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Table of Contents

Libvirt VM Monitoring

Overview

The Libvirt plugin provides metrics for virtual machines when run on the hypervisor server. It provides two sets of metrics per measurement: one designed for the owner of the VM, and one intended for the owner of the hypervisor server.

Installation

Install libvirt plugin system dependencies

apt install libvirt-dev pkg-config

Install libvirt plugin Python dependencies

pip install monasca-agent[libvirt]

It will install libvirt packages like libvirt-python, python-novaclient and python-neutronclient.

Configuration

The monasca-setup program will configure the Libvirt plugin if nova-compute is running, its nova.conf config file is readable by the Monasca Agent user (default: 'mon-agent'), and python-novaclient is installed.

In order to fetch data on hosted compute instances, the Libvirt plugin needs to be able to talk to the Nova API. It does this using credentials found in nova.conf under [keystone_authtoken], obtained when monasca-setup is run, and stored in /etc/monasca/agent/conf.d/libvirt.yaml as username, project_name, and password. These credentials are only used to build and update the Instance Cache.

The Libvirt plugin uses a cache directory to persist data, which is /dev/shm by default. On non-Linux systems (BSD, Mac OSX), /dev/shm may not exist, so cache_dir would need to be changed accordingly, either in monasca_setup/detection/plugins/libvirt.py prior to running monasca-setup, or /etc/monasca/agent/conf.d/libvirt.yaml afterwards.

If the owner of the VM is in a different tenant the Agent Cross-Tenant Metric Submission can be setup. See this documentation for details.

username is the username capable of making administrative nova calls.

password password for the nova user.

project_name is the project/tenant to POST metrics with the vm. prefix.

auth_url is the keystone endpoint for auth.

endpoint_type is the endpoint type for making nova/neutron calls.

region_name is used to add the region dimension to metrics.

nova_refresh specifies the number of seconds between calls to the Nova API to refresh the instance cache. This is helpful for updating VM hostname and pruning deleted instances from the cache. By default, it is set to 14,400 seconds (four hours). Set to 0 to refresh every time the Collector runs, or to None to disable regular refreshes entirely (though the instance cache will still be refreshed if a new instance is detected).

metadata specifies the list of instance metadata keys to be included as dimensions with the cross-tenant metrics for the operations project. This is helpful to give more information about an instance. When using the agent setup scripts, by default scale_group metadata is enabled for supporting auto scaling in Heat. VM name and tenant name (in addition to default IDs) can be provided as dimensions if vm_name and tenant_name are provided in the list of metadata keys.

customer_metadata specifies the list of instance metadata keys to be included as dimensions with customer metrics. This is helpful to give more information about an instance.

vm_probation specifies a period of time (in seconds) in which to suspend metrics from a newly-created VM. This is to prevent quickly-obsolete metrics in an environment with a high amount of instance churn (VMs created and destroyed in rapid succession). The default probation length is 300 seconds (five minutes). Setting to 0 disables VM probation, and metrics will be recorded as soon as possible after a VM is created.

ping_check includes the entire command line (sans the IP address, which is automatically appended) used to perform a ping check against instances, with a keyword NAMESPACE automatically replaced with the appropriate network namespace for the VM being monitored. Set to False (or omit altogether) to disable ping checks. See ping checks below for more detail on how ping checks are set up and how they work.

max_ping_concurrency specifies the number of ping command processes that will be run concurrently. This should be set to a value that allows the plugin to finish within the agent collection period even if there is a networking issue. For example, if the expected number of VMs per compute node is 40 and each VM will have one IP Adddress and using the default ping timeout of 1 seconds, if all of the pings fail and max_ping_concurrency is 1, then the plugin will take at least 40 seconds to do the ping checks. Increasing max_ping_concurrency will allow the plugin to finish faster. The default value is 8.

alive_only will suppress all per-VM metrics aside from host_alive_status and vm.host_alive_status, including all I/O, network, memory, ping, and CPU metrics. Aggregate Metrics, however, would still be enabled if alive_only is true. By default, alive_only is false.

network_use_bits will submit network metrics in bits rather than bytes. This will stop submitting the metrics net.in_bytes_sec and net.out_bytes_sec, and instead submit net.in_bits_sec and net.out_bits_sec.

