCP or stream unix domain socket. It returns the 1 in
case of success and returns "nil" with a string describing the error
otherwise.
For socket objects that have invoked the setkeepalive method, there is
no need to call this method on it because the socket object is already
closed (and the current connection is saved into the built-in connection
pool).
For socket objects that have not invoked setkeepalive nor this method,
they (and their connections) will be automatically closed when the
socket object is released by the Lua GC (Garbage Collector) or the
current client HTTP request finishes processing.
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc1" release.
tcpsock:settimeout
syntax: *tcpsock:settimeout(time)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Set the timeout value in milliseconds for subsequent socket operations
(connect, receive, and iterators returned from receiveuntil).
Settings done by this method takes priority over those config
directives, i.e., lua_socket_connect_timeout, lua_socket_send_timeout,
and lua_socket_read_timeout.
Note that this method does *not* affect the lua_socket_keepalive_timeout
setting; the "timeout" argument to the setkeepalive method should be
used for this purpose instead.
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc1" release.
tcpsock:setoption
syntax: *tcpsock:setoption(option, value?)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
This function is added for LuaSocket
(<http://w3.impa.br/~diego/software/luasocket/tcp.html>) API
compatibility and does nothing for now. Its functionality will be
implemented in future.
This feature was first introduced in the "v0.5.0rc1" release.
tcpsock:setkeepalive
syntax: *ok, err = tcpsock:setkeepalive(timeout?, size?)*
context: *rewrite_by_lua*, access_by_lua*, content_by_lua**
Puts the current socket's connection into the cosocket built-in
connection pool and keep it alive until other connect method calls
request it or the associated maximal idle timeout is expired.
The first optional argument, "timeout", can be used to specify the
maximal idle timeout (in milliseconds) for the current connection. If
omitted, the default setting in the lua_socket_keepalive_timeout config
directive will be used. If the 0 value is given, then the timeout
interval is unlimited.
The second optional argument, "size", can be used to specify the maximal
number of connections allowed in the connection pool for the current
server (i.e., the current host-port pair or the unix domain socket file
path). Note that the size of the connection pool cannot be changed once
the pool is created. When this argument is omitted, the default setting
in the lua_socket_pool_size config directive will be used.
When the connection pool is exceeding the size limit, the least recently
used (idle) connection already in the pool will be closed automatically
to make room for the current connection.
Note that the cosocket connection pool is per Nginx worker process
rather than per Nginx server instance, so the size limit specified here
also applies to every single Nginx worker process.
Idle connections in the pool will be monitored for any exceptional
events like connection abortion or unexpected incoming data on the line,
in which cases the connection in question will be closed and removed
from the pool.
In case of success, this method returns 1; otherwise, it returns "nil"
and a string describing the error.
This method also makes the current cosocket object enter the "closed"
state, so there is no need to manually call the close method on it
afterwards.