Real-time analysis and diagnostics tools for OpenResty (including NGINX, LuaJIT, ngx_lua, and more) based on SystemTap
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.gitignore feature: added new tools ngx-sample-lua-bt and fix-lua-bt for renderi… Feb 6, 2013
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README.markdown doc: updated copyright notice. Dec 18, 2016
accessed-files renamed ngx-accessed-files to accessed-files because it is not specif… Oct 1, 2013
check-debug-info documented the check-debug-info tool. Jul 18, 2013
fix-lua-bt fix-lua-bt: added support for the lua function definition syntax "fun… May 5, 2014
line-prof-by-func added new tool line-prof-by-func. Apr 11, 2014
merge-incomplete-bts added new tool merge-incomplete-bts. Dec 16, 2013
ngx-active-reqs ngx-active-reqs: typo fix in the usage text. thanks portl4t for the r… Feb 25, 2014
ngx-backtrace Merge pull request #5 from guanlan/master Jun 14, 2013
ngx-body-filters added copyright notices to all the tools' source. May 22, 2013
ngx-chain-bufs added copyright notices to all the tools' source. May 22, 2013
ngx-cycle-pool added copyright notices to all the tools' source. May 22, 2013
ngx-filter-lua-vm-bt ngx-filter-lua-vm-bt: now we filter out luajit-related backtraces for… Mar 15, 2014
ngx-filter-zlib-bt feature: added new tool ngx-filter-zlib-bt. Mar 19, 2014
ngx-header-filters added copyright notices to all the tools' source. May 22, 2013
ngx-leaked-pools added copyright notices to all the tools' source. May 22, 2013
ngx-lua-bt bugfix: -a option value handling Feb 17, 2016
ngx-lua-conn-pools bugfix: -a option value handling Feb 17, 2016
ngx-lua-shdict bugfix: -a option value handling Feb 17, 2016
ngx-pcre-stats bugfix: ngx-pcre-stats did not detect ngx.re.find() calls at all. Dec 10, 2013
ngx-pcrejit added copyright notices to all the tools' source. May 22, 2013
ngx-phase-handlers made ngx-phase-handlers executable. Aug 27, 2013
ngx-req-distr ngx-req-distr: fixed compatibility with nginx 1.3.15+. thanks melon f… Oct 28, 2013
ngx-sample-lua-bt bugfix: -a option value handling Feb 17, 2016
ngx-shm doc: added TOC. Oct 31, 2013
resolve-inlines resolve-inlines: better argument error handling. Jan 22, 2015
resolve-src-lines added new tool, resolve-src-lines. Jan 27, 2015
reverse-bts feature: added the reverse-bt tool. Mar 21, 2014
sample-bt sample-bt: replaced nginx related comment and variable names. Aug 2, 2016
sample-bt-off-cpu bugfix: -a option value handling Feb 17, 2016
sample-bt-vfs bugfix: -a option value handling Feb 17, 2016
tcp-accept-queue bugfix: -a option value handling Feb 17, 2016
tcp-recv-queue bugfix: -a option value handling Feb 17, 2016

README.markdown

NAME

openresty-systemtap-toolkit - Real-time analysis and diagnoistcs tools for OpenResty (including NGINX, LuaJIT, ngx_lua, and more) based on SystemTap

Table of Contents

Status

These scripts are considered production-ready.

Prerequisites

You need at least systemtap 2.1+ and perl 5.6.1+ on your Linux system. For building latest systemtap from source, please refer to this document: http://openresty.org/#BuildSystemtap

Also, you should ensure the (DWARF) debuginfo for your Nginx (and other dependencies) is already enabled (or installed separately) if you did not compile your Nginx from source.

Finally, you need to install the kernel debug symbols and kernel headers as well. Usually you just need the kernel-devel and kernel-debuginfo packages (matching your current kernel package) from your Linux distributions, respectively.

For old Linux systems

If you are on Linux kernels older than 3.5, then you may have to apply the utrace patch (if not yet) to your kernel to get user-space tracing support for your systemtap installation. But if you are using Linux distributions in the RedHat family (like RHEL, CentOS, and Fedora), then your old kernel should already has the utrace patch applied.

The mainstream Linux kernel 3.5+ does have support for the uprobes API for userspace tracing.

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Permissions

Running systemtap-based tools requires special user permissions. To prevent running these tools with the root account, you can add your own (non-root) account name to the stapusr and staprun user groups. But if the user account running the Nginx process is different from your current user account, then you will still be required to run "sudo" or other means to run these tools with root access.

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Caveats

As with any other dynamic tracing tools based on SystemTap, you must ensure that your system's default C compiler is of exactly the same version of the C compiler originally used to build your current Linux kernel. Because SystemTap builds a Linux kernel module and Linux kernels never have an ABI, different versions of the C compiler may lead to incompatible ABI, which can cause memory corruptions in the kernel space.

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Tools

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ngx-active-reqs

This tool lists detailed information about all the active requests that are currently being processed by the specified Nginx worker or master process. When the master process pid is specified, all its worker processes will be monitored.

Here is an example:

# assuming the nginx worker pid is 32027

$ ./ngx-active-reqs -p 32027
Tracing 32027 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...

req "GET /t?", time 0.300 sec, conn reqs 18, fd 8
req "GET /t?", time 0.276 sec, conn reqs 18, fd 7
req "GET /t?", time 0.300 sec, conn reqs 18, fd 9
req "GET /t?", time 0.300 sec, conn reqs 18, fd 10
req "GET /t?", time 0.300 sec, conn reqs 18, fd 11
req "GET /t?", time 0.300 sec, conn reqs 18, fd 12
req "GET /t?", time 0.300 sec, conn reqs 18, fd 13
req "GET /t?", time 0.300 sec, conn reqs 18, fd 14
req "GET /t?", time 0.276 sec, conn reqs 18, fd 15
req "GET /t?", time 0.276 sec, conn reqs 18, fd 16

found 10 active requests.
212 microseconds elapsed in the probe handler.

The time field is the elapsed time (in seconds) since the current request started. The conn reqs field lists the requests that have been processed on the current (keep-alive) downstream connection. The fd field is the file descriptor ID for the current downstream connection.