disk_collection_period will cause disk metrics to be output at a minimum disk_collection_period second interval. This can be optionally set to have disk metrics be outputted less often to reduce metric load on the system. If this is less than the agent collection period, it will be ignored. The default value is 0.

vnic_collection_period will cause vnic metrics to be output at a minimum vnic_collection_period second interval. This can be optionally set to have vnic metrics be outputted less often to reduce metric load on the system. If this is less than the agent collection period, it will be ignored. The default value is 0.

vm_cpu_check_enable enables collecting of VM CPU metrics (Default True). Please see "Mapping Metrics to Configuration Parameters" section below for what metrics are controlled by this flag.

vm_disks_check_enable enables collecting of VM Disk metrics (Default True). Please see "Mapping Metrics to Configuration Parameters" section below for what metrics are controlled by this flag.

vm_network_check_enable enables collecting of VM Network metrics (Default True). Please see "Mapping Metrics to Configuration Parameters" section below for what metrics are controlled by this flag.

vm_ping_check_enable enable host alive ping check (Default True). Please see "Mapping Metrics to Configuration Parameters" section below for what metrics are controlled by this flag.

vm_extended_disks_check_enable enable collecting of extended Disk metrics (Default False). Please see "Mapping Metrics to Configuration Parameters" section below for what metrics are controlled by this flag.

host_aggregate_re can be used to specify a regular expression with which to match nova host aggregate names. If this hypervisor is a member of a host aggregate matching this regular expression, an additional dimension of host_aggregate will be published for the operations metrics (with a value of the host aggregate name).

Example config:

init_config:
    password: pass
    project_name: service
    username: nova
    auth_url: 'http://192.168.10.5/identity'
    endpoint_type: 'publicURL'
    region_name: 'region1'
    cache_dir: /dev/shm
    nova_refresh: 14400
    metadata:
    - scale_group
    customer_metadata:
    - scale_group
    vm_probation: 300
    ping_check: /opt/stack/venv/monasca_agent-20160224T213950Z/bin/ip netns exec NAMESPACE
      /bin/ping -n -c1 -w1 -q
    max_ping_concurrency: 8
    alive_only: false
    network_use_bits: false
    vm_cpu_check_enable: True
    vm_disks_check_enable: True
    vm_network_check_enable: True
    vm_ping_check_enable: True
    vm_extended_disks_check_enable: False
    host_aggregate_re: None
    disk_collection_period: 0
    vnic_collection_period: 0
instances:
    - {}

instances are null in libvirt.yaml because the libvirt plugin detects and runs against all provisioned VM instances; specifying them in libvirt.yaml is unnecessary.

Note: If the Nova service login credentials are changed, monasca-setup would need to be re-run to use the new credentials. Alternately, /etc/monasca/agent/conf.d/libvirt.yaml could be modified directly.

Example monasca-setup usage:

monasca-setup -d libvirt -a 'ping_check=false alive_only=false' --overwrite

Instance Cache

The instance cache (/dev/shm/libvirt_instances.json by default) contains data that is not available to libvirt, but queried from Nova. To limit calls to the Nova API, the cache is only updated if a new instance is detected (libvirt sees an instance not already in the cache), or every nova_refresh seconds (see Configuration above).

Example cache (pretty-printed):

{
   "last_update" : 1450121034,
   "instance-00000005" : {
      "created" : "2015-12-14T19:10:07Z",
      "instance_uuid" : "94b8511c-d4de-40c3-9676-558f28e0c3c1",
      "network" : [
         {
            "ip" : "10.0.0.3",
            "namespace" : "qrouter-ae714057-4453-48c4-81cb-15f8db9434a8"
         }
      ],
      "disk" : 1,
      "tenant_id" : "7d8e24a1e0cb4f8c8dedfb2010992b62",
      "zone" : "nova",
      "scale_group": "a1207522-c5fb-4621-a839-c00b638cfb47",
      "vcpus" : 1,
      "hostname" : "vm01",
      "ram" : 512
   }
}

Metrics Cache

The libvirt inspector returns counters, but it is much more useful to use rates instead. To convert counters to rates, a metrics cache is used, stored in /dev/shm/libvirt_metrics.yaml by default. For each measurement gathered, the current value and timestamp (UNIX epoch) are recorded in the cache. The subsequent run of the Monasca Agent Collector compares current values against prior ones, and computes the rate.

