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# vim: tabstop=4 shiftwidth=4 softtabstop=4
# Copyright 2011 Justin Santa Barbara
# All Rights Reserved.
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
Drivers for san-stored volumes.
The unique thing about a SAN is that we don't expect that we can run the volume
controller on the SAN hardware. We expect to access it over SSH or some API.
import base64
import httplib
import os
import paramiko
import random
import socket
import string
import uuid
from lxml import etree
from nova import exception
from nova import flags
from nova.openstack.common import cfg
from nova.openstack.common import jsonutils
from nova.openstack.common import log as logging
from nova import utils
import nova.volume.driver
LOG = logging.getLogger(__name__)
san_opts = [
help='Use thin provisioning for SAN volumes?'),
help='IP address of SAN controller'),
help='Username for SAN controller'),
help='Password for SAN controller'),
help='Filename of private key to use for SSH authentication'),
help='Cluster name to use for creating volumes'),
help='SSH port to use with SAN'),
help='Execute commands locally instead of over SSH; '
'use if the volume service is running on the SAN device'),
help='The ZFS path under which to create zvols for volumes.'),
class SanISCSIDriver(nova.volume.driver.ISCSIDriver):
"""Base class for SAN-style storage volumes
A SAN-style storage value is 'different' because the volume controller
probably won't run on it, so we need to access is over SSH or another
remote protocol.
def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
super(SanISCSIDriver, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
self.run_local = FLAGS.san_is_local
def _build_iscsi_target_name(self, volume):
return "%s%s" % (FLAGS.iscsi_target_prefix, volume['name'])
def _connect_to_ssh(self):
ssh = paramiko.SSHClient()
#TODO(justinsb): We need a better SSH key policy
if FLAGS.san_password:
elif FLAGS.san_private_key:
privatekeyfile = os.path.expanduser(FLAGS.san_private_key)
# It sucks that paramiko doesn't support DSA keys
privatekey = paramiko.RSAKey.from_private_key_file(privatekeyfile)
msg = _("Specify san_password or san_private_key")
raise exception.InvalidInput(reason=msg)
return ssh
def _execute(self, *cmd, **kwargs):
if self.run_local:
return utils.execute(*cmd, **kwargs)
check_exit_code = kwargs.pop('check_exit_code', None)
command = ' '.join(cmd)
return self._run_ssh(command, check_exit_code)
def _run_ssh(self, command, check_exit_code=True):
#TODO(justinsb): SSH connection caching (?)
ssh = self._connect_to_ssh()
#TODO(justinsb): Reintroduce the retry hack
ret = utils.ssh_execute(ssh, command, check_exit_code=check_exit_code)
return ret
def ensure_export(self, context, volume):
"""Synchronously recreates an export for a logical volume."""
def create_export(self, context, volume):
"""Exports the volume."""
def remove_export(self, context, volume):
"""Removes an export for a logical volume."""
def check_for_setup_error(self):
"""Returns an error if prerequisites aren't met."""
if not self.run_local:
if not (FLAGS.san_password or FLAGS.san_private_key):
raise exception.InvalidInput(
reason=_('Specify san_password or san_private_key'))
# The san_ip must always be set, because we use it for the target
if not (FLAGS.san_ip):
raise exception.InvalidInput(reason=_("san_ip must be set"))
def _collect_lines(data):
"""Split lines from data into an array, trimming them """
matches = []
for line in data.splitlines():
match = line.strip()
return matches
def _get_prefixed_values(data, prefix):
"""Collect lines which start with prefix; with trimming"""
matches = []
for line in data.splitlines():
line = line.strip()
if line.startswith(prefix):
match = line[len(prefix):]
match = match.strip()
return matches
class SolarisISCSIDriver(SanISCSIDriver):
"""Executes commands relating to Solaris-hosted ISCSI volumes.
Basic setup for a Solaris iSCSI server:
pkg install storage-server SUNWiscsit
svcadm enable stmf
svcadm enable -r svc:/network/iscsi/target:default
pfexec itadm create-tpg e1000g0 ${MYIP}
pfexec itadm create-target -t e1000g0
Then grant the user that will be logging on lots of permissions.
I'm not sure exactly which though:
zfs allow justinsb create,mount,destroy rpool
usermod -P'File System Management' justinsb
usermod -P'Primary Administrator' justinsb
Also make sure you can login using san_login & san_password/san_private_key
def _execute(self, *cmd, **kwargs):
new_cmd = ['pfexec']
return super(SolarisISCSIDriver, self)._execute(*new_cmd,
def _view_exists(self, luid):
(out, _err) = self._execute('/usr/sbin/stmfadm',
'list-view', '-l', luid,
if "no views found" in out:
return False
if "View Entry:" in out:
return True
msg = _("Cannot parse list-view output: %s") % out
raise exception.VolumeBackendAPIException(data=msg)
def _get_target_groups(self):
"""Gets list of target groups from host."""