The -m option will tell this tool to analyze the request memory pools for each active request:

$ ./ngx-active-reqs -p 12141 -m
Tracing 12141 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...

req "GET /t?", time 0.100 sec, conn reqs 11, fd 8
    pool chunk size: 4096
    small blocks (< 4017): 3104 bytes used, 912 bytes unused
    large blocks (>= 4017): 0 blocks, 0 bytes (used)
    total used: 3104 bytes

req "GET /t?", time 0.100 sec, conn reqs 11, fd 7
    pool chunk size: 4096
    small blocks (< 4017): 3104 bytes used, 912 bytes unused
    large blocks (>= 4017): 0 blocks, 0 bytes (used)
    total used: 3104 bytes

req "GET /t?", time 0.100 sec, conn reqs 11, fd 9
    pool chunk size: 4096
    small blocks (< 4017): 3104 bytes used, 912 bytes unused
    large blocks (>= 4017): 0 blocks, 0 bytes (used)
    total used: 3104 bytes

total memory used for all 3 active requests: 9312 bytes
274 microseconds elapsed in the probe handler.

For Nginx servers that are not busy enough, it is handy to specify the Nginx master process pid as the -p option value. Another useful option is -k, which will keep probing when there's no active requests found in the current event cycle.

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ngx-req-distr

This tool analyzes the (downstream) request and connection distributions among all the nginx worker processes for the specified nginx master process.

# here the nginx master pid is stored in the pid file
#   /opt/nginx/logs/nginx.pid

$ ./ngx-req-distr -m `cat /opt/nginx/logs/nginx.pid`
Tracing 4394 4395 4396 4397 4398 4399 4400 4401 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...
Hit Ctrl-C to end.
^C
worker 4394:    0 reqs
worker 4395:    200 reqs
worker 4396:    1600 reqs
worker 4397:    0 reqs
worker 4398:    2100 reqs
worker 4399:    4400 reqs
worker 4400:    0 reqs
worker 4401:    1701 reqs

$ ./ngx-req-distr -c -m `cat /opt/nginx/logs/nginx.pid`
Tracing 4394 4395 4396 4397 4398 4399 4400 4401 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...
Hit Ctrl-C to end.
^C
worker 4394:    0 reqs, 0 conns
worker 4395:    2100 reqs,      21 conns
worker 4396:    501 reqs,       6 conns
worker 4397:    2100 reqs,      21 conns
worker 4398:    100 reqs,       1 conns
worker 4399:    2200 reqs,      22 conns
worker 4400:    800 reqs,       8 conns
worker 4401:    2200 reqs,      22 conns

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ngx-shm

This tool analyzes all the shared memory zones in the specified running nginx process.

# you should ensure the worker is still handling requests
# otherwise the timer_resoluation must be set in your nginx.conf

# assuming the nginx worker pid is 15218

$ cd /path/to/nginx-systemtap-toolkit/

# list the zones
$ ./ngx-shm -p 15218
Tracing 15218 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...

shm zone "one"
    owner: ngx_http_limit_req
    total size: 5120 KB

shm zone "two"
    owner: ngx_http_file_cache
    total size: 7168 KB

shm zone "three"
    owner: ngx_http_limit_conn
    total size: 3072 KB

shm zone "dogs"
    owner: ngx_http_lua_shdict
    total size: 100 KB

Use the -n <zone> option to see more details about each zone.
34 microseconds elapsed in the probe.

# show the zone details
$ ./ngx-shm -p 15218 -n dogs
Tracing 15218 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...

shm zone "dogs"
    owner: ngx_http_lua_shdict
    total size: 100 KB
    free pages: 88 KB (22 pages, 1 blocks)

22 microseconds elapsed in the probe.

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ngx-cycle-pool

This tool computes the real-time memory usage of the nginx global "cycle pool" in the specified nginx (worker) process.

The "cycle pool" is mainly for configuration related data block allocation and other long-lived data blocks with a lifetime as long as the nginx server configuration (like the compiled PCRE data stored in the regex cache for the ngx_lua module).

# you should ensure the worker is handling requests
# or the timer_resoluation is set in your nginx.conf

# assuming the nginx worker pid is 15004

$ ./ngx-cycle-pool -p 15004
Tracing 15004 (/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx)...

pool chunk size: 16384
small blocks (< 4096): 96416 bytes used, 1408 bytes unused
large blocks (>= 4096): 6 blocks, 26352 bytes (used)
total used: 122768 bytes

12 microseconds elapsed in the probe handler.

The memory block size for the "large blocks" is approximated based on the intermal implementation of glibc's malloc on Linux. If you have replaced the malloc with other allocator, then this tool is very likely to quit with memory access errors or to give meaningless numbers for the "large blocks" total size (but even in such bad cases, SystemTap should not affect the nginx process being analyzed at all).

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ngx-leaked-pools

Tracks creations and destructions of Nginx memory pools and report the top 10 leaked pools' backtraces.

The backtraces are in the raw form of hexidecimal addresses. You can use the ngx-backtrace tool to print out the source code file names, source line numbers, as well as function names.

# assuming the nginx worker pid is 5043

$ ./ngx-leaked-pools -p 5043
Tracing 5043 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...
Hit Ctrl-C to end.
^C
28 pools leaked at backtrace 0x4121aa 0x43c851 0x4300a0 0x42746a 0x42f927 0x4110d8 0x3d35021735 0x40fe29
17 pools leaked at backtrace 0x4121aa 0x44d7bd 0x44e425 0x44fcc1 0x47996d 0x43908a 0x4342c3 0x4343bd 0x43dfcc 0x44c20e 0x4300a0 0x42746a 0x42f927 0x4110d8 0x3d35021735 0x40fe29
16 pools leaked at backtrace 0x4121aa 0x44d7bd 0x44e425 0x44fcc1 0x47996d 0x43908a 0x4342c3 0x4343bd 0x43dfcc 0x43f09e 0x43f6e6 0x43fcd5 0x43c9fb 0x4300a0 0x42746a 0x42f927 0x4110d8 0x3d35021735 0x40fe29

Run the command "./ngx-backtrace -p 5043 <backtrace>" to get details.
For total 200 pools allocated.

$ ./ngx-backtrace -p 5043 0x4121aa 0x44d7bd 0x44e425 0x44fcc1 0x47996d 0x43908a 0x4342c3 0x4343bd
ngx_create_pool
src/core/ngx_palloc.c:44
ngx_http_upstream_connect
src/http/ngx_http_upstream.c:1164
ngx_http_upstream_init_request
src/http/ngx_http_upstream.c:645
ngx_http_upstream_init
src/http/ngx_http_upstream.c:447
ngx_http_redis2_handler
src/ngx_http_redis2_handler.c:108
ngx_http_core_content_phase
src/http/ngx_http_core_module.c:1407
ngx_http_core_run_phases
src/http/ngx_http_core_module.c:890
ngx_http_handler
src/http/ngx_http_core_module.c:872

This script requires Nginx instances that have applied the latest dtrace patch. See the nginx-dtrace project for more details.

The bundle OpenResty 1.2.3.3+ includes the right dtrace patch by default. And you just need to build it with the --with-dtrace-probes configure option.