Since CPU Time is provided in nanoseconds, the timestamp recorded has nanosecond resolution. Otherwise, integer seconds are used.

Example cache (pretty-printed excerpt, see next section for complete list of available metrics):

{
   "instance-00000005" : {
      "net.tx_bytes" : {
         "tap65d5c428-b4" : {
            "value" : 5178,
            "timestamp" : 1450121045.53221
         }
      },
      "io.read_requests" : {
         "hdd" : {
            "timestamp" : 1450121045.51788,
            "value" : 1
         },
         "vda" : {
            "timestamp" : 1450121045.50513,
            "value" : 512
         }
      },
      "net.tx_packets" : {
         "tap65d5c428-b4" : {
            "value" : 54,
            "timestamp" : 1450121045.53221
         }
      },
      "net.rx_packets" : {
         "tap65d5c428-b4" : {
            "timestamp" : 1450121045.53221,
            "value" : 63
         }
      },
      "net.rx_bytes" : {
         "tap65d5c428-b4" : {
            "value" : 6909,
            "timestamp" : 1450121045.53221
         }
      },
      "io.write_requests" : {
         "vda" : {
            "timestamp" : 1450121045.50513,
            "value" : 51
         },
         "hdd" : {
            "value" : 0,
            "timestamp" : 1450121045.51788
         }
      },
      "cpu.time" : {
         "value" : 17060000000,
         "timestamp" : 1450121045.4782
      },
      "io.errors" : {
         "hdd" : {
            "value" : -1,
            "timestamp" : 1450121045.51788
         },
         "vda" : {
            "timestamp" : 1450121045.50513,
            "value" : -1
         }
      },
      "io.read_bytes" : {
         "vda" : {
            "timestamp" : 1450121045.50513,
            "value" : 11591680
         },
         "hdd" : {
            "value" : 30,
            "timestamp" : 1450121045.51788
         }
      },
      "io.write_bytes" : {
         "vda" : {
            "timestamp" : 1450121045.50513,
            "value" : 230400
         },
         "hdd" : {
            "timestamp" : 1450121045.51788,
            "value" : 0
         }
      }
   }
}

Per-Instance Metrics

Name Description Associated Dimensions
cpu.total_cores Total virtual cpus allocated to vm
cpu.used_cores Number of cpu cores used
cpu.utilization_perc Overall CPU utilization (percentage)
cpu.utilization_norm_perc Normalized CPU utilization (percentage)
disk.allocation Total Disk allocation for a device 'device' (ie, 'hdd')
disk.capacity Total Disk capacity for a device 'device' (ie, 'hdd')
disk.physical Total Disk usage for a device 'device' (ie, 'hdd')
disk.allocation_total Total Disk allocation across devices for instances
disk.capacity_total Total Disk capacity across devices for instances
disk.physical_total Total Disk usage across devices for instances
health_status Reports if vm is running (0) or not (1)
host_alive_status See host_alive_status Codes below
io.read_ops_sec Disk I/O read operations per second 'device' (ie, 'hdd')
io.read_ops Disk I/O read operations val 'device' (ie, 'hdd')
io.read_bytes Disk I/O read bytes val 'device' (ie, 'hdd')
io.read_bytes_sec Disk I/O read bytes per second 'device' (ie, 'hdd')
io.read_bytes_total Total Disk I/O read bytes across all devices
io.read_bytes_total_sec Total Disk I/O read bytes per second across devices
io.read_ops_total Total Disk I/O read operations across all devices
io.read_ops_total_sec Total Disk I/O read operations across all devices per sec
io.write_ops_sec Disk I/O write operations per second 'device' (ie, 'hdd')
io.write_ops Disk I/O write operations val 'device' (ie, 'hdd')
io.write_bytes Disk I/O write bytes val 'device' (ie, 'hdd')
io.write_bytes_sec Disk I/O write bytes per second 'device' (ie, 'hdd')
io.errors_sec Disk I/O errors per second 'device' (ie, 'hdd')
io.write_bytes_total Total Disk I/O write bytes across all devices
io.write_bytes_total_sec Total Disk I/O Write bytes per second across devices
io.write_ops_total Total Disk I/O write operations across all devices
io.write_ops_total_sec Total Disk I/O write operations across all devices per sec
net.in_packets_sec Network received packets per second 'device' (ie, 'vnet0')
net.out_packets_sec Network transmitted packets per second 'device' (ie, 'vnet0')
net.in_bytes_sec Network received bytes per second 'device' (ie, 'vnet0')
net.out_bytes_sec Network transmitted bytes per second 'device' (ie, 'vnet0')
net.in_dropped_sec Network received packets dropped per second 'device' (ie, 'vnet0')
net.out_dropped_sec Network transmitted packets dropped per second 'device' (ie, 'vnet0')
net.in_errors_sec Network received packets with errors per second 'device' (ie, 'vnet0')
net.out_errors_sec Network transmitted packets with errors per second 'device' (ie, 'vnet0')
net.in_packets Network received total packets 'device' (ie, 'vnet0')
net.out_packets Network transmitted total packets 'device' (ie, 'vnet0')
net.in_bytes Network received total bytes 'device' (ie, 'vnet0')
net.out_bytes Network transmitted total bytes 'device' (ie, 'vnet0')
mem.free_gb Free memory in Gbytes
mem.total_gb Total memory in Gbytes
mem.used_gb Used memory in Gbytes
mem.free_perc Percent of memory free
mem.swap_used_gb Used swap space in Gbytes
ping_status 0 for ping success, 1 for ping failure
cpu.time_ns Cumulative CPU time (in ns)
mem.resident_gb Total memory used on host, an Operations-only metric

