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opm - OpenResty Package Manager

Table of Contents




For library users:

# show usage
opm --help

# search package names and abstracts with the user pattern "lock".
opm search lock

# search package names and abstracts with multiple patterns "lru" and "cache".
opm search lru cache

# install a package named lua-resty-foo under the name of some_author
opm get some_author/lua-resty-foo

# get a list of lua-resty-foo packages under all authors.
opm get lua-resty-foo

# show the details of the installed package specified by name.
opm info lua-resty-foo

# show all the installed packages.
opm list

# upgrade package lua-resty-foo to the latest version.
opm upgrade lua-resty-foo

# update all the installed packages to their latest version.
opm update

# uninstall the newly installed package
opm remove lua-resty-foo

All the commands can follow the --cwd option to work in the current working directory (under ./resty/modules/) instead of the system-wide location.

# install into ./resty_modules/ instead of the system-wide location:
opm --cwd get foo/lua-resty-bar

# check the locally installed packages under ./resty_modules/
opm --cwd list

# remove the locally installed packages under ./resty_modules/
opm --cwd remove lua-resty-bar

For library authors:

cd /path/to/lua-resty-foo/

opm build

# optional:
#     cd lua-resty-foo-VERSION/ && opm server-build

# you may need to edit the ~/.opmrc file to set up your github
# personal access tokens. the first run of "opm upload" will create
# a boilerplate ~/.opmrc file for you.
opm upload

# cleaning up the leftovers of the opm build command.
opm clean dist


opm is the official OpenResty package manager, similar to Perl's CPAN and NodeJS's npm in rationale.

We provide both the opm client-side command-line utility and the server-side application for the central package repository in this GitHub code repository.

The opm command-line utility can be used by OpenResty users to download packages published on the central opm server (i.e., It can also be used to package and upload the OpenResty package to the server for package authors and maintainers. You can find the source of opm under the bin/ directory. It is currently implemented as a standalone Perl script.

The server side web application is built upon OpenResty and written in Lua. You can find the server code under the web/ directory.

Unlike many other package management systems like cpan, luarocks, npm, or pip. Our opm adopts a package naming discipline similar to github, that is, every package name should be qualified by a publisher ID, as in agentzh/lua-resty-foo where agentzh is the publisher ID while lua-resty-foo is the package name itself. This naming requirement voids the temptation of occupying good package names and also allows multiple same-name libraries to coexist in the same central server repository. It is up to the user to decide which library to install (or even install multiple forks of the same library in different projects of hers). For simplicity, we simply map the GitHub user IDs and organization IDs to the publisher IDs for opm. For this reason, we use the GitHub personal access tokens (or oauth tokens) to authenticate our package publishers. This also eliminates the sign-up process for opm package authors altogether.

opm has built-in support for the restydoc tool, that is, the documentation of the packages installed via opm is already indexed by restydoc and can be viewed directly on the terminal with the restydoc tool.

opm currently only supports pure Lua libraries but we will add support for Lua libraries in pure C or with some C components very soon. The vision is to also add support for redistributing 3rd-party NGINX C modules as dynamic NGINX modules via opm in the future. The OpenResty world consists of various different kinds of "modules" after all.

We also have plans to allow the user to install LuaRocks packages via opm through the special user ID luarocks. It poses a risk of installing an OpenResty-agnostic Lua module which blocks the NGINX worker processes horribly on network I/O, nevertheless, as the developers of opm, we always like choices, especially those given to our users.

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opm [options] command package...

    --help              Print this help.

    --install-dir=PATH  Install into the specified PATH directory instead of the system-wide
                        OpenResty installation tree containing this tool.