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ngx-backtrace

Prints out a human readable form for the raw backtraces consisting of hexidecimal addresses generated by other tools like ngx-leaked-pools.

# assuming the nginx worker process pid is 5043

$ ./ngx-backtrace -p 5043 0x4121aa 0x44d7bd 0x44e425 0x44fcc1 0x47996d 0x43908a 0x4342c3 0x4343bd
ngx_create_pool
src/core/ngx_palloc.c:44
ngx_http_upstream_connect
src/http/ngx_http_upstream.c:1164
ngx_http_upstream_init_request
src/http/ngx_http_upstream.c:645
ngx_http_upstream_init
src/http/ngx_http_upstream.c:447
ngx_http_redis2_handler
src/ngx_http_redis2_handler.c:108
ngx_http_core_content_phase
src/http/ngx_http_core_module.c:1407
ngx_http_core_run_phases
src/http/ngx_http_core_module.c:890
ngx_http_handler
src/http/ngx_http_core_module.c:872

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ngx-body-filters

Print out all the output body filters in the order that they actually run.

# assuming the nginx worker process pid is 30132

$ ./ngx-body-filters -p 30132
Tracing 30132 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...

WARNING: Missing unwind data for module, rerun with 'stap -d ...'
ngx_http_range_body_filter
ngx_http_copy_filter
ngx_output_chain
ngx_http_lua_capture_body_filter
ngx_http_image_body_filter
ngx_http_charset_body_filter
ngx_http_ssi_body_filter
ngx_http_postpone_filter
ngx_http_gzip_body_filter
ngx_http_chunked_body_filter
ngx_http_write_filter

113 microseconds elapsed in the probe handler.

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ngx-header-filters

Print out all the output header filters in the order that they actually run.

$ ./ngx-header-filters -p 30132
Tracing 30132 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...

WARNING: Missing unwind data for module, rerun with 'stap -d ...'
ngx_http_not_modified_header_filter
ngx_http_lua_capture_header_filter
ngx_http_headers_filter
ngx_http_image_header_filter
ngx_http_charset_header_filter
ngx_http_ssi_header_filter
ngx_http_gzip_header_filter
ngx_http_range_header_filter
ngx_http_chunked_header_filter
ngx_http_header_filter

137 microseconds elapsed in the probe handler.

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ngx-pcrejit

This script tracks the PCRE compiled regex execution (i.e., the pcre_exec calls) in the specified Nginx worker process, and checks whether the compiled regexes being executed is JIT'd or not.

# assuming the Nginx worker process handling the traffic is 31360.

$ ./ngx-pcrejit -p 31360
Tracing 31360 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...
Hit Ctrl-C to end.
^C
ngx_http_lua_ngx_re_match: 1000 of 2000 are PCRE JIT'd.
ngx_http_regex_exec: 0 of 1000 are PCRE JIT'd.

Below is another more complete example. Consider the following nginx.conf snippet:

pcre_jit on;

http {
	server {
		listen 8080;

		location ~ '^/t' {
			content_by_lua_block {
				ngx.say(ngx.re.find(ngx.var.uri, [[\w]], "jo"))
			}
		}
	}
}

Running curl localhost:8080/t twice while this tool is tracing the (only) nginx worker yields the following output:

$ ./ngx-pcrejit -p `pgrep -f 'nginx: worker'`
Tracing 97156 (/home/agentzh/git/lua-nginx-module/work/nginx/sbin/nginx)...
Hit Ctrl-C to end.
^C
ngx_http_regex_exec: 2 of 2 are PCRE JITted.
ngx_http_lua_ngx_re_match_helper: 2 of 2 are PCRE JITted.

This is exactly what we would expect.

When statically linking PCRE with your Nginx, it is important to enable debug symbols in your PCRE compilation. That is, you should build your Nginx and PCRE like this:

./configure --with-pcre=/path/to/my/pcre-8.39 \
    --with-pcre-jit \
    --with-pcre-opt=-g \
    --prefix=/opt/nginx
make -j8
make install

For dynamically-linked PCRE, you are still need to install the debug symbols for your PCRE (or the debuginfo RPM package for Yum-based systems).

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ngx-sample-bt

This tool has been renamed to sample-bt because this tool is not specific to Nginx in any way and it makes no sense to keep the ngx- prefix in its name.

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sample-bt

This script can be used to sample backtraces in either user space or kernel space or both for any user process that you specify (yes, not just Nginx!). It outputs the aggregated backtraces (by count).

For example, to sample a running Nginx worker process (whose pid is 8736) in user space only for total 5 seconds:

$ ./sample-bt -p 8736 -t 5 -u > a.bt
WARNING: Tracing 8736 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx) in user-space only...
WARNING: Missing unwind data for module, rerun with 'stap -d stap_df60590ce8827444bfebaf5ea938b5a_11577'
WARNING: Time's up. Quitting now...(it may take a while)
WARNING: Number of errors: 0, skipped probes: 24

The resulting output file a.bt can then be used to generate a Flame Graph by using Brendan Gregg's FlameGraph tools:

stackcollapse-stap.pl a.bt > a.cbt
flamegraph.pl a.cbt > a.svg

where both the stackcollapse-stap.pl and flamegraph.pl are from the FlameGraph toolkit. If everything goes right, you can now use your web browser to open the a.svg file.

A sample flame graph for user-space-only sampling can be seen here (please open the link with a modern web browser that supports SVG rendering):

http://agentzh.org/misc/nginx/user-flamegraph.svg

For more information on the Flame Graph thing, please check out Brendan Gregg's blog posts below:

You can also sample the backtraces in the kernel-space by specifying the -k option, as in

$ ./sample-bt -p 8736 -t 5 -k > a.bt
WARNING: Tracing 8736 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx) in kernel-space only...
WARNING: Missing unwind data for module, rerun with 'stap -d stap_bf5516bdbf2beba886507025110994e_11738'
WARNING: Time's up. Quitting now...(it may take a while)

Only the kernel-space code in the context of the specified nginx worker process will be sampled.

A sample flame graph for kernel-space-only sample can be seen here:

http://agentzh.org/misc/nginx/kernel-flamegraph.svg

You can also sample in both the user space and kernel space by specifying the -k and -u options at the same time, as in

$ ./sample-bt -p 8736 -t 5 -uk > a.bt
WARNING: Tracing 8736 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx) in both user-space and kernel-space...
WARNING: Missing unwind data for module, rerun with 'stap -d stap_90327f3a19b0e42dffdef38d53a5860_11799'
WARNING: Time's up. Quitting now...(it may take a while)
WARNING: Number of errors: 0, skipped probes: 38
WARNING: There were 73 transport failures.

