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# Copyright (c) 2010-2011 OpenStack, LLC.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or
# implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
import os
from os.path import basename, dirname, isdir, join
import random
import shutil
import time
import logging
import hashlib
import itertools
import cPickle as pickle
import errno
import uuid
import eventlet
from eventlet import GreenPool, tpool, Timeout, sleep, hubs
from eventlet.green import subprocess
from eventlet.support.greenlets import GreenletExit
from swift.common.ring import Ring
from swift.common.utils import whataremyips, unlink_older_than, lock_path, \
compute_eta, get_logger, write_pickle, renamer, dump_recon_cache, \
TRUE_VALUES
from swift.common.bufferedhttp import http_connect
from swift.common.daemon import Daemon
hubs.use_hub('poll')
PICKLE_PROTOCOL = 2
ONE_WEEK = 604800
HASH_FILE = 'hashes.pkl'
def quarantine_renamer(device_path, corrupted_file_path):
"""
In the case that a file is corrupted, move it to a quarantined
area to allow replication to fix it.
:params device_path: The path to the device the corrupted file is on.
:params corrupted_file_path: The path to the file you want quarantined.
:returns: path (str) of directory the file was moved to
:raises OSError: re-raises non errno.EEXIST / errno.ENOTEMPTY
exceptions from rename
"""
from_dir = dirname(corrupted_file_path)
to_dir = join(device_path, 'quarantined', 'objects', basename(from_dir))
invalidate_hash(dirname(from_dir))
try:
renamer(from_dir, to_dir)
except OSError, e:
if e.errno not in (errno.EEXIST, errno.ENOTEMPTY):
raise
to_dir = "%s-%s" % (to_dir, uuid.uuid4().hex)
renamer(from_dir, to_dir)
return to_dir
def hash_suffix(path, reclaim_age):
"""
Performs reclamation and returns an md5 of all (remaining) files.
:param reclaim_age: age in seconds at which to remove tombstones
"""
md5 = hashlib.md5()
for hsh in sorted(os.listdir(path)):
hsh_path = join(path, hsh)
try:
files = os.listdir(hsh_path)
except OSError, err:
if err.errno == errno.ENOTDIR:
partition_path = dirname(path)
objects_path = dirname(partition_path)
device_path = dirname(objects_path)
quar_path = quarantine_renamer(device_path, hsh_path)
logging.exception(
_('Quarantined %s to %s because it is not a directory') %
(hsh_path, quar_path))
continue
raise
if len(files) == 1:
if files[0].endswith('.ts'):
# remove tombstones older than reclaim_age
ts = files[0].rsplit('.', 1)[0]
if (time.time() - float(ts)) > reclaim_age:
os.unlink(join(hsh_path, files[0]))
files.remove(files[0])
elif files:
files.sort(reverse=True)
meta = data = tomb = None
for filename in list(files):
if not meta and filename.endswith('.meta'):
meta = filename
if not data and filename.endswith('.data'):
data = filename
if not tomb and filename.endswith('.ts'):
tomb = filename
if (filename < tomb or # any file older than tomb
filename < data or # any file older than data
(filename.endswith('.meta') and
filename < meta)): # old meta
os.unlink(join(hsh_path, filename))
files.remove(filename)
if not files:
os.rmdir(hsh_path)
for filename in files:
md5.update(filename)
try:
os.rmdir(path)
except OSError:
pass
return md5.hexdigest()
def invalidate_hash(suffix_dir):
"""
Invalidates the hash for a suffix_dir in the partition's hashes file.
:param suffix_dir: absolute path to suffix dir whose hash needs
invalidating
"""
suffix = os.path.basename(suffix_dir)
partition_dir = os.path.dirname(suffix_dir)
hashes_file = join(partition_dir, HASH_FILE)
with lock_path(partition_dir):
try:
with open(hashes_file, 'rb') as fp:
hashes = pickle.load(fp)
if suffix in hashes and not hashes[suffix]:
return
except Exception:
return
hashes[suffix] = None
write_pickle(hashes, hashes_file, partition_dir, PICKLE_PROTOCOL)
def get_hashes(partition_dir, recalculate=[], do_listdir=False,
reclaim_age=ONE_WEEK):
"""
Get a list of hashes for the suffix dir. do_listdir causes it to mistrust
the hash cache for suffix existence at the (unexpectedly high) cost of a
listdir. reclaim_age is just passed on to hash_suffix.