(out, _err) = self._execute('/usr/sbin/stmfadm', 'list-tg')
matches = _get_prefixed_values(out, 'Target group: ')
LOG.debug("target_groups=%s" % matches)
return matches
def _target_group_exists(self, target_group_name):
return target_group_name not in self._get_target_groups()
def _get_target_group_members(self, target_group_name):
(out, _err) = self._execute('/usr/sbin/stmfadm',
'list-tg', '-v', target_group_name)
matches = _get_prefixed_values(out, 'Member: ')
LOG.debug("members of %s=%s" % (target_group_name, matches))
return matches
def _is_target_group_member(self, target_group_name, iscsi_target_name):
return iscsi_target_name in (
def _get_iscsi_targets(self):
(out, _err) = self._execute('/usr/sbin/itadm', 'list-target')
matches = _collect_lines(out)
# Skip header
if len(matches) != 0:
assert 'TARGET NAME' in matches[0]
matches = matches[1:]
targets = []
for line in matches:
items = line.split()
assert len(items) == 3
LOG.debug("_get_iscsi_targets=%s" % (targets))
return targets
def _iscsi_target_exists(self, iscsi_target_name):
return iscsi_target_name in self._get_iscsi_targets()
def _build_zfs_poolname(self, volume):
zfs_poolname = '%s%s' % (FLAGS.san_zfs_volume_base, volume['name'])
return zfs_poolname
def create_volume(self, volume):
"""Creates a volume."""
if int(volume['size']) == 0:
sizestr = '100M'
sizestr = '%sG' % volume['size']
zfs_poolname = self._build_zfs_poolname(volume)
# Create a zfs volume
cmd = ['/usr/sbin/zfs', 'create']
if FLAGS.san_thin_provision:
cmd.extend(['-V', sizestr])
def _get_luid(self, volume):
zfs_poolname = self._build_zfs_poolname(volume)
zvol_name = '/dev/zvol/rdsk/%s' % zfs_poolname
(out, _err) = self._execute('/usr/sbin/sbdadm', 'list-lu')
lines = _collect_lines(out)
# Strip headers
if len(lines) >= 1:
if lines[0] == '':
lines = lines[1:]
if len(lines) >= 4:
assert 'Found' in lines[0]
assert '' == lines[1]
assert 'GUID' in lines[2]
assert '------------------' in lines[3]
lines = lines[4:]
for line in lines:
items = line.split()
assert len(items) == 3
if items[2] == zvol_name:
luid = items[0].strip()
return luid
msg = _('LUID not found for %(zfs_poolname)s. '
'Output=%(out)s') % locals()
raise exception.VolumeBackendAPIException(data=msg)
def _is_lu_created(self, volume):
luid = self._get_luid(volume)
return luid
def delete_volume(self, volume):
"""Deletes a volume."""
zfs_poolname = self._build_zfs_poolname(volume)
self._execute('/usr/sbin/zfs', 'destroy', zfs_poolname)
def local_path(self, volume):
# TODO(justinsb): Is this needed here?
escaped_group = FLAGS.volume_group.replace('-', '--')
escaped_name = volume['name'].replace('-', '--')
return "/dev/mapper/%s-%s" % (escaped_group, escaped_name)
def ensure_export(self, context, volume):
"""Synchronously recreates an export for a logical volume."""
#TODO(justinsb): On bootup, this is called for every volume.
# It then runs ~5 SSH commands for each volume,
# most of which fetch the same info each time
# This makes initial start stupid-slow
return self._do_export(volume, force_create=False)
def create_export(self, context, volume):
return self._do_export(volume, force_create=True)
def _do_export(self, volume, force_create):
# Create a Logical Unit (LU) backed by the zfs volume
zfs_poolname = self._build_zfs_poolname(volume)
if force_create or not self._is_lu_created(volume):
zvol_name = '/dev/zvol/rdsk/%s' % zfs_poolname
self._execute('/usr/sbin/sbdadm', 'create-lu', zvol_name)
luid = self._get_luid(volume)
iscsi_name = self._build_iscsi_target_name(volume)
target_group_name = 'tg-%s' % volume['name']
# Create an iSCSI target, mapped to just this volume
if force_create or not self._target_group_exists(target_group_name):
self._execute('/usr/sbin/stmfadm', 'create-tg', target_group_name)
# Yes, we add the initiatior before we create it!
# Otherwise, it complains that the target is already active
if force_create or not self._is_target_group_member(target_group_name,
'add-tg-member', '-g', target_group_name, iscsi_name)
if force_create or not self._iscsi_target_exists(iscsi_name):
self._execute('/usr/sbin/itadm', 'create-target', '-n', iscsi_name)
if force_create or not self._view_exists(luid):
'add-view', '-t', target_group_name, luid)
#TODO(justinsb): Is this always 1? Does it matter?
iscsi_portal_interface = '1'
iscsi_portal = FLAGS.san_ip + ":3260," + iscsi_portal_interface
db_update = {}
db_update['provider_location'] = ("%s %s" %
return db_update
def remove_export(self, context, volume):
"""Removes an export for a logical volume."""