A sample flame graph for kenerl-and-user-space sampling can be seen here:

http://agentzh.org/misc/nginx/user-kernel-flamegraph.svg

In fact, this script is general enough and can be used to sample user processes other than Nginx.

The overhead exposed on the target process is usually small. For example, the throughput (req/sec) limit of an nginx worker process doing simplest "hello world" requests drops by only 11% (only when this tool is running), as measured by ab -k -c2 -n100000 when using Linux kernel 3.6.10 and systemtap 2.5. The impact on full-fledged production processes is usually smaller than even that, for instance, only 6% drop in the throughput limit is observed in a production-level Lua CDN application.

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ngx-sample-lua-bt

WARNING This tool can only work with interpreted Lua code and has various limitations. For LuaJIT 2.1, it is recommended to use the new ngx-lj-lua-stacks tool for sampling both interpreted and/or compiled Lua code.

Similar to the sample-bt script, but samples the Lua language level backtraces.

Specify the --lua51 option when you're using the standard Lua 5.1 interpreter in your Nginx build, or --luajit20 if LuaJIT 2.0 is used instead.

You need to enable or install the debug symbols for your Lua library, in addition to your Nginx executable.

Also, you should not omit frame pointers while building your Lua library.

If LuaJIT 2.0 is used, you need to build your LuaJIT 2.0 library like this:

make CCDEBUG=-g

The Lua backtraces generated by this script use Lua source file name and source line number where the Lua function is defined. So to get more meaningful backtraces, you can call the fix-lua-bt script to process the output of this script.

Here is an example for standard Lua 5.1 interpreter embedded Nginx:

# sample at 1K Hz for 5 seconds, assuming the Nginx worker
#   or master process pid is 9766.
$ ./ngx-sample-lua-bt -p 9766 --lua51 -t 5 > tmp.bt
WARNING: Tracing 9766 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx) for standard Lua 5.1...
WARNING: Time's up. Quitting now...(it may take a while)

$ ./fix-lua-bt tmp.bt > a.bt

Or if LuaJIT 2.0 is used:

# sample at 1K Hz for 5 seconds, assuming the Nginx worker
#   or master process pid is 9768.
$ ./ngx-sample-lua-bt -p 9768 --luajit20 -t 5 > tmp.bt
WARNING: Tracing 9766 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx) for LuaJIT 2.0...
WARNING: Time's up. Quitting now...(it may take a while)

$ ./fix-lua-bt tmp.bt > a.bt

The resulting output file a.bt can then be used to generate a Flame Graph by using Brendan Gregg's FlameGraph tools:

stackcollapse-stap.pl a.bt > a.cbt
flamegraph.pl a.cbt > a.svg

where both the stackcollapse-stap.pl and flamegraph.pl are from the FlameGraph toolkit. If everything goes right, you can now use your web browser to open the a.svg file.

A sample flame graph for user-space-only sampling can be seen here (please open the link with a modern web browser that supports SVG rendering):

http://agentzh.org/misc/flamegraph/lua51-resty-mysql.svg

For more information on the Flame Graph thing, please check out Brendan Gregg's blog posts below:

If the pid of the Nginx master proces is specified as the -t option value, then this tool will automatically probe all its worker processes at the same time.

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fix-lua-bt

Fixes the raw Lua backtraces generated by the ngx-sample-lua-bt script and makes it more readable.

The original backtraces generated by ngx-sample-lua-bt looks like this:

C:0x7fe9faf52dd0
@/home/agentzh/git/lua-resty-mysql/lib/resty/mysql.lua:65
@/home/agentzh/git/lua-resty-mysql/lib/resty/mysql.lua:176
@/home/agentzh/git/lua-resty-mysql/lib/resty/mysql.lua:418
@/home/agentzh/git/lua-resty-mysql/lib/resty/mysql.lua:711

And after being processed by this script, we get

C:0x7fe9faf52dd0
resty.mysql:_get_byte3
resty.mysql:_recv_packet
resty.mysql:_recv_field_packet
resty.mysql:read_result

Here's a sample command:

./fix-lua-bt tmp.bt > a.bt

where the input file tmp.bt is generated by ngx-sample-lua-bt earlier.

See also ngx-sample-lua-bt.

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ngx-lua-bt

This tool dumps out the current Lua-land backtrace in the current running Nginx worker process.

This tool is very useful in locating the infinite Lua loop that keeps the Nginx worker spinning with 100% CPU usage.

If LuaJIT 2.0 is used, specify the --luajit20 option, like this:

$ ./ngx-lua-bt -p 7599 --luajit20
WARNING: Tracing 7599 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx) for LuaJIT 2.0...
C:lj_cf_string_find
content_by_lua:2
content_by_lua:1

If the standard Lua 5.1 interpreter is used instead, specify the --lua51 option:

$ ./ngx-lua-bt -p 13611 --lua51
WARNING: Tracing 13611 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx) for standard Lua 5.1...
C:str_find
content_by_lua:2
[tail]
content_by_lua:1

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ngx-sample-bt-off-cpu

This tool has been renamed to sample-bt-off-cpu because this tool is not specific to Nginx in any way and it makes no sense to keep the ngx- prefix in its name.

Back to TOC

sample-bt-off-cpu

Similar to sample-bt but analyzes the off-CPU time for a particular user process (not only Nginx, but also any other applications).

Why does off-CPU time matter? Check out Brendan Gregg's excellent blog post "Off-CPU Performance Analysis" for details:

http://dtrace.org/blogs/brendan/2011/07/08/off-cpu-performance-analysis/

By default, this tool samples the userspace backtraces. And 1 (logical) sample of backtraces in the output corresponds to 1 microsecond of off-CPU time.

Here is an example to demonstrate this tool's usage:

# assuming the nginx worker process to be analyzed is 10901.
$ ./sample-bt-off-cpu -p 10901 -t 5 > a.bt
WARNING: Tracing 10901 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...
WARNING: _stp_read_address failed to access memory location
WARNING: Time's up. Quitting now...(it may take a while)
WARNING: Number of errors: 0, skipped probes: 23

where the -t 5 option makes the tool sample for 5 seconds.

The resulting a.bt file can be used to render Flame Graphs just as with sample-bt and its other friends. And this type of flamegraphs can be called "off-CPU Flame Graphs" while the classic flamegraphs are essentially "on-CPU Flame Graphs".

Below is such a "off-CPU flamegraph" for a loaded Nginx worker process accessing MySQL with the lua-resty-mysql library:

http://agentzh.org/misc/flamegraph/off-cpu-lua-resty-mysql.svg

By default, off-CPU time intervals shorter than 4 us (microseconds) are discarded. You can control this threshold via the --min option, as in

$ ./sample-bt-off-cpu -p 12345 --min 10 -t 10

where we ignore off-CPU time intervals shorter than 10 us and sample the user process with the pid 12345 for total 10 seconds.