:param partition_dir: absolute path of partition to get hashes for
:param recalculate: list of suffixes which should be recalculated when got
:param do_listdir: force existence check for all hashes in the partition
:param reclaim_age: age at which to remove tombstones
:returns: tuple of (number of suffix dirs hashed, dictionary of hashes)
"""
hashed = 0
hashes_file = join(partition_dir, HASH_FILE)
with lock_path(partition_dir):
modified = False
hashes = {}
try:
with open(hashes_file, 'rb') as fp:
hashes = pickle.load(fp)
except Exception:
do_listdir = True
if do_listdir:
hashes = dict(((suff, hashes.get(suff, None))
for suff in os.listdir(partition_dir)
if len(suff) == 3 and isdir(join(partition_dir, suff))))
modified = True
for hash_ in recalculate:
hashes[hash_] = None
for suffix, hash_ in hashes.items():
if not hash_:
suffix_dir = join(partition_dir, suffix)
if os.path.exists(suffix_dir):
try:
hashes[suffix] = hash_suffix(suffix_dir, reclaim_age)
hashed += 1
except OSError:
logging.exception(_('Error hashing suffix'))
hashes[suffix] = None
else:
del hashes[suffix]
modified = True
sleep()
if modified:
write_pickle(hashes, hashes_file, partition_dir, PICKLE_PROTOCOL)
return hashed, hashes
def tpooled_get_hashes(*args, **kwargs):
"""
Hack to work around Eventlet's tpool not catching and reraising Timeouts.
We return the Timeout, None if it's raised, the caller looks for it
and reraises it if found.
"""
try:
return get_hashes(*args, **kwargs)
except Timeout, err:
return err, None
class ObjectReplicator(Daemon):
"""
Replicate objects.
Encapsulates most logic and data needed by the object replication process.
Each call to .replicate() performs one replication pass. It's up to the
caller to do this in a loop.
"""
def __init__(self, conf):
"""
:param conf: configuration object obtained from ConfigParser
:param logger: logging object
"""
self.conf = conf
self.logger = get_logger(conf, log_route='object-replicator')
self.devices_dir = conf.get('devices', '/srv/node')
self.mount_check = conf.get('mount_check', 'true').lower() in \
('true', 't', '1', 'on', 'yes', 'y')
self.vm_test_mode = conf.get(
'vm_test_mode', 'no').lower() in ('yes', 'true', 'on', '1')
self.swift_dir = conf.get('swift_dir', '/etc/swift')
self.port = int(conf.get('bind_port', 6000))
self.concurrency = int(conf.get('concurrency', 1))
self.stats_interval = int(conf.get('stats_interval', '300'))
self.object_ring = Ring(join(self.swift_dir, 'object.ring.gz'))
self.ring_check_interval = int(conf.get('ring_check_interval', 15))
self.next_check = time.time() + self.ring_check_interval
self.reclaim_age = int(conf.get('reclaim_age', 86400 * 7))
self.partition_times = []
self.run_pause = int(conf.get('run_pause', 30))
self.rsync_timeout = int(conf.get('rsync_timeout', 900))
self.rsync_io_timeout = conf.get('rsync_io_timeout', '30')
self.http_timeout = int(conf.get('http_timeout', 60))
self.lockup_timeout = int(conf.get('lockup_timeout', 1800))
self.recon_enable = conf.get(
'recon_enable', 'no').lower() in TRUE_VALUES
self.recon_cache_path = conf.get(
'recon_cache_path', '/var/cache/swift')
self.recon_object = os.path.join(self.recon_cache_path, "object.recon")
def _rsync(self, args):
"""
Execute the rsync binary to replicate a partition.
