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Name

ngx.balancer - Lua API for defining dynamic upstream balancers in Lua

Table of Contents

Status

This Lua module is currently considered experimental.

Synopsis

http subsystem

http {
    upstream backend {
        server 0.0.0.1;   # just an invalid address as a place holder

        balancer_by_lua_block {
            local balancer = require "ngx.balancer"

            -- well, usually we calculate the peer's host and port
            -- according to some balancing policies instead of using
            -- hard-coded values like below
            local host = "127.0.0.2"
            local port = 8080

            local ok, err = balancer.set_current_peer(host, port)
            if not ok then
                ngx.log(ngx.ERR, "failed to set the current peer: ", err)
                return ngx.exit(500)
            end
        }

        keepalive 10;  # connection pool
    }

    server {
        # this is the real entry point
        listen 80;

        location / {
            # make use of the upstream named "backend" defined above:
            proxy_pass http://backend/fake;
        }
    }

    server {
        # this server is just for mocking up a backend peer here...
        listen 127.0.0.2:8080;

        location = /fake {
            echo "this is the fake backend peer...";
        }
    }
}

stream subsystem

stream {
    upstream backend {
        server 0.0.0.1:1234;   # just an invalid address as a place holder

        balancer_by_lua_block {
            local balancer = require "ngx.balancer"

            -- well, usually we calculate the peer's host and port
            -- according to some balancing policies instead of using
            -- hard-coded values like below
            local host = "127.0.0.2"
            local port = 8080

            local ok, err = balancer.set_current_peer(host, port)
            if not ok then
                ngx.log(ngx.ERR, "failed to set the current peer: ", err)
                return ngx.exit(ngx.ERR)
            end
        }
    }

    server {
        # this is the real entry point
        listen 10000;

        location / {
            # make use of the upstream named "backend" defined above:
            proxy_pass backend;
        }
    }

    server {
        # this server is just for mocking up a backend peer here...
        listen 127.0.0.2:8080;

        echo "this is the fake backend peer...";
    }
}

Description

This Lua module provides API functions to allow defining highly dynamic NGINX load balancers for any existing nginx upstream modules like ngx_http_proxy_module, ngx_http_fastcgi_module and ngx_stream_proxy_module.

It allows you to dynamically select a backend peer to connect to (or retry) on a per-request basis from a list of backend peers which may also be dynamic.

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Methods

All the methods of this module are static (or module-level). That is, you do not need an object (or instance) to call these methods.

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set_current_peer

syntax: ok, err = balancer.set_current_peer(host, port)

context: balancer_by_lua*

Sets the peer address (host and port) for the current backend query (which may be a retry).

Domain names in host do not make sense. You need to use OpenResty libraries like lua-resty-dns to obtain IP address(es) from all the domain names before entering the balancer_by_lua* handler (for example, you can perform DNS lookups in an earlier phase like access_by_lua* and pass the results to the balancer_by_lua* handler via ngx.ctx.

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set_more_tries

syntax: ok, err = balancer.set_more_tries(count)

context: balancer_by_lua*

Sets the tries performed when the current attempt (which may be a retry) fails (as determined by directives like proxy_next_upstream, depending on what particular nginx uptream module you are currently using). Note that the current attempt is excluded in the count number set here.

Please note that, the total number of tries in a single downstream request cannot exceed the hard limit configured by directives like proxy_next_upstream_tries, depending on what concrete nginx upstream module you are using. When exceeding this limit, the count value will get reduced to meet the limit and the second return value will be the string "reduced tries due to limit", which is a warning, while the first return value is still a true value.

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get_last_failure

syntax: state_name, status_code = balancer.get_last_failure()

context: balancer_by_lua*

Retrieves the failure details about the previous failed attempt (if any) when the next_upstream retrying mechanism is in action. When there was indeed a failed previous attempt, it returned a string describing that attempt's state name, as well as an integer describing the status code of that attempt.

Possible state names are as follows:

  • "next" Failures due to bad status codes sent from the backend server. The origin's response is sane though, which means the backend connection can still be reused for future requests.
  • "failed" Fatal errors while communicating to the backend server (like connection timeouts, connection resets, and etc). In this case, the backend connection must be aborted and cannot get reused.

Possible status codes are those HTTP error status codes like 502 and 504.

For stream module, status_code will always be 0 (ngx.OK) and is provided for compatibility reasons.

When the current attempt is the first attempt for the current downstream request (which means there is no previous attempts at all), this method always returns a single nil value.

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set_timeouts

syntax: ok, err = balancer.set_timeouts(connect_timeout, send_timeout, read_timeout)

context: balancer_by_lua*

Sets the upstream timeout (connect, send and read) in seconds for the current and any subsequent backend requests (which might be a retry).

If you want to inherit the timeout value of the global nginx.conf configuration (like proxy_connect_timeout), then just specify the nil value for the corresponding argument (like the connect_timeout argument).

Zero and negative timeout values are not allowed.

You can specify millisecond precision in the timeout values by using floating point numbers like 0.001 (which means 1ms).

Note: send_timeout and read_timeout are controlled by the same config proxy_timeout for ngx_stream_proxy_module. To keep API compatibility, this function will use max(send_timeout, read_timeout) as the value for setting proxy_timeout.

Returns true when the operation is successful; returns nil and a string describing the error otherwise.

This only affects the current downstream request. It is not a global change.

For the best performance, you should use the OpenResty bundle.

This function was first added in the 0.1.7 version of this library.

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Community

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English Mailing List

The openresty-en mailing list is for English speakers.

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Chinese Mailing List

The openresty mailing list is for Chinese speakers.

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Bugs and Patches

Please report bugs or submit patches by

  1. creating a ticket on the GitHub Issue Tracker,
  2. or posting to the OpenResty community.

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Author

Yichun Zhang <agentzh@gmail.com> (agentzh), OpenResty Inc.

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Copyright and License

This module is licensed under the BSD license.

Copyright (C) 2015-2017, by Yichun "agentzh" Zhang, OpenResty Inc.

All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

  • Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

  • Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

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See Also

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