The -l option can be control the upper limit of different backtraces to be outputed. By default, the hottest 1024 different backtraces are dumped.

The --distr option can be specified to print out a base-2 logarithmic histogram for all the off-CPU time intervals (larger than the threshold specified by the --min option). For example,

$ ./sample-bt-off-cpu -p 10901 -t 3 --distr --min=1
WARNING: Tracing 10901 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...
Exiting...Please wait...
=== Off-CPU time distribution (in us) ===
min/avg/max: 2/79/1739
value |-------------------------------------------------- count
    0 |                                                     0
    1 |                                                     0
    2 |@                                                   10
    4 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@        259
    8 |@@@@@@@                                             44
   16 |@@@@@@@@@@                                          62
   32 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@                                       79
   64 |@@@@@@@                                             43
  128 |@@@@@                                               31
  256 |@@@                                                 22
  512 |@@@                                                 22
 1024 |                                                     4
 2048 |                                                     0
 4096 |                                                     0

Here we can see that most of the samples (for total 259 samples) fall in the off-CPU time interval range [4us, 8us). And the largest off-CPU time interval is 1739us, i.e., 1.739ms.

You can specify the -k option to sample the kernel space backtraces instead of sampling userland backtraces. If you want to sample both the userland and kernelspace, then you can specify both the -k and -u options.

Back to TOC

ngx-sample-bt-vfs

This tool has been renamed to sample-bt-vfs because this tool is not specific to Nginx in any way and it makes no sense to keep the ngx- prefix in its name.

Back to TOC

sample-bt-vfs

Similar to sample-bt but samples the userspace backtraces on the Virtual File System (VFS) level for rendering File I/O Flame Graphs, which can show exactly how file I/O data volumn or file I/O latency is distributed among different userspace code paths within any running user process.

By default, 1 sample of backtrace corresponds of 1 byte of data volumn (read or written). And by default, both vfs_read and vfs_write are tracked. For example,

$ ./sample-bt-vfs -p 12345 -t 3 > a.bt
WARNING: Tracing 20636 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...
WARNING: Time's up. Quitting now...(it may take a while)
WARNING: Number of errors: 0, skipped probes: 2

We can then render a flamegraph for read/write VFS I/O like this:

$ stackcollapse-stap.pl a.bt > a.cbt
$ flamegraph.pl a.cbt > a.svg

where the tools stackcollapse-stap.pl and flamegraph.pl are from Brendan Gregg's FlameGraph toolkit:

https://github.com/brendangregg/FlameGraph

One sample "file I/O flamegraph" is here:

http://agentzh.org/misc/flamegraph/vfs-index-page-rw.svg

This graph was rendered when the Nginx worker process is loaded by requests to its default index page (i.e., /index.html). We can see both the file writes in the standard access logging module and the file reads in the standard "static" module. The total sample space in this graph, 1481361, means for total 1481361 bytes of data actually read or written on VFS.

You can also track file reading only by specifying the -r option:

$ ./sample-bt-vfs -p 12345 -t 3 -r > a.bt

Here is an example of "file reading flamegraph" by sampling a Nginx loaded by requests accessing its default index page:

http://agentzh.org/misc/flamegraph/vfs-index-page-r.svg

We can see that only the standard nginx "static" module is the only thing shown in the graph.

Similarly, you can specify the -w option to track file writing only:

$ ./sample-bt-vfs -p 12345 -t 3 -w > a.bt

Here is a sample "file writing flamegraph" for Nginx (with debugging logs enabled):

http://agentzh.org/misc/flamegraph/vfs-debug-log.svg

And below is another example for "file writing flamegraphs" for Nginx with debugging logs turned off:

http://agentzh.org/misc/flamegraph/vfs-access-log-only.svg

We can see that only access logging appears in the graph.

Do not confuse file I/O here with disk I/O because we are only probing on the (high) Virtual File System level. So the system page cache can save many disk reads here.

Generally, we are more interested in the latency (i.e, time) spent on the VFS reads and writes. You can specify the --latency option to track kernel call latency instead of the data volumn:

$ ./sample-bt-vfs -p 12345 -t 3 --latency > a.bt

In this case, 1 sample corresponds to 1 microsends of file I/O time (or to be more correct, the vfs_read or vfs_write calls' time).

Here is an example for this:

http://agentzh.org/misc/flamegraph/vfs-latency-index-page-rw.svg

The total samples shown in the graph, 1918669, indicate for total 1,918,669 microsends (or 1.9 seconds) were spent on both file reading and writing during the 3 seconds sampling interval.

One can also combine either the -r or -w option with the --latency option to filter out file reads or file writes.

This tool can be used to inspect any user process (not only Nginx processes) with debug symbols enabled.

Back to TOC

ngx-accessed-files

This tool has been renamed to accessed-files because this tool is not specific to Nginx in any way and it makes no sense to keep the ngx- prefix in its name.

Back to TOC

accessed-files

Find out the names of the files most frequently read from or written to in any user process (yes, not only nginx!) specified by the -p option.

The -r option can be specified to analyze files that are read from. For example,

$ ./accessed-files -p 8823 -r
Tracing 8823 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...
Hit Ctrl-C to end.
^C
=== Top 10 file reads ===
#1: 10 times, 720 bytes reads in file index.html.
#2: 5 times, 75 bytes reads in file helloworld.html.
#3: 2 times, 26 bytes reads in file a.html.

And the -w option can be used to analyze files that are written to instead:

$ ./accessed-files -p 8823 -w
Tracing 8823 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...
Hit Ctrl-C to end.
^C
=== Top 10 file writes ===
#1: 17 times, 1600 bytes writes in file access.log.

And you can specify both the -r and -w options:

$ ./accessed-files -p 8823 -w -r
Tracing 8823 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...
Hit Ctrl-C to end.
^C
=== Top 10 file reads/writes ===
#1: 17 times, 1600 bytes reads/writes in file access.log.
#2: 10 times, 720 bytes reads/writes in file index.html.
#3: 5 times, 75 bytes reads/writes in file helloworld.html.
#4: 2 times, 26 bytes reads/writes in file a.html.

By default, hitting Ctrl-C will end the sampling process. And the -t option can be specified to control the sampling period by exact number of seconds, as in

$ ./accessed-files -p 8823 -r -t 5
Tracing 8823 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...
Please wait for 5 seconds.

=== Top 10 file reads ===
#1: 10 times, 720 bytes reads in file index.html.
#2: 5 times, 75 bytes reads in file helloworld.html.
#3: 2 times, 26 bytes reads in file a.html.

