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Name
ngx_set_misc - Various set_xxx directives added to nginx's rewrite
module (md5/sha1, sql/json quoting, and many more)
*This module is not distributed with the Nginx source.* See the
installation instructions.
Version
This document describes set-misc-nginx-module v0.22rc8
(<https://github.com/agentzh/set-misc-nginx-module/tags>) released on 10
May 2012.
Synopsis
location /foo {
set $a $arg_a;
set_if_empty $a 56;
# GET /foo?a=32 will yield $a == 32
# while GET /foo and GET /foo?a= will
# yeild $a == 56 here.
}
location /bar {
set $foo "hello\n\n'\"\\";
set_quote_sql_str $foo $foo; # for mysql
# OR in-place editing:
# set_quote_sql_str $foo;
# now $foo is: 'hello\n\n\'\"\\'
}
location /bar {
set $foo "hello\n\n'\"\\";
set_quote_pgsql_str $foo; # for PostgreSQL
# now $foo is: E'hello\n\n\'\"\\'
}
location /json {
set $foo "hello\n\n'\"\\";
set_quote_json_str $foo $foo;
# OR in-place editing:
# set_quote_json_str $foo;
# now $foo is: "hello\n\n'\"\\"
}
location /baz {
set $foo "hello%20world";
set_unescape_uri $foo $foo;
# OR in-place editing:
# set_unescape_uri $foo;
# now $foo is: hello world
}
upstream_list universe moon sun earth;
upstream moon { ... }
upstream sun { ... }
upstream earth { ... }
location /foo {
set_hashed_upstream $backend universe $arg_id;
drizzle_pass $backend; # used with ngx_drizzle
}
location /base32 {
set $a 'abcde';
set_encode_base32 $a;
set_decode_base32 $b $a;
# now $a == 'c5h66p35' and
# $b == 'abcde'
}
location /base64 {
set $a 'abcde';
set_encode_base64 $a;
set_decode_base64 $b $a;
# now $a == 'YWJjZGU=' and
# $b == 'abcde'
}
location /hex {
set $a 'abcde';
set_encode_hex $a;
set_decode_hex $b $a;
# now $a == '6162636465' and
# $b == 'abcde'
}
# GET /sha1 yields the output
# aaf4c61ddcc5e8a2dabede0f3b482cd9aea9434d
location /sha1 {
set_sha1 $a hello;
echo $a;
}
# ditto
location /sha1 {
set $a hello;
set_sha1 $a;
echo $a;
}
# GET /today yields the date of today in local time using format 'yyyy-mm-dd'
location /today {
set_local_today $today;
echo $today;
}
# GET /signature yields the hmac-sha-1 signature
# given a secret and a string to sign
# this example yields the base64 encoded singature which is
# "HkADYytcoQQzqbjQX33k/ZBB/DQ="
location /signature {
set $secret_key 'secret-key';
set $string_to_sign "some-string-to-sign";
set_hmac_sha1 $signature $secret_key $string_to_sign;
set_encode_base64 $signature $signature;
echo $signature;
}
location = /rand {
set $from 3;
set $to 15;
set_random $rand $from $to;
# or write directly
# set_random $rand 3 15;
echo $rand; # will print a random integer in the range [3, 15]
}
Description
This module extends the standard HttpRewriteModule's directive set to
provide more functionalities like URI escaping and unescaping, JSON
quoting, Hexadecimal/MD5/SHA1/Base32/Base64 digest encoding and
decoding, random number generator, and more!
Every directive provided by this module can be mixed freely with other
[[HttpRewriteModule]]'s directives, like if and set. (Thanks to the
Nginx Devel Kit (<https://github.com/simpl/ngx_devel_kit>)!)
Directives
set_if_empty
syntax: *set_if_empty $dst <src>*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
Assign the value of the argument "<src>" if and only if variable $dst is
empty (i.e., not found or has an empty string value).