host_alive_status Codes

Code Description value_meta 'detail'
-1 No state VM has no state
0 Running / OK None
1 Idle / blocked VM is blocked
2 Paused VM is paused
3 Shutting down VM is shutting down
4 Shut off VM has been shut off
4 Nova suspend VM has been suspended
5 Crashed VM has crashed
6 Power management suspend (S3 state) VM is in power management (s3) suspend

Memory statistics require a balloon driver on the VM. For the Linux kernel, this is the CONFIG_VIRTIO_BALLOON configuration parameter, active by default in Ubuntu, and enabled by default as a kernel module in Debian, CentOS, and SUSE.

Since separate metrics are sent to the VM's owner as well as Operations, all metric names designed for Operations are prefixed with "vm." to easily distinguish between VM metrics and compute host's metrics.

Ping Checks

The Libvirt plugin provides the ability to perform an ICMP ping test against hosted VMs. It is helpful for determining, for example, if a VM is in a panicked or halted state, which in both cases may appear to the hypervisor as "Running / OK." However, in order for ping checks to work, certain environmental requirements must be met.

Requirements

  1. Neutron L3 agent in DVR mode (legacy mode is supported on single-node installations, such as devstack).
  2. Neutron L2 plugin with a tenant network type of vlan or vxlan (other types may be supported, but have not been tested).
  3. The python-neutronclient library and its dependencies installed and available to the Monasca Agent
  4. Each VM needs an appropriate security group configuration to allow ICMP

Detection

The monasca-setup detection plugin for libvirt performs the following tests and tasks before configuring ping checks:

  1. Ability to determine the name of the user under which monasca-agent processes run (eg, mon-agent)
  2. Availability of the python-neutronclient library (by attempting to import client from neutronclient.v2_0)
  3. A separate enhanced-capabilities ip command exists: a. The detection plugin copies /sbin/ip to sys.path[0]/monasca-agent-ip (see the configuration section above for an example) b. Permissions on the copy are changed to the mon-agent user (or whichever Agent user is configured), mode 0700. c. The /sbin/setcap command is called, applying cap_sys_admin+ep to the copy, as cap_sys_admin is the only capability which provides setns, necessary to execute commands in a separate namespace. d. The detection plugin confirms that the enhanced capabilities were successfully applied
  4. Existence of a ping command; detection will try /usr/bin/fping, /sbin/fping, and /bin/ping in that order. fping is preferred because it allows for sub-second timeouts, but is not installed by default in some Linux distributions.

If any of the above requirements fail, a WARN-level message is output, describing the problem. The libvirt plugin will continue to function without these requirements, but ping checks will be disabled.

Algorithm

Instance IP and namespace information is stored in the instance cache, rebuilt only when a new VM has been detected, or every 300 second (by default), whichever comes first. Here is the general algorithm for how IP, namespace, and security parameters are detected.