By default, at most 10 different file names are printed out. You can control this upper limit by specifying the -l option. For instance,

$ ./accessed-files -p 8823 -r -l 20

Back to TOC

ngx-pcre-stats

This tool can perform various statistical analysis of PCRE regex execution performance in a running Nginx worker process.

This tool requires uretprobes support in the Linux kernel.

Also, you need to ensure that debug symbols are enabled in your Nginx build, PCRE build, and LuaJIT build. For example, if you build PCRE from source with your Nginx or OpenResty by specifying the --with-pcre=PATH option, then you should also specify the --with-pcre-opt=-g option at the same time.

Below is an example that analyzes the PCRE regex executation time distribution for a given Nginx worker process. Note that, the time is given in microseconds (us), i.e., 1e-6 seconds. The --exec-time-dist option is used here.

$ ./ngx-pcre-stats -p 24528 --exec-time-dist
Tracing 24528 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...
Hit Ctrl-C to end.
^C
Logarithmic histogram for pcre_exec running time distribution (us):
value |-------------------------------------------------- count
    1 |                                                       0
    2 |                                                       0
    4 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ 36200
    8 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@                               14707
   16 |                                                     105
   32 |@@@                                                 2892
   64 |                                                     114
  128 |                                                       0
  256 |                                                       0

Also, you can specify the --data-len-dist option to analyze the distribution of the length of those subject string data being matched in individual runs.

$ ./ngx-pcre-stats -p 24528 --data-len-dist
Tracing 24528 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...
Hit Ctrl-C to end.
^C
Logarithmic histogram for data length distribution:
value |-------------------------------------------------- count
    1 |                                                       0
    2 |                                                       0
    4 |@@@                                                 3001
    8 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@  48016
   16 |                                                       0
   32 |                                                       0
      ~
 1024 |                                                       0
 2048 |                                                       0
 4096 |@@@                                                 3001
 8192 |                                                       0
16384 |                                                       0

The --worst-time-top option can be specified to analyze the worst execution time of the individual regex matches using the ngx_lua module's ngx.re API:

$ ./ngx-pcre-stats -p 24528 --worst-time-top --luajit20
Tracing 24528 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...
Hit Ctrl-C to end.
^C
Top N regexes with worst running time:
1. pattern "elloA": 125us (data size: 5120)
2. pattern ".": 76us (data size: 10)
3. pattern "a": 64us (data size: 12)
4. pattern "b": 29us (data size: 12)
5. pattern "ello": 26us (data size: 5)

Note that the time values given above are just for individual runs and are not accumulated.

And the --total-time-top option is similar to --worst-time-top, but using accumulated regex execution time.

$ ./ngx-pcre-stats -p 24528 --total-time-top --luajit20
Tracing 24528 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...
Hit Ctrl-C to end.
^C
Top N regexes with longest total running time:
1. pattern ".": 241038us (total data size: 330110)
2. pattern "elloA": 188107us (total data size: 15365120)
3. pattern "b": 28016us (total data size: 36012)
4. pattern "ello": 26241us (total data size: 15005)
5. pattern "a": 26180us (total data size: 36012)

The -t option can be used to specify the time period (in seconds) for sampling instead of requiring the user to hit Ctrl-C to end sampling:

$ ./ngx-pcre-stats -p 8701 --total-time-top --luajit20 -t 5
Tracing 8701 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...
Please wait for 5 seconds.

Top N regexes with longest total running time:
1. pattern ".": 81us (total data size: 110)
2. pattern "elloA": 62us (total data size: 5120)
3. pattern "ello": 46us (total data size: 5)
4. pattern "b": 19us (total data size: 12)
5. pattern "a": 9us (total data size: 12)

LuaJIT 2.1 is also supported when the --luajit20 is specified (yeah, I know the option name is confusing).

Back to TOC

ngx-accept-queue

This tool has been renamed to tcp-accept-queue because this tool is not specific to Nginx in any way and it makes no sense to keep the ngx- prefix in its name.

Back to TOC

tcp-accept-queue

This tool samples the SYN queue and ACK backlog queue for the sockets listening on the local port specified by the --port option for the time interval when it is running. It can work on any server processes even it is not Nginx.

This is a real-time sampling tool.

SYN queue or ACK backlog queue overflowing often results in connecting timeout errors on the client side.

By default, the tool prints out up to 10 queue overflow events and then quits immediately. For example:

$ ./tcp-accept-queue --port=80
WARNING: Tracing SYN & ACK backlog queue overflows on the listening port 80...
[Tue May 14 12:29:15 2013 PDT] ACK backlog queue is overflown: 129 > 128
[Tue May 14 12:29:15 2013 PDT] ACK backlog queue is overflown: 129 > 128
[Tue May 14 12:29:15 2013 PDT] ACK backlog queue is overflown: 129 > 128
[Tue May 14 12:29:15 2013 PDT] ACK backlog queue is overflown: 129 > 128
[Tue May 14 12:29:15 2013 PDT] ACK backlog queue is overflown: 129 > 128
[Tue May 14 12:29:15 2013 PDT] ACK backlog queue is overflown: 129 > 128
[Tue May 14 12:29:15 2013 PDT] ACK backlog queue is overflown: 129 > 128
[Tue May 14 12:29:15 2013 PDT] ACK backlog queue is overflown: 129 > 128
[Tue May 14 12:29:15 2013 PDT] ACK backlog queue is overflown: 129 > 128
[Tue May 14 12:29:15 2013 PDT] ACK backlog queue is overflown: 129 > 128

From the output, we can see a lot of ACK backlog queue overflows happening when the tool is running. This means the corresponding SYN packets were dropped in the kernel.

You can specify the --limit option to control the maximal number of issues reported:

$ ./tcp-accept-queue --port=80 --limit=3
WARNING: Tracing SYN & ACK backlog queue overflows on the listening port 80...
[Tue May 14 12:29:25 2013 PDT] ACK backlog queue is overflown: 129 > 128
[Tue May 14 12:29:25 2013 PDT] ACK backlog queue is overflown: 129 > 128
[Tue May 14 12:29:25 2013 PDT] ACK backlog queue is overflown: 129 > 128

Or just hit Ctrl-C to end.