In the following example,
set $a 32;
set_if_empty $a 56;
the variable $dst will take the value 32 at last. But in the sample
set $a '';
set $value "hello, world"
set_if_empty $a $value;
$a will take the value "hello, world" at last.
set_quote_sql_str
syntax: *set_quote_sql_str $dst <src>*
syntax: *set_quote_sql_str $dst*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
category: *ndk_set_var_value*
When taking two arguments, this directive will quote the value of the
second argument "<src>" by MySQL's string value quoting rule and assign
the result into the first argument, variable $dst. For example,
location /test {
set $value "hello\n\r'\"\\";
set_quote_sql_str $quoted $value;
echo $quoted;
}
Then request "GET /test" will yield the following output
'hello\n\r\'\"\\'
Please note that we're using [[HttpEchoModule]]'s [directive
(HttpEchoModule#echo)] here to output values of nginx variables
directly.
When taking a single argument, this directive will do in-place
modification of the argument variable. For example,
location /test {
set $value "hello\n\r'\"\\";
set_quote_sql_str $value;
echo $value;
}
then request "GET /test" will give exactly the same output as the
previous example.
This directive is usually used to prevent SQL injection.
This directive can be invoked by [[HttpLuaModule]]'s
ndk.set_var.DIRECTIVE interface and [[HttpArrayVarModule]]'s
array_map_op directive.
set_quote_pgsql_str
syntax: *set_quote_pgsql_str $dst <src>*
syntax: *set_quote_pgsql_str $dst*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
category: *ndk_set_var_value*
Very much like set_quote_sql_str, but with PostgreSQL quoting rules for
SQL string literals.
set_quote_json_str
syntax: *set_quote_json_str $dst <src>*
syntax: *set_quote_json_str $dst*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
category: *ndk_set_var_value*
When taking two arguments, this directive will quote the value of the
second argument "<src>" by JSON string value quoting rule and assign the
result into the first argument, variable $dst. For example,
location /test {
set $value "hello\n\r'\"\\";
set_quote_json_str $quoted $value;
echo $quoted;
}
Then request "GET /test" will yield the following output
"hello\n\r'\"\\"
Please note that we're using [[HttpEchoModule]]'s [directive
(HttpEchoModule#echo)] here to output values of nginx variables
directly.
When taking a single argument, this directive will do in-place
modification of the argument variable. For example,
location /test {
set $value "hello\n\r'\"\\";
set_quote_json_str $value;
echo $value;
}
then request "GET /test" will give exactly the same output as the
previous example.
This directive can be invoked by [[HttpLuaModule]]'s
ndk.set_var.DIRECTIVE interface and [[HttpArrayVarModule]]'s
array_map_op directive.
set_unescape_uri
syntax: *set_unescape_uri $dst <src>*
syntax: *set_unescape_uri $dst*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
category: *ndk_set_var_value*
When taking two arguments, this directive will unescape the value of the
second argument "<src>" as a URI component and assign the result into
the first argument, variable $dst. For example,
location /test {
set_unescape_uri $key $arg_key;
echo $key;
}
Then request "GET /test?key=hello+world%21" will yield the following
output
hello world!
The nginx standard $arg_PARAMETER variable holds the raw (escaped) value
of the URI parameter. So we need the "set_unescape_uri" directive to
unescape it first.
Please note that we're using [[HttpEchoModule]]'s [directive
(HttpEchoModule#echo)] here to output values of nginx variables
directly.
When taking a single argument, this directive will do in-place
modification of the argument variable. For example,
location /test {
set $key $arg_key;
set_unescape_uri $key;
echo $key;
}
then request "GET /test?key=hello+world%21" will give exactly the same
output as the previous example.
This directive can be invoked by [[HttpLuaModule]]'s
ndk.set_var.DIRECTIVE interface and [[HttpArrayVarModule]]'s
array_map_op directive.
set_escape_uri
syntax: *set_escape_uri $dst <src>*
syntax: *set_escape_uri $dst*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
category: *ndk_set_var_value*
Very much like the set_unescape_uri directive, but does the conversion
the other way around, i.e., URL component escaping.
set_hashed_upstream
syntax: *set_hashed_upstream $dst <upstream_list_name> <src>*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
Hashes the string argument "<src>" into one of the upstream name
included in the upstream list named "<upstream_list_name>". The hash
function being used is simple modulo.