    --cwd               Install into the current working directory under ./resty_modules/
                        instead of the system-wide OpenResty installation tree containing
                        this tool.

    build               Build from the current working directory a package tarball ready
                        for uploading to the server.

    clean ARGUMENT...   Do clean-up work. Currently the valid argument is "dist", which
                        cleans up the temporary files and directories created by the "build"

    info PACKAGE...     Output the detailed information (or meta data) about the specified
                        packages.  Short package names like "lua-resty-lock" are acceptable.

    get PACKAGE...      Fetch and install the specified packages. Fully qualified package
                        names like "openresty/lua-resty-lock" are required. One can also
                        specify a version constraint like "=0.05" and ">=0.01".

    list                List all the installed packages. Both the package names and versions
                        are displayed.

    remove PACKAGE...   Remove (or uninstall) the specified packages. Short package names
                        like "lua-resty-lock" are acceptable.

    search QUERY...     Search on the server for packages matching the user queries in their
                        names or abstracts. Multiple queries can be specified and they must
                        fulfilled at the same time.

    server-build        Build a final package tarball ready for distribution on the server.
                        This command is usually used by the server to verify the uploaded
                        package tarball.

    update              Update all the installed packages to their latest version from
                        the server.

    upgrade PACKAGE...  Upgrade the packages specified by names to the latest version from
                        the server. Short package names like "lua-resty-lock" are acceptable.

    upload              Upload the package tarball to the server. This command always invokes
                        the build command automatically right before uploading.

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Global Installation

To globally install opm packages, just use the sudo opm get foo/bar command.

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Local Installation

When you use --cwd option to install packages to the ./resty_modules/ directory, then you should put the following lines to your nginx.conf, inside the http {} block:

lua_package_path "$prefix/resty_modules/lualib/?.lua;;";
lua_package_cpath "$prefix/resty_modules/lualib/?.so;;";

Do NOT change $prefix to a hard-coded absolute path yourself! OpenResty will automatically resolve the special $prefix variable in the directive values at startup. The $prefix value will be resolved to the server prefix, which will later be specified via the -p option of the openresty command line.

And then you should start your OpenResty application from the current working directory like this:

openresty -p $PWD/

assuming you have the following OpenResty application directory layout in the current directory:


Alternatively, if you just want to use the resty command line utility with the opm modules installed into the ./resty_modules directory, then you should just use the -I ./resty_modules/lualib option, as in

resty -I ./resty_modules/lualib -e 'require "".go()'

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HTTP Proxy Support

HTTP proxies are supported via the http_proxy and https_proxy system environment variables, as in

http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	  Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

https_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	  Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

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Author Workflow

The package author should put a meta-data file named dist.ini on the top-level of the Lua library source tree. This file is used by the opm build command to build and package up your library into a tarball file which can be later uploaded to the central package server via the opm upload command.

One example dist.ini file looks like below for OpenResty's lua-resty-core library:

# distribution config for opm packaging
name = lua-resty-core
abstract = New FFI-based Lua API for the ngx_lua module
author = Yichun "agentzh" Zhang (agentzh)
is_original = yes
license = 2bsd
lib_dir = lib
doc_dir = lib
repo_link =
main_module = lib/resty/core/base.lua
requires = luajit, openresty/lua-resty-lrucache >= 0.04

As we can see, the dist.ini file is using the popular INI file format. Most of the fields in this example should be self-explanatory. For detailed documentation for the fields available in dist.ini, please check out the File dist.ini section.

The opm build command also reads and extracts information from the configuration file .opmrc under the current system user's home directory (i.e., with the file path ~/.opmrc). If the file does not exist, opm build will automatically generates a boilerplate file in that path. One sample ~/.opmrc file looks like this.

# your github account name (either your github user name or github organization that you owns)

# you can generate a github personal access token from the web UI:
# IMPORTANT! you are required to assign the scopes "user:email" and "read:org" to your github token.
# you should NOT assign any other scopes to your token due to security considerations.

# the opm central servers for uploading openresty packages.

Basically, the opm build command just needs the github_account setting from this file. Other fields are needed by the opm upload command that tries to upload the packaged tarball onto the remote package server. You can either use your own GitHub login name (which is agentzh in this example), or a GitHub organization name that you owns (i.e., having the admin permission to it).

After opm build successfully generates a .tar.gz file under the current working directory, the author can use the opm upload command to upload that file to the remote server. To ensure consistency, opm upload automatically runs opm build itself right before attempting the uploading operation. The central package server ( in this case) calls the GitHub API behind the scene to validate the author's identify. Thus the author needs to provide his GitHub personal access token in her ~/.opmrc file. Only the user:email and read:org permissions (or scopes in the GitHub terms) need to be assigned to this access token.