You can also specify the --distr option to make this tool just print out a histogram for the distribution of the queue lengths:

$ ./tcp-accept-queue --port=80 --distr
WARNING: Tracing SYN & ACK backlog queue length distribution on the listening port 80...
Hit Ctrl-C to end.
SYN queue length limit: 512
Accept queue length limit: 128
^C
=== SYN Queue ===
min/avg/max: 0/2/8
value |-------------------------------------------------- count
    0 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@                         106
    1 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@                                     60
    2 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@                               84
    4 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@       176
    8 |@@                                                   9
   16 |                                                     0
   32 |                                                     0

=== Accept Queue ===
min/avg/max: 0/93/129
value |-------------------------------------------------- count
    0 |@@@@                                                20
    1 |@@@                                                 16
    2 |                                                     3
    4 |@@                                                  11
    8 |@@@@                                                23
   16 |@@@                                                 16
   32 |@@@@@@                                              33
   64 |@@@@@@@@@@@@                                        63
  128 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ 250
  256 |                                                     0
  512 |                                                     0

From the outputs, we can see that for 106 samples (i.e., 106 new connecting request), the SYN queue length remains 0; for 60 samples, the SYN queue is of the length 1; and for 84 samples, the queue size is within the interval [2, 4); and so on. We can see most of the samples have the SYN queue size 0 ~ 8.

You need to hit Ctrl-C to make this tool print out the histgram when the --distr option is specified. Alternatively, you can specify the --time option to specify the exact number of seconds for real-time sampling:

$ ./tcp-accept-queue --port=80 --distr --time=3
WARNING: Tracing SYN & ACK backlog queue length distribution on the listening port 80...
Sampling for 3 seconds.
SYN queue length limit: 512
Accept queue length limit: 128

=== SYN Queue ===
min/avg/max: 6/7/10
value |-------------------------------------------------- count
    1 |                                                    0
    2 |                                                    0
    4 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@             76
    8 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@          82
   16 |                                                    0
   32 |                                                    0

=== Accept Queue ===
min/avg/max: 128/128/129
value |-------------------------------------------------- count
   32 |                                                     0
   64 |                                                     0
  128 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@            158
  256 |                                                     0
  512 |                                                     0

Even though the accept queue is not overflowing, long latency involved in accept queueing can also lead to client connecting timeout. The --latency option can be specified to analyze the accept queueing latency for a given listening port:

$ ./tcp-accept-queue -port=80 --latency
WARNING: Tracing accept queueing latency on the listening port 80...
Hit Ctrl-C to end.
^C
=== Queueing Latency Distribution (microsends) ===
min/avg/max: 28/3281400/3619393
  value |-------------------------------------------------- count
      4 |                                                     0
      8 |                                                     0
     16 |                                                     1
     32 |@                                                   12
     64 |                                                     6
    128 |                                                     2
    256 |                                                     0
    512 |                                                     0
        ~
   8192 |                                                     0
  16384 |                                                     0
  32768 |                                                     2
  65536 |                                                     0
 131072 |                                                     0
 262144 |                                                     0
 524288 |                                                     7
1048576 |@@                                                  28
2097152 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@     516
4194304 |                                                     0
8388608 |                                                     0

The --time option can also be specified to control the sampling time in seconds:

$ ./tcp-accept-queue --port=80 --latency --time=5
WARNING: Tracing accept queueing latency on the listening port 80...
Sampling for 5 seconds.

=== Accept Queueing Latency Distribution (microsends) ===
min/avg/max: 3604825/3618651/3639329
  value |-------------------------------------------------- count
 524288 |                                                    0
1048576 |                                                    0
2097152 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@              37
4194304 |                                                    0
8388608 |                                                    0

This tool requires a Linux kernel compiled by gcc 4.5+ (preferrably gcc 4.7+) because gcc versions older than 4.5 generated incomplete DWARF debug info for C inlined functions. It is also recommended to enable DWARF format version 3 or above when compiling the kernel (by passing the -gdwarf-3 or -gdwarf-4 option to the gcc command line).

Back to TOC

ngx-recv-queue

This tool has been renamed to tcp-recv-queue because this tool is not specific to Nginx in any way and it makes no sense to keep the ngx- prefix in its name.

Back to TOC

tcp-recv-queue

This tool can analyze the queueing latency involved in the TCP receive queue.

The queueing latency defined here is the delay between the following two events:

  1. The first packet enteres the TCP receive queue since the last recvmsg() syscalls (and the like) initiated on the userland.
  2. The next recvmsg() syscall (and the like) that consumes the TCP receive queue.

Large receive queueing lantencies often mean the user process is just too busy to consume the incoming requests, probably leading to timeout errors on the client side.

Zero-length data packets in the TCP receive queue (i.e., the FIN packets) are ignored by this tool.

You are only required to specify the destination port number for the receiving packets via the --dport option.

Here is an example for analyzing the MySQL server listening on the 3306 port:

$ ./tcp-recv-queue --dport=3306
WARNING: Tracing the TCP receive queues for packets to the port 3306...
Hit Ctrl-C to end.
^C
=== Distribution of First-In-First-Out Latency (us) in TCP Receive Queue ===
min/avg/max: 1/2/42
value |-------------------------------------------------- count
    0 |                                                       0
    1 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@                                     20461
    2 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@  69795
    4 |@@@@                                                6187
    8 |@@                                                  3421
   16 |                                                     178
   32 |                                                       8
   64 |                                                       0
  128 |                                                       0

We can see that most of the latency times fall into the interval [2us, 4us). And the worst latency is 42us.

You can also specify the exact sampling time interval (in seconds) via the --time option. For example, to analyze the Nginx server listening on the port 1984 for 5 seconds:

$ ./tcp-recv-queue --dport=1984 --time=5
WARNING: Tracing the TCP receive queues for packets to the port 1984...
Sampling for 5 seconds.

=== Distribution of First-In-First-Out Latency (us) in TCP Receive Queue ===
min/avg/max: 1/1401/12761
value |-------------------------------------------------- count
    0 |                                                       0
    1 |                                                       1
    2 |                                                       1
    4 |                                                       5
    8 |                                                     152
   16 |@@                                                  1610
   32 |                                                      35
   64 |@@@                                                 2485
  128 |@@@@@@                                              4056
  256 |@@@@@@@@@@@@                                        7853
  512 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@                           15153
 1024 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@  31424
 2048 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@                   20454
 4096 |@                                                    862
 8192 |                                                      19
16384 |                                                       0
32768 |                                                       0

Successfully tested on Linux kernel 3.7 and should work for other versions of kernel as well.

This tool requires a Linux kernel compiled by gcc 4.5+ (preferrably gcc 4.7+) because gcc versions older than 4.5 generated incomplete DWARF debug info for C inlined functions. It is also recommended to enable DWARF format version 3 or above when compiling the kernel (by passing the -gdwarf-3 or -gdwarf-4 option to the gcc command line).

Back to TOC

ngx-lua-shdict

This tool analyzes shared memory dict and tracks dict operations in the specified running nginx process.

You can specify the -f option to fetch the data from the shared memory dict name by the specified dict and key. Specify the --raw option when you need dump the raw value of the given key.