Here's an example,
upstream moon { ... }
upstream sun { ... }
upstream earth { ... }
upstream_list universe moon sun earth;
location /test {
set_unescape_uri $key $arg_key;
set $list_name universe;
set_hashed_upstream $backend $list_name $key;
echo $backend;
}
Then "GET /test?key=blah" will output either "moon", "sun", or "earth",
depending on the actual value of the "key" query argument.
This directive is usually used to compute an nginx variable to be passed
to [[HttpMemcModule]]'s memc_pass directive, [[HttpRedis2Module]]'s
[[HttpRedis2Module#redis2_pass]] directive, and [[HttpProxyModule]]'s
proxy_pass directive, among others.
set_encode_base32
syntax: *set_encode_base32 $dst <src>*
syntax: *set_encode_base32 $dst*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
category: *ndk_set_var_value*
When taking two arguments, this directive will encode the value of the
second argument "<src>" to its base32(hex) digest and assign the result
into the first argument, variable $dst. For example,
location /test {
set $raw "abcde";
set_encode_base32 $digest $raw;
echo $digest;
}
Then request "GET /test" will yield the following output
c5h66p35
Please note that we're using [[HttpEchoModule]]'s [directive
(HttpEchoModule#echo)] here to output values of nginx variables
directly.
RFC forces the "[A-Z2-7]" RFC-3548 compliant encoding, but we're using
the "base32hex" encoding ("[0-9a-v]").
By default, the "=" character is used to pad the left-over bytes due to
alignment. But the padding behavior can be completely disabled by
setting set_misc_base32_padding "off".
When taking a single argument, this directive will do in-place
modification of the argument variable. For example,
location /test {
set $value "abcde";
set_encode_base32 $value;
echo $value;
}
then request "GET /test" will give exactly the same output as the
previous example.
This directive can be invoked by [[HttpLuaModule]]'s
ndk.set_var.DIRECTIVE interface and [[HttpArrayVarModule]]'s
array_map_op directive.
set_misc_base32_padding
syntax: *set_misc_base32_padding on|off*
default: *on*
context: *http, server, server if, location, location if*
phase: *no*
This directive can control whether to pad left-over bytes with the "="
character when encoding a base32 digest by the set_encode_base32
directive.
set_decode_base32
syntax: *set_decode_base32 $dst <src>*
syntax: *set_decode_base32 $dst*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
category: *ndk_set_var_value*
Similar to the set_encode_base32 directive, but does exactly the the
opposite operation, .i.e, decoding a base32(hex) digest into its
original form.
set_encode_base64
syntax: *set_encode_base64 $dst <src>*
syntax: *set_encode_base64 $dst*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
category: *ndk_set_var_value*
When taking two arguments, this directive will encode the value of the
second argument "<src>" to its base64 digest and assign the result into
the first argument, variable $dst. For example,
location /test {
set $raw "abcde";
set_encode_base64 $digest $raw;
echo $digest;
}
Then request "GET /test" will yield the following output
YWJjZGU=
Please note that we're using [[HttpEchoModule]]'s [directive
(HttpEchoModule#echo)] here to output values of nginx variables
directly.
When taking a single argument, this directive will do in-place
modification of the argument variable. For example,
location /test {
set $value "abcde";
set_encode_base64 $value;
echo $value;
}
then request "GET /test" will give exactly the same output as the
previous example.
This directive can be invoked by [[HttpLuaModule]]'s
ndk.set_var.DIRECTIVE interface and [[HttpArrayVarModule]]'s
array_map_op directive.
set_decode_base64
syntax: *set_decode_base64 $dst <src>*
syntax: *set_decode_base64 $dst*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
category: *ndk_set_var_value*
Similar to the set_encode_base64 directive, but does exactly the the
opposite operation, .i.e, decoding a base64 digest into its original
form.
set_encode_hex
syntax: *set_encode_hex $dst <src>*
syntax: *set_encode_hex $dst*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
category: *ndk_set_var_value*
When taking two arguments, this directive will encode the value of the
second argument "<src>" to its hexadecimal digest and assign the result
into the first argument, variable $dst. For example,
location /test {
set $raw "章亦春";
set_encode_hex $digest $raw;
echo $digest;
}
Then request "GET /test" will yield the following output
e7aba0e4baa6e698a5
Please note that we're using [[HttpEchoModule]]'s [directive
(HttpEchoModule#echo)] here to output values of nginx variables
directly.