# This is the reverse of _do_export
luid = self._get_luid(volume)
iscsi_name = self._build_iscsi_target_name(volume)
target_group_name = 'tg-%s' % volume['name']
if self._view_exists(luid):
self._execute('/usr/sbin/stmfadm', 'remove-view', '-l', luid, '-a')
if self._iscsi_target_exists(iscsi_name):
self._execute('/usr/sbin/stmfadm', 'offline-target', iscsi_name)
self._execute('/usr/sbin/itadm', 'delete-target', iscsi_name)
# We don't delete the tg-member; we delete the whole tg!
if self._target_group_exists(target_group_name):
self._execute('/usr/sbin/stmfadm', 'delete-tg', target_group_name)
if self._is_lu_created(volume):
self._execute('/usr/sbin/sbdadm', 'delete-lu', luid)
class HpSanISCSIDriver(SanISCSIDriver):
"""Executes commands relating to HP/Lefthand SAN ISCSI volumes.
We use the CLIQ interface, over SSH.
Rough overview of CLIQ commands used:
:createVolume: (creates the volume)
:getVolumeInfo: (to discover the IQN etc)
:getClusterInfo: (to discover the iSCSI target IP address)
:assignVolumeChap: (exports it with CHAP security)
The 'trick' here is that the HP SAN enforces security by default, so
normally a volume mount would need both to configure the SAN in the volume
layer and do the mount on the compute layer. Multi-layer operations are
not catered for at the moment in the nova architecture, so instead we
share the volume using CHAP at volume creation time. Then the mount need
only use those CHAP credentials, so can take place exclusively in the
compute layer.
def _cliq_run(self, verb, cliq_args):
"""Runs a CLIQ command over SSH, without doing any result parsing"""
cliq_arg_strings = []
for k, v in cliq_args.items():
cliq_arg_strings.append(" %s=%s" % (k, v))
cmd = verb + ''.join(cliq_arg_strings)
return self._run_ssh(cmd)
def _cliq_run_xml(self, verb, cliq_args, check_cliq_result=True):
"""Runs a CLIQ command over SSH, parsing and checking the output"""
cliq_args['output'] = 'XML'
(out, _err) = self._cliq_run(verb, cliq_args)
LOG.debug(_("CLIQ command returned %s"), out)
result_xml = etree.fromstring(out)
if check_cliq_result:
response_node = result_xml.find("response")
if response_node is None:
msg = (_("Malformed response to CLIQ command "
"%(verb)s %(cliq_args)s. Result=%(out)s") %
raise exception.VolumeBackendAPIException(data=msg)
result_code = response_node.attrib.get("result")
if result_code != "0":
msg = (_("Error running CLIQ command %(verb)s %(cliq_args)s. "
" Result=%(out)s") %
raise exception.VolumeBackendAPIException(data=msg)
return result_xml
def _cliq_get_cluster_info(self, cluster_name):
"""Queries for info about the cluster (including IP)"""
cliq_args = {}
cliq_args['clusterName'] = cluster_name
cliq_args['searchDepth'] = '1'
cliq_args['verbose'] = '0'
result_xml = self._cliq_run_xml("getClusterInfo", cliq_args)
return result_xml
def _cliq_get_cluster_vip(self, cluster_name):
"""Gets the IP on which a cluster shares iSCSI volumes"""
cluster_xml = self._cliq_get_cluster_info(cluster_name)
vips = []
for vip in cluster_xml.findall("response/cluster/vip"):
if len(vips) == 1:
return vips[0]
_xml = etree.tostring(cluster_xml)
msg = (_("Unexpected number of virtual ips for cluster "
" %(cluster_name)s. Result=%(_xml)s") %
raise exception.VolumeBackendAPIException(data=msg)
def _cliq_get_volume_info(self, volume_name):
"""Gets the volume info, including IQN"""
cliq_args = {}
cliq_args['volumeName'] = volume_name
result_xml = self._cliq_run_xml("getVolumeInfo", cliq_args)
# Result looks like this:
#<gauche version="1.0">