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File dist.ini

The dist.ini file specifies the meta data of a package and is used by opm build to generate a tarball that is ready to upload to the remote package server. This file should sit at the top of the library or module source tree.

This file uses the INI file format. It contains the following keys (or properties) in the default top-level section:

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Specifies the name of the package (excluding version numbers). For example,

name = lua-resty-limit-traffic

The name can only contain letters, digits, and dashes (-).

This key is mandatory.

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Abstract for the current package.

abstract = New FFI-based Lua API for the ngx_lua module

You can use UTF-8 characters in this field value. Invalid UTF-8 sequences, however, will lead to errors in opm build or opm server-build commands.

This key is mandatory.

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Version number for the current package.

If this key is specified, then the version number specified here will be automatically compared with the version number extracted from the "main module" file (see the main_module key for more details).


version = 1.0.2

See also the Version Number Handling section for more details on package version numbers.

This key is optional.

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Specifies one or more authors of the libraries. For instance,

author = Yichun Zhang (agentzh)

The names of multiple authors should be separated by a comma, with optional surrounding spaces.

author = Yichun Zhang (agentzh), Dejiang Zhu

You can use UTF-8 characters in this field value. Invalid UTF-8 sequences, however, will lead to errors in opm build or opm server-build commands.

This key is mandatory.

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Specifies the license for the library. For example,

license = 3bsd

This assigns the 3-clause BSD license to the current package.

Special IDs for common code licenses are required. For now, the following IDs are supported:

  • 2bsd

BSD 2-Clause "Simplified" or "FreeBSD" license

  • 3bsd

BSD 3-Clause "New" or "Revised" license

  • apache2

Apache License 2.0

  • artistic

Artistic License

  • artistic2

Artistic License 2.0

  • ccby

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License

  • ccbysa

Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License

  • ccbynd

Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Public License

  • ccbync

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International Public License

  • ccbyncsa

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License

  • ccbyncnd

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Public License

  • cddl

Common Development and Distribution License

  • eclipse

Eclipse Public License

  • gpl

GNU General Public License (GPL)

  • gpl2

GNU General Public License (GPL) version 2

  • gpl3

GNU General Public License (GPL) version 3

  • lgpl

GNU Library or "Lesser" General Public License (LGPL)

  • mit

MIT license

  • mozilla2

Mozilla Public License 2.0

  • proprietary


  • public

Public Domain

If you do need an open source license not listed above, please let us know.

It is also possible to specify multiple licenses at the same time, as in

license = gpl2, artistic2

This specifies dual licenses: GPLv2 and Artistic 2.0.

To upload the package to the official opm package server, you must at least specify an open source license here.

This key is mandatory.

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Specifies the runtime dependencies of this package.

Multiple dependencies are separated by commas, with optional surrounding spaces. As in

requires = foo/lua-resty-bar, baz/lua-resty-blah

All the dependency constraints specified in this key must be met at the same time when the opm get or opm build command is run.

You can also specify version number requirements, as in

requires = foo/lua-resty-bar >= 0.3.5

The version comparison operators supported are >=, =, and >. Their semantics is self-explanatory.

You can also specify the following special dependency names:

  • luajit

Requires the LuaJIT component in the package user's OpenResty installation (and also the package uploader's). When version number constraints are specified, the version number of the LuaJIT will also be checked.

  • nginx

Requires the NGINX component in the package user's OpenResty installation (and also the package uploader's). When version number constraints are specified, the version number of the NGINX core will also be checked.

  • openresty

This dependency only makes sense when there is an associated version number constraint specified. The version number of the package user's (and also uploader's) OpenResty installation must meet the version constraint here.

  • ngx_http_lua

Requires the ngx_http_lua_module component in the package user's OpenResty installation (and also the package uploader's). When version number constraints are specified, the version of the installed ngx_http_lua_module will also be checked.

Below is such an example:

requires = luajit >= 2.1.0, nginx >= 1.11.2, ngx_http_lua = 0.10.6

or you can just specify a single openresty version constraint to cover them all in the example above:

requires = openresty >=

This key is optional.