When taking a single argument, this directive will do in-place
modification of the argument variable. For example,
location /test {
set $value "章亦春";
set_encode_hex $value;
echo $value;
}
then request "GET /test" will give exactly the same output as the
previous example.
This directive can be invoked by [[HttpLuaModule]]'s
ndk.set_var.DIRECTIVE interface and [[HttpArrayVarModule]]'s
array_map_op directive.
set_decode_hex
syntax: *set_decode_hex $dst <src>*
syntax: *set_decode_hex $dst*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
category: *ndk_set_var_value*
Similar to the set_encode_hex directive, but does exactly the the
opposite operation, .i.e, decoding a hexadecimal digest into its
original form.
set_sha1
syntax: *set_sha1 $dst <src>*
syntax: *set_sha1 $dst*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
category: *ndk_set_var_value*
When taking two arguments, this directive will encode the value of the
second argument "<src>" to its SHA-1
(<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SHA-1>) digest and assign the result into
the first argument, variable $dst. The hexadecimal form of the "SHA-1"
digest will be generated automatically, use set_decode_hex to decode the
result if you want the binary form of the "SHA-1" digest.
For example,
location /test {
set $raw "hello";
set_sha1 $digest $raw;
echo $digest;
}
Then request "GET /test" will yield the following output
aaf4c61ddcc5e8a2dabede0f3b482cd9aea9434d
Please note that we're using [[HttpEchoModule]]'s [directive
(HttpEchoModule#echo)] here to output values of nginx variables
directly.
When taking a single argument, this directive will do in-place
modification of the argument variable. For example,
location /test {
set $value "hello";
set_sha1 $value;
echo $value;
}
then request "GET /test" will give exactly the same output as the
previous example.
This directive can be invoked by [[HttpLuaModule]]'s
ndk.set_var.DIRECTIVE interface and [[HttpArrayVarModule]]'s
array_map_op directive.
set_md5
syntax: *set_md5 $dst <src>*
syntax: *set_md5 $dst*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
category: *ndk_set_var_value*
When taking two arguments, this directive will encode the value of the
second argument "<src>" to its MD5 (<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MD5>)
digest and assign the result into the first argument, variable $dst. The
hexadecimal form of the "MD5" digest will be generated automatically,
use set_decode_hex to decode the result if you want the binary form of
the "MD5" digest.
For example,
location /test {
set $raw "hello";
set_md5 $digest $raw;
echo $digest;
}
Then request "GET /test" will yield the following output
5d41402abc4b2a76b9719d911017c592
Please note that we're using [[HttpEchoModule]]'s [directive
(HttpEchoModule#echo)] here to output values of nginx variables
directly.
When taking a single argument, this directive will do in-place
modification of the argument variable. For example,
location /test {
set $value "hello";
set_md5 $value;
echo $value;
}
then request "GET /test" will give exactly the same output as the
previous example.
This directive can be invoked by [[HttpLuaModule]]'s
ndk.set_var.DIRECTIVE interface and [[HttpArrayVarModule]]'s
array_map_op directive.
set_hmac_sha1
syntax: *set_hmac_sha1 $dst <secret_key> <src>*
syntax: *set_hmac_sha1 $dst*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
Computes the HMAC-SHA1 (<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMAC>) digest of
the argument "<src>" and assigns the result into the argument variable
$dst with the secret key "<secret_key>".
The raw binary form of the "HMAC-SHA1" digest will be generated, use
set_encode_base64, for example, to encode the result to a textual
representation if desired.