Specify the --lua51 option when you're using the standard Lua 5.1 interpreter in your Nginx build, or --luajit20 if LuaJIT 2.0 is used instead. Currently only LuaJIT is supported.

Here's a sample command to fetch the data from the shared memory dict:

# assuming the nginx worker pid is 5050
$ ./ngx-lua-shdict -p 5050 -f --dict dogs --key Jim --luajit20
Tracing 5050 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...

type: LUA_TBOOLEAN
value: true
expires: 1372719243270
flags: 0xa

6 microseconds elapsed in the probe handler.

Similarly, you can specify the -w option to track dict writes for the given key:

$./ngx-lua-shdict -p 5050 -w --key Jim --luajit20
Tracing 5050 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...

Hit Ctrl-C to end

set Jim exptime=4626322717216342016
replace Jim exptime=4626322717216342016
^C

If you don't specify -f or -w, this tool will fetch the data by default.

Back to TOC

ngx-lua-conn-pools

Dumps connections pools status of ngx_lua, reports the number of both out-of-pool and in-pool connections, calculates connections reused times statistics of in-pool connections, and prints the capacity of each pool.

Specify the --lua51 option when you're using the standard Lua 5.1 interpreter in your Nginx build, or --luajit20 if LuaJIT 2.0 is used instead.

Here's a sample command:

# assuming the nginx worker pid is 19773
$ ./ngx-lua-conn-pools -p 19773 --luajit20
Tracing 19773 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...

pool "127.0.0.1:11213"
    out-of-pool reused connections: 2
    in-pool connections: 183
        reused times (max/min/avg): 9322/1042/3748
    pool capacity: 1024

pool "127.0.0.1:11212"
    out-of-pool reused connections: 2
    in-pool connections: 182
        reused times (max/min/avg): 10283/414/3408
    pool capacity: 1024

pool "127.0.0.1:11211"
    out-of-pool reused connections: 2
    in-pool connections: 183
        reused times (max/min/avg): 7109/651/3867
    pool capacity: 1024

pool "127.0.0.1:11214"
    out-of-pool reused connections: 2
    in-pool connections: 183
        reused times (max/min/avg): 7051/810/3807
    pool capacity: 1024

pool "127.0.0.1:11215"
    out-of-pool reused connections: 2
    in-pool connections: 183
        reused times (max/min/avg): 7275/1127/3839
    pool capacity: 1024

For total 5 connection pool(s) found.
324 microseconds elapsed in the probe handler.

You can specify the --distr option to get the distribution of numbers of resued times:

$ ./ngx-lua-conn-pools -p 19773 --luajit20 --distr
Tracing 15001 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx) for LuaJIT 2.0...

pool "127.0.0.1:6379"
    out-of-pool reused connections: 1
    in-pool connections: 19
        reused times (max/avg/min): 2607/2503/2360
        reused times distribution:
value |-------------------------------------------------- count
  512 |                                                    0
 1024 |                                                    0
 2048 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@                                19
 4096 |                                                    0
 8192 |                                                    0

    pool capacity: 1000

For total 1 connection pool(s) found.
218 microseconds elapsed in the probe handler.

Back to TOC

check-debug-info

This tool checks which executable files do not contain debug info in any running process that you specify.

Basically, just run it like this:

./check-debug-info -p <pid>

The executable file associated with the process and all the .so files already loaded by the process will be checked for dwarf info.

The process is not required to be nginx, but can be any user processes.

Here is a complete example:

$ ./check-debug-info -p 26482
File /usr/lib64/ld-2.15.so has no debug info embedded.
File /usr/lib64/libc-2.15.so has no debug info embedded.
File /usr/lib64/libdl-2.15.so has no debug info embedded.
File /usr/lib64/libm-2.15.so has no debug info embedded.
File /usr/lib64/libpthread-2.15.so has no debug info embedded.
File /usr/lib64/libresolv-2.15.so has no debug info embedded.
File /usr/lib64/librt-2.15.so has no debug info embedded.

For now, this tool does not support separate .debug files yet.

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ngx-phase-handlers

This tool dumps all the handlers registered by all the nginx modules for every nginx running phase in the order they actually run.

This is very useful in debugging Nginx configuration issues caused by misinterpreting the running order of the Nginx configuration directives.

Here is an example for an Nginx worker process with very few Nginx modules enabled:

# assuming the nginx worker pid is 4876
$ ./ngx-phase-handlers -p 4876
Tracing 4876 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...
pre-access phase
    ngx_http_limit_req_handler
    ngx_http_limit_conn_handler

content phase
    ngx_http_index_handler
    ngx_http_autoindex_handler
    ngx_http_static_handler

log phase
    ngx_http_log_handler

22 microseconds elapsed in the probe handler.

Here is another example for an Nginx worker process with quite a few Nginx modules enabled:

$ ./ngx-phase-handlers -p 24980
Tracing 24980 (/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx)...
post-read phase
    ngx_http_realip_handler

server-rewrite phase
    ngx_coolkit_override_method_handler
    ngx_http_rewrite_handler

rewrite phase
    ngx_coolkit_override_method_handler
    ngx_http_rewrite_handler

pre-access phase
    ngx_http_realip_handler
    ngx_http_limit_req_handler
    ngx_http_limit_conn_handler

access phase
    ngx_http_auth_request_handler
    ngx_http_access_handler

content phase
    ngx_http_lua_content_handler (request content handler)
    ngx_http_index_handler
    ngx_http_autoindex_handler
    ngx_http_static_handler

log phase
    ngx_http_log_handler

44 microseconds elapsed in the probe handler.

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resolve-inlines

This tool calls the addr2line utility to resolve the inlined function frames generated by those sample-* tools like sample-bt.

It accepts two command-line arguments, the .bt file and the executable file.

For example,

resolve-inlines a.bt /path/to/nginx > new-a.bt

Right now, inlined functions in PIC (Position-Indenpendent Code) are not yet supported but are technically feasiable. (Patches welcome!)

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resolve-src-lines

Similar to resolve-inlines but expand function frames to both their function names and source line positions (i.e., source file names and source line numbers).

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Community

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English Mailing List

The openresty-en mailing list is for English speakers.

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Chinese Mailing List

The openresty mailing list is for Chinese speakers.

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Bugs and Patches

Please submit bug reports, wishlists, or patches by

  1. creating a ticket on the GitHub Issue Tracker,
  2. or posting to the OpenResty community.

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TODO

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Author

Yichun "agentzh" Zhang (章亦春), OpenResty Inc.

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Copyright & License

This module is licenced under the BSD license.

Copyright (C) 2012-2017 by Yichun Zhang (agentzh) agentzh@gmail.com, OpenResty Inc.

All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

  • Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

  • Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

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See Also