First, build a list of all Neutron ports (networks). This list will be referenced frequently later. Connection to the Neutron API, through python-neutronclient, uses the same authentication credentials as calls to the Nova API. These credentials are captured from nova.conf and stored in libvirt.yaml during the monasca-setup process.

Look for the presence of network namespaces on the compute node by running ip netns list. This determines if:

  1. Neutron is running in distributed-routing mode
  2. Neutron is running in legacy or centralized-routing mode but on a single node (a la devstack)

If no network namespaces have been found, there is no need to continue trying to fetch information to support ping checks.

Assuming namespaces have been found, poll Neutron for a complete list of security groups, and store these as a dictionary object for quick access.

Start walking through each detected VM instance. Each instance can have one or more Neutron networks, and each network can have one or more interface. If the interface has a 'fixed' IP address (as opposed to floating), consult the port cache to find the subnet ID for that IP address. The subnet ID is a unique identifier that will be used to find the correct namespace ID, which is also found in the port cache.

Once we find an active matching router interface for the tenant and VM interface subnet ID, we can verify that the VM's security policy allows ICMP from that router interface's IP address (see Client Configuration below for an example of this IP address).

The process of looking for namespaces and security rules occurs each time the instance cache is refreshed, so for normal operation, all this information is stored in the instance cache.

Client Configuration

The VM owner would need to add a security rule to allow ICMP access to their VM. The simplest implementation would be to allow ICMP globally:

$ nova secgroup-add-rule default icmp -1 -1 0.0.0.0/0

However, more security-conscious customers may not want the world to ping their VM, so at a minimum, ICMP needs to be allowed for the subnet gateway IP address.

Troubleshooting

To limit false negative, ping checks will not be performed unless all the requirements are met. The most direct way to verify all the requirements are met for a single VM is to look at the /dev/shm/libvirt_instances.json file on the compute node where the VM is hosted. Any VM that meets all the requirements will have a "network" section, containing the IP address and network namespace for each correctly-configured device.

"network" : [ { "ip" : "10.0.0.3", "namespace" : "qrouter-ae714057-4453-48c4-81cb-15f8db9434a8" } ],

You can attempt to ping the IP address through the given namespace with a command like

$ sudo ip netns exec qrouter-ae714057-4453-48c4-81cb-15f8db9434a8 ping 10.0.0.3

Other questions you could ask, if ping checks are not configured, are:

  • Do any VMs have the "network" section in /dev/shm/libvirt_instances.json? If so, security rules for the VM in question may be the cause.
  • Does the command ip netns list |grep qrouter produce any output on the compute node? If not, perhaps Neutron is not configured in DVR mode, or no VMs are present on that compute node.
  • Is the ping_check command defined /etc/monasca/agent/conf.d/libvirt.yaml? If not, try running monasca-setup -d libvirt as root from within the appropriate Python virtual environment

Mapping Metrics to Configuration Parameters

Configuration parameters can be used to control which metrics are reported by libvirt plugin. There are 5 parameters currently in libvirt config file: vm_cpu_check_enable, vm_disks_check_enable, vm_network_check_enable, vm_ping_check_enable and vm_extended_disks_check_enable.

Tunable Metrics

Configuration Parameter Admin Metric Name Tenant Metric Name
vm_cpu_check_enable (default: True) vm.cpu.time_ns cpu.time_ns
vm.cpu.utilization_norm_perc cpu.utilization_norm_perc
vm.cpu.utilization_perc cpu.utilization_perc
vm_disks_check_enable (default: True) vm.io.errors io.errors
vm.io.errors_sec io.errors_sec
vm.io.read_bytes io.read_bytes
vm.io.read_ops io.read_ops
vm.io.read_ops_sec io.read_ops_sec
vm.io.write_bytes io.write_bytes
vm.io.write_bytes_sec io.write_bytes_sec
vm.io.write_ops io.write_ops
vm.io.write_ops_sec io.write_ops_sec
vm_network_check_enable (default: True) vm.net.in_bytes net.in_bytes
vm.net.in_bytes_sec net.in_bytes_sec
vm.net.in_packets net.in_packets
vm.net.in_packets_sec net.in_packets_sec
vm.net.out_bytes net.out_bytes
vm.net.out_bytes_sec net.out_bytes_sec
vm.net.out_packets net.out_packets
vm.net.out_packets_sec net.out_packets_sec
vm_ping_check_enable (default: True) vm.ping_status ping_status
vm_extended_disks_check_enable (default: False) vm.disk.allocation disk.allocation
vm.disk.capacity disk.capacity
vm.disk.physical disk.physical
vm.disk.allocation_total disk.allocation_total
vm_disks_check_enable(default: True) and vm_extended_disks_check_enable(default: False) vm.io.errors_total io.errors_total
vm.io.errors_total_sec io.errors_total_sec
vm.io.read_bytes_total io.read_bytes_total
vm.io.read_bytes_total_sec io.read_bytes_total_sec
vm.io.read_ops_total io.read_ops_total
vm.io.read_ops_total_sec io.read_ops_total_sec
vm.io.write_bytes_total io.write_bytes_total
vm.io.write_bytes_total_sec io.write_bytes_total_sec
vm.io.write_ops_total io.write_ops_total
vm.io.write_ops_total_sec io.write_ops_total_sec