For example,
location /test {
set $secret 'thisisverysecretstuff';
set $string_to_sign 'some string we want to sign';
set_hmac_sha1 $signature $secret $string_to_sign;
set_encode_base64 $signature $signature;
echo $signature;
}
Then request "GET /test" will yield the following output
R/pvxzHC4NLtj7S+kXFg/NePTmk=
Please note that we're using [[HttpEchoModule]]'s [directive
(HttpEchoModule#echo)] here to output values of nginx variables
directly.
This directive requires the OpenSSL library enabled in your Nignx build
(usually by passing the "--with-http_ssl_module" option to the
"./configure" script).
set_random
syntax: *set_random $res <from> <to>*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
Generates a (pseudo) random number (in textual form) within the range
"[<$from>, <$to>]" (inclusive).
Only non-negative numbers are allowed for the "<from>" and "<to>"
arguments.
When "<from>" is greater than "<to>", their values will be exchanged
accordingly.
For instance,
location /test {
set $from 5;
set $to 7;
set_random $res $from $to;
echo $res;
}
then request "GET /test" will output a number between 5 and 7 (i.e.,
among 5, 6, 7).
For now, there's no way to configure a custom random generator seed.
Behind the scene, it makes use of the standard C function "rand()".
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.22rc1" release.
See also set_secure_random_alphanum and set_secure_random_lcalpha.
set_secure_random_alphanum
syntax: *set_secure_random_alphanum $res <length>*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
Generates a cryptographically-strong random string "<length>" characters
long with the alphabet "[a-zA-Z0-9]".
"<length>" may be between 1 and 64, inclusive.
For instance,
location /test {
set_secure_random_alphanum $res 32;
echo $res;
}
then request "GET /test" will output a string like
"ivVVRP2DGaAqDmdf3Rv4ZDJ7k0gOfASz".
This function depends on the presence of the "/dev/urandom" device,
available on most UNIX-like systems.
See also set_secure_random_lcalpha and set_random.
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.22rc8" release.
set_secure_random_lcalpha
syntax: *set_secure_random_lcalpha $res <length>*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
Generates a cryptographically-strong random string "<length>" characters
long with the alphabet "[a-z]".
"<length>" may be between 1 and 64, inclusive.
For instance,
location /test {
set_secure_random_lcalpha $res 32;
echo $res;
}
then request "GET /test" will output a string like
"kcuxcddktffsippuekhshdaclaquiusj".
This function depends on the presence of the "/dev/urandom" device,
available on most UNIX-like systems.
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.22rc8" release.
See also set_secure_random_alphanum and set_random.
set_rotate
syntax: *set_rotate $value <from> <to>*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
Increments $value but keeps it in range from "<from>" to "<to>". If
$value is greater than "<to>" or less than "<from>" is will be set to
"<from>" value.
The current value after running this directive will always be saved on a
per-location basis. And the this saved value will be used for
incrementation when the $value is not initialized or has a bad value.
Only non-negative numbers are allowed for the "<from>" and "<to>"
arguments.
When "<from>" is greater than "<to>", their values will be exchanged
accordingly.
For instance,
location /rotate {
default_type text/plain;
set $counter $cookie_counter;
set_rotate $counter 1 5;
echo $counter;
add_header Set-Cookie counter=$counter;
}
then request "GET /rotate" will output next number between 1 and 5
(i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) on each refresh of the page. This directive may be
userful for banner rotation purposes.
Another example is to use server-side value persistence to do simple
round-robin:
location /rotate {
default_type text/plain;
set_rotate $counter 0 3;
echo $counter;
}
And accessing "/rotate" will also output integer sequence 0, 1, 2, 3, 0,
1, 2, 3, and so on.
This directive was first introduced in the "v0.22rc7" release.
set_local_today
syntax: *set_local_today $dst*
default: *no*
context: *location, location if*
phase: *rewrite*
Set today's date ("yyyy-mm-dd") in localtime to the argument variable
$dst.