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The URL of the code repository (usually on GitHub). For example,

repo_link =

If the repository is on GitHub, then opm build ensures that the name specified in the github_account in your ~/.opmrc file does match the account in your GitHub repository URL. Otherwise opm build reports an error.

This key is mandatory.

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Takes the value yes or no to specify whether this package is an original work (that is, not a fork of another package of somebody else).

This key is mandatory.

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Specifies the root directory of the library files (.lua files, for example).

You must not use absolute directory paths or paths containing .. as the value.

Default to lib.

This key is optional.

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Specifies patterns for files to be excluded during packaging via opm bulid. Unix shell wildcards like * and ? are supported.

Multiple patterns should be separated by commas, with optional surrounding spaces.

exclude_files=foo*.lua, bar/baz/*/*.lua, lint_config.lua

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This key specifies the PATH of the "main module" file of the current package. The opm build command reads the "main module" file to extract the version number of the current package, for example.

opm build uses simple regular expressions to find Lua code patterns like below:

_VERSION = '1.0.2'
version = "0.5"
version = 0.08

When this key is not specified, then opm build will try to find the main module file automatically (which might be wrong though).

You must not use absolute file paths or paths containing .. as the value.

This key is optional.

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Specifies the root directory of the documentation files. Default to lib.

You must not use absolute directory paths or paths containing .. as the value.

opm build always tries to collect the documentation files in either the Markdown (.md or .markdown) or the POD (.pod) format.

Regardless of the value of this doc_dir key, opm build always tries to collect the following files in the current working directory (which should be the root of the current package):

  •, README.markdown, or README.pod
  •, Changes.markdown, or Changes.pod

You can use UTF-8 characters in these documentation files. Other multi-byte character encodings must be avoided.

This key is optional.

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File .opmrc

The .opmrc file under the current system user's home directory configures various important settings for the current system user. Only library authors should care about this file since commands like opm get, opm search, or opm list do not need this file at all.

Like file dist-ini, this file is also in the INI file format. When this file is absent, the first run of the opm build or opm upload commands will automatically generate a boilerplate file for you to fill out later yourself.

This file recognizes the following keys:

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Specifies your GitHub account name, either your GitHub user login name or github organization that you owns.

For example, the document writer's GitHub login name is agentzh while he also owns the GitHub organization openresty. So he can choose to upload his packages either under the agentzh or openresty with the same GitHub access token (defined via the github_token key) by configuring this github_account key.

This key is required.

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Specifies your GitHub personal access token used for package uploads.

You can generate a GitHub personal access token from the GitHub web UI.

While you are generating your token on GitHub's web site, it is crucial to assign the right permissions (or scopes in GitHub's terminology) to your token. The opm tool chain requires that the token must contain the user:email scope. Optionally, you can also assign the read:org scope at the same time, which is required if you want to upload your OpenResty packages under an organization name that you owns.

The GitHub personal access tokens are like passwords, so be very careful when handling it. Never share it with the rest of the world otherwise anybody can upload packages to the OPM package server under your name.

Due to security considerations, the package server also rejects GitHub personal access tokens that are too permissive (that is, having more scopes than needed). The package server caches a sorted hash of your tokens in its own database, so that the server does not have to query GitHub upon subsequent uploads. Because the tokens are hashed, the package server can only verifies that your token is correct but cannot recover your original token just from the database.

This key is required.

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Specifies the OPM server for uploading packages. Defaults to It is strongly recommended to use https (which is the default) for communication privacy.

The official OPM package server is You could, however, point this key to your own or any 3rd-party servers (then you are at your own risk).

This key can have a different value than download_server.

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Specifies the OPM server for downloading packages. Defaults to It is strongly recommended to use https (which is the default) for communication privacy.

The official OPM package server is You could, however, point this key to your own or any 3rd-party servers (then you are at your own risk).

This key can have a different value than upload_server.

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Version Number Handling

OPM requires all package version numbers to only consist of digits, dots, alphabetic letters, and underscores. Only the digits part are mandatory.