Untunable Metrics

Prerequisite

By default, the memory statistics feature is disabled in qemu. You need to add stats period in order to enable them.

  • Enable stats period of memballoon device. Add default mem_stats_period_seconds=10 into /etc/nova/nova.conf file. Restart nova-compute service: sudo systemctl restart openstack-nova-compute
  • Make sure your image includes the suitable balloon driver, particularly for Windows guests, most modern Linux distributions have it build in. For cirros it's available from version 0.4.0.

Untunable Metrics List

Please see table below for metrics in libvirt.

Admin Metric Name Tenant Metric Name
vm.host_alive_status host_alive_status
vm.mem.free_mb mem.free_mb
vm.mem.free_perc mem.free_perc
vm.mem.resident_mb
vm.mem.swap_used_mb mem.swap_used_mb
vm.mem.total_mb mem.total_mb
vm.mem.used_mb mem.used_mb

VM Dimensions

All metrics include resource_id and zone (availability zone) dimensions. Because there is a separate set of metrics for the two target audiences (VM customers and Operations), other dimensions may differ.

Dimension Name Customer Value Operations Value
hostname name of VM as provisioned hypervisor's hostname
zone availability zone availability zone
resource_id resource ID of VM resource ID of VM
service "compute" "compute"
component "vm" "vm"
device name of net or disk dev name of net or disk dev
port_id port ID of the VM port port ID of the VM port
tenant_id (N/A) owner of VM
tenant_name (N/A) name of the project owner of the VM (if configured to publish)
vm_name (N/A) name of the VM (if configured to publish)
host_aggregate (N/A) host aggregate name of this hypervisor (if configured to publish)

Aggregate Metrics

In addition to per-instance metrics, the Libvirt plugin will publish aggregate metrics across all instances.

Name Description
nova.vm.cpu.total_allocated Total CPUs allocated across all VMs
nova.vm.disk.total_allocated_gb Total Gbytes of disk space allocated to all VMs
nova.vm.mem.total_allocated_mb Total Mbytes of memory allocated to all VMs
nova.vm.total_count Total number of VMs on host
nova.vm.blocked_count Total number of VMs in state blocked on host
nova.vm.blocked_perc Percentage of VMs in state blocked on host
nova.vm.crashed_count Total number of VMs in state crashed on host
nova.vm.crashed_perc Percentage of VMs in state crashed on host
nova.vm.nostate_count Total number of VMs with no state on host
nova.vm.nostate_perc Percentage of VMs with no state on host
nova.vm.paused_count Total number of VMs in state paused on host
nova.vm.paused_perc Percentage of VMs in state paused on host
nova.vm.suspended_count Total number of VMs in state suspended on host
nova.vm.suspended_perc Percentage of VMs in state suspended on host
nova.vm.running_count Total number of VMs in state running on host
nova.vm.running_perc Percentage of VMs in state running on host
nova.vm.shutingdown_count Total number of VMs in state shutting down on host
nova.vm.shutingdown_perc Percentage of VMs in state shutting down on host
nova.vm.shutoff_count Total number of VMs in state shutoff/Nova suspended on host
nova.vm.shutoff_perc Percentage of VMs in state shutoff/Nova suspended on host

Aggregate dimensions include hostname and component from the Operations Value column above.

License

(C) Copyright 2015-2016 Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development LP

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