# <response description="Operation succeeded." name="CliqSuccess"
# processingTime="87" result="0">
# <volume autogrowPages="4" availability="online" blockSize="1024"
# bytesWritten="0" checkSum="false" clusterName="Cluster01"
# created="2011-02-08T19:56:53Z" deleting="false" description=""
# groupName="Group01" initialQuota="536870912" isPrimary="true"
# iscsiIqn=""
# maxSize="6865387257856" md5="9fa5c8b2cca54b2948a63d833097e1ca"
# minReplication="1" name="vol-b" parity="0" replication="2"
# reserveQuota="536870912" scratchQuota="4194304"
# serialNumber="9fa5c8b2cca54b2948a63d833097e1ca0000000000006316"
# size="1073741824" stridePages="32" thinProvision="true">
# <status description="OK" value="2"/>
# <permission access="rw"
# authGroup="api-34281B815713B78-(trimmed)51ADD4B7030853AA7"
# chapName="chapusername" chapRequired="true" id="25369"
# initiatorSecret="" iqn="" iscsiEnabled="true"
# loadBalance="true" targetSecret="supersecret"/>
# </volume>
# </response>
# Flatten the nodes into a dictionary; use prefixes to avoid collisions
volume_attributes = {}
volume_node = result_xml.find("response/volume")
for k, v in volume_node.attrib.items():
volume_attributes["volume." + k] = v
status_node = volume_node.find("status")
if not status_node is None:
for k, v in status_node.attrib.items():
volume_attributes["status." + k] = v
# We only consider the first permission node
permission_node = volume_node.find("permission")
if not permission_node is None:
for k, v in status_node.attrib.items():
volume_attributes["permission." + k] = v
LOG.debug(_("Volume info: %(volume_name)s => %(volume_attributes)s") %
return volume_attributes
def create_volume(self, volume):
"""Creates a volume."""
cliq_args = {}
cliq_args['clusterName'] = FLAGS.san_clustername
#TODO(justinsb): Should we default to inheriting thinProvision?
cliq_args['thinProvision'] = '1' if FLAGS.san_thin_provision else '0'
cliq_args['volumeName'] = volume['name']
if int(volume['size']) == 0:
cliq_args['size'] = '100MB'
cliq_args['size'] = '%sGB' % volume['size']
self._cliq_run_xml("createVolume", cliq_args)
volume_info = self._cliq_get_volume_info(volume['name'])
cluster_name = volume_info['volume.clusterName']
iscsi_iqn = volume_info['volume.iscsiIqn']
#TODO(justinsb): Is this always 1? Does it matter?
cluster_interface = '1'
cluster_vip = self._cliq_get_cluster_vip(cluster_name)
iscsi_portal = cluster_vip + ":3260," + cluster_interface
model_update = {}
# NOTE(jdg): LH volumes always at lun 0 ?
model_update['provider_location'] = ("%s %s %s" %
return model_update
def create_volume_from_snapshot(self, volume, snapshot):
"""Creates a volume from a snapshot."""
raise NotImplementedError()
def create_snapshot(self, snapshot):
"""Creates a snapshot."""
raise NotImplementedError()
def delete_volume(self, volume):
"""Deletes a volume."""
cliq_args = {}
cliq_args['volumeName'] = volume['name']
cliq_args['prompt'] = 'false' # Don't confirm
self._cliq_run_xml("deleteVolume", cliq_args)
def local_path(self, volume):
# TODO(justinsb): Is this needed here?
msg = _("local_path not supported")
raise exception.VolumeBackendAPIException(data=msg)
def initialize_connection(self, volume, connector):
"""Assigns the volume to a server.
Assign any created volume to a compute node/host so that it can be
used from that host. HP VSA requires a volume to be assigned
to a server.
This driver returns a driver_volume_type of 'iscsi'.
The format of the driver data is defined in _get_iscsi_properties.
Example return value::
'driver_volume_type': 'iscsi'
'data': {
'target_discovered': True,
'target_iqn': '',
'target_portal': '',
'volume_id': 1,
cliq_args = {}
cliq_args['volumeName'] = volume['name']
cliq_args['serverName'] = connector['host']
self._cliq_run_xml("assignVolumeToServer", cliq_args)
iscsi_properties = self._get_iscsi_properties(volume)
return {
'driver_volume_type': 'iscsi',
'data': iscsi_properties
def terminate_connection(self, volume, connector):
"""Unassign the volume from the host."""
cliq_args = {}
cliq_args['volumeName'] = volume['name']
cliq_args['serverName'] = connector['host']
self._cliq_run_xml("unassignVolumeToServer", cliq_args)
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