OPM treats all version numbers as one or more integers separated by dots (.) or any other non-digit characters. Version number comparisons are performed by comparing each integer part in the order of their appearance. For example, the following version number comparisons hold true:

12 > 10
1.0.3 > 1.0.2
1.1.0 > 1.0.9
0.10.0 > 0.9.2

There can be some surprises when your version numbers look like decimal numbers, as in

0.1 < 0.02

This is because 0.1 is parsed as the integer pair {0, 1}, while 0.02 is parsed as {0, 2}, so the latter is greater than the former. To avoid such pitfalls, always specify the decimal part of the equal length, that is, writing 0.1 as 0.10, which is of the same length as 0.02.

OPM does not support special releases like "release candidates" (RC) or "developer releases" yet. But we may add such support in the future. For forward-compatibility, the package author should avoid version numbers with suffixes like _2 or rc1.

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For opm

OpenResty releases since already include and install opm by default. So usually you do not need to install opm yourself.

It worth noting that if you are using the official OpenResty prebuilt linux packages, you should install the openresty-opm package since the openresty binary package itself does not contain opm.

If you really want to update to the latest version of opm in the code repository, then just copy the file bin/opm in the repository over to <openresty-prefix>/bin/ where <openresty-prefix> is the value of the --prefix option of ./configure while you are building your OpenResty (defaults to /usr/local/openresty/).

# <openresty-prefix> defaults to `/usr/local/openresty/`
# unless you override it when building OpenResty yourself.
sudo cp bin/opm <openresty-prefix>/bin/

If you are using an older version of OpenResty that does not include opm by default, then you should also create the following directories:

cd <openresty-prefix>
sudo mkdir -p site/lualib site/manifest site/pod

Note that at least OpenResty is needed for opm to work properly.

To run the opm tool, you just need perl, tar, and curl to run the opm tool. Ensure that your perl is not too old (should be at least 5.10.1), and your curl supports SNI.

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Security Considerations

The opm client tool always uses HTTPS to talk to the package server,, by default. Both for package uploading and package downloading, as well as other web service queries for meta data. Although it is possible for the user to manually switch to the HTTP protocol by editing the download_server and/or upload_server keys in her own ~/.opmrc file. The opm client tool also always verifies the SSL certificates of the remote OPM package server (via curl right now).

Similarly, the OPM package server always uses TLS to talk to remote services provided by GitHub and Mailgun. These remote sites' SSL certificates are also always verified on the server side. This cannot be turned off by the user.

The OPM package server uses PostgreSQL's pgcrypto extension to encrypt the authors' GitHub personal access tokens in the database (we cache the tokens in our own database to speed up subsequent uploads and improve site reliability when the GitHub API is down). Even the server administrators cannot recover the original access tokens from the database. The server also ensures that the author's personal token is not too permissive by rejecting such tokens.

The opm tool chain and server also always perform the MD5 checksum verification upon both the downloaded and uploaded package files, to ensure data integrity when transferred over the wire.

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The design of the opm tool gets various inspirations from various existing package management systems, including but not limited to, Perl's cpan and Dist::Zilla, RedHat's yum, NodeJS's npm, and Mac OS X's homebrew.

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  • Add opm reinstall command to reinstall an already installed module (at the same version).
  • Add opm doctor command to check if there is any inconsistency in the current opm package installation tree.
  • Add opm files <package> command to list all the files in the specified package.
  • Add opm whatprovides <package> command to find out which package the specified file belongs to.
  • Add plugin mechanisms to opm build (similar to Perl's Dist::Zilla packaging framework).
  • Turn into a full-blown web site similar to
  • Add support for Lua C modules and LuaJIT FFI modules with standalone C libraries.
  • Add support for 3rd-party NGINX C modules (which can be compiled as NGINX dynamic modules).
  • Add (limited) support for LuaRocks via the special name space luarocks, for example,
opm get luarocks/foo

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Yichun Zhang (agentzh), OpenResty Inc.

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Copyright and License

This module is licensed under the BSD license.

Copyright (C) 2016-2020, by Yichun "agentzh" Zhang (章亦春), OpenResty Inc.

All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

  • Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

  • Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.


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