Here's an example,
location /today {
set_local_today $today;
echo $today;
}
then request "GET /today" will output something like
2011-08-16
and year, the actual date you get here will vary every day ;)
Behind the scene, this directive utilizes the "ngx_time" API in the
Nginx core, so usually no syscall is involved due to the time caching
mechanism in the Nginx core.
Caveats
Do not use $arg_PARAMETER, $cookie_COOKIE, $http_HEADER or other special
variables defined in the Nginx core module as the target variable in
this module's directives. For instance,
set_if_empty $arg_user 'foo'; # DO NOT USE THIS!
may lead to segmentation faults.
Installation
Grab the nginx source code from nginx.org (<http://nginx.org/>), for
example, the version 1.0.15 (see nginx compatibility), and then build
the source with this module:
wget 'http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.0.15.tar.gz'
tar -xzvf nginx-1.0.15.tar.gz
cd nginx-1.0.15/
# Here we assume you would install you nginx under /opt/nginx/.
./configure --prefix=/opt/nginx \
--with-http_ssl_module \
--add-module=/path/to/ngx_devel_kit \
--add-module=/path/to/set-misc-nginx-module
make -j2
make install
Download the latest version of the release tarball of this module from
set-misc-nginx-module file list
(<http://github.com/agentzh/set-misc-nginx-module/tags>), and the latest
tarball for ngx_devel_kit (<https://github.com/simpl/ngx_devel_kit>)
from its file list (<https://github.com/simpl/ngx_devel_kit/tags>).
Also, this module is included and enabled by default in the
ngx_openresty bundle (<http://openresty.org/>).
Compatibility
The following versions of Nginx should work with this module:
* 1.1.x (last tested: 1.1.5)
* 1.0.x (last tested: 1.0.15)
* 0.9.x (last tested: 0.9.4)
* 0.8.x (last tested: 0.8.54)
* 0.7.x >= 0.7.46 (last tested: 0.7.68)
If you find that any particular version of Nginx above 0.7.46 does not
work with this module, please consider reporting a bug.
Report Bugs
Although a lot of effort has been put into testing and code tuning,
there must be some serious bugs lurking somewhere in this module. So
whenever you are bitten by any quirks, please don't hesitate to
1. send a bug report or even patches to <agentzh@gmail.com>,
2. or create a ticket on the issue tracking interface
(<http://github.com/agentzh/set-misc-nginx-module/issues>) provided
by GitHub.
Source Repository
Available on github at agentzh/set-misc-nginx-module
(<http://github.com/agentzh/set-misc-nginx-module>).
ChangeLog
Test Suite
This module comes with a Perl-driven test suite. The test cases
(<http://github.com/agentzh/set-misc-nginx-module/tree/master/t/>) are
declarative
(<http://github.com/agentzh/set-misc-nginx-module/blob/master/t/escape-u
ri.t>) too. Thanks to the Test::Nginx
(<http://search.cpan.org/perldoc?Test::Nginx>) module in the Perl world.
To run it on your side:
$ PATH=/path/to/your/nginx-with-set-misc-module:$PATH prove -r t
You need to terminate any Nginx processes before running the test suite
if you have changed the Nginx server binary.
Because a single nginx server (by default, "localhost:1984") is used
across all the test scripts (".t" files), it's meaningless to run the
test suite in parallel by specifying "-jN" when invoking the "prove"
utility.
Getting involved
You'll be very welcomed to submit patches to the author or just ask for
a commit bit to the source repository on GitHub.
Author
agentzh (章亦春) *<agentzh@gmail.com>*
This wiki page is also maintained by the author himself, and everybody
is encouraged to improve this page as well.
Copyright & License
Copyright (c) 2009, 2010, 2011, Taobao Inc., Alibaba Group (
http://www.taobao.com ).
Copyright (c) 2009, 2010, 2011, Zhang "agentzh" Yichun (章亦春)
<agentzh@gmail.com>.
This module is licensed under the terms of the BSD license.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
met:
* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS
IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT
HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR
PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
See Also
* Nginx Devel Kit (<https://github.com/simpl/ngx_devel_kit>)
* The ngx_openresty bundle (<http://openresty.org>)
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