:returns: return code of rsync process. 0 is successful
"""
start_time = time.time()
ret_val = None
try:
with Timeout(self.rsync_timeout):
proc = subprocess.Popen(args, stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
results = proc.stdout.read()
ret_val = proc.wait()
except Timeout:
self.logger.error(_("Killing long-running rsync: %s"), str(args))
proc.kill()
return 1 # failure response code
total_time = time.time() - start_time
for result in results.split('\n'):
if result == '':
continue
if result.startswith('cd+'):
continue
if not ret_val:
self.logger.info(result)
else:
self.logger.error(result)
if ret_val:
self.logger.error(_('Bad rsync return code: %(args)s -> %(ret)d'),
{'args': str(args), 'ret': ret_val})
elif results:
self.logger.info(
_("Successful rsync of %(src)s at %(dst)s (%(time).03f)"),
{'src': args[-2], 'dst': args[-1], 'time': total_time})
else:
self.logger.debug(
_("Successful rsync of %(src)s at %(dst)s (%(time).03f)"),
{'src': args[-2], 'dst': args[-1], 'time': total_time})
return ret_val
def rsync(self, node, job, suffixes):
"""
Synchronize local suffix directories from a partition with a remote
node.
:param node: the "dev" entry for the remote node to sync with
:param job: information about the partition being synced
:param suffixes: a list of suffixes which need to be pushed
:returns: boolean indicating success or failure
"""
if not os.path.exists(job['path']):
return False
args = [
'rsync',
'--recursive',
'--whole-file',
'--human-readable',
'--xattrs',
'--itemize-changes',
'--ignore-existing',
'--timeout=%s' % self.rsync_io_timeout,
'--contimeout=%s' % self.rsync_io_timeout,
]
if self.vm_test_mode:
rsync_module = '[%s]::object%s' % (node['ip'], node['port'])
else:
rsync_module = '[%s]::object' % node['ip']
had_any = False
for suffix in suffixes:
spath = join(job['path'], suffix)
if os.path.exists(spath):
args.append(spath)
had_any = True
if not had_any:
return False
args.append(join(rsync_module, node['device'],
'objects', job['partition']))
return self._rsync(args) == 0
def check_ring(self):
"""
Check to see if the ring has been updated
:returns: boolean indicating whether or not the ring has changed
"""
if time.time() > self.next_check:
self.next_check = time.time() + self.ring_check_interval
if self.object_ring.has_changed():
return False
return True
def update_deleted(self, job):
"""
High-level method that replicates a single partition that doesn't
belong on this node.
:param job: a dict containing info about the partition to be replicated
"""
def tpool_get_suffixes(path):
return [suff for suff in os.listdir(path)
if len(suff) == 3 and isdir(join(path, suff))]
self.replication_count += 1
begin = time.time()
try:
responses = []
suffixes = tpool.execute(tpool_get_suffixes, job['path'])
if suffixes:
for node in job['nodes']:
success = self.rsync(node, job, suffixes)
if success:
with Timeout(self.http_timeout):
http_connect(node['ip'], node['port'],
node['device'], job['partition'], 'REPLICATE',
'/' + '-'.join(suffixes),
headers={'Content-Length': '0'}).getresponse().read()
responses.append(success)
if not suffixes or (len(responses) == \
self.object_ring.replica_count and all(responses)):
self.logger.info(_("Removing partition: %s"), job['path'])
tpool.execute(shutil.rmtree, job['path'], ignore_errors=True)
except (Exception, Timeout):
self.logger.exception(_("Error syncing handoff partition"))
finally:
self.partition_times.append(time.time() - begin)
def update(self, job):
"""
High-level method that replicates a single partition.
:param job: a dict containing info about the partition to be replicated
"""
self.replication_count += 1
begin = time.time()
try:
hashed, local_hash = tpool.execute(tpooled_get_hashes, job['path'],
do_listdir=(self.replication_count % 10) == 0,
reclaim_age=self.reclaim_age)
# See tpooled_get_hashes "Hack".
if isinstance(hashed, BaseException):
raise hashed
self.suffix_hash += hashed
attempts_left = self.object_ring.replica_count - 1
nodes = itertools.chain(job['nodes'],
self.object_ring.get_more_nodes(int(job['partition'])))
while attempts_left > 0:
# If this throws StopIterator it will be caught way below
node = next(nodes)
attempts_left -= 1
try:
with Timeout(self.http_timeout):
resp = http_connect(node['ip'], node['port'],
node['device'], job['partition'], 'REPLICATE',
'', headers={'Content-Length': '0'}).getresponse()
if resp.status == 507:
self.logger.error(_('%(ip)s/%(device)s responded'
' as unmounted'), node)
attempts_left += 1
continue
if resp.status != 200:
self.logger.error(_("Invalid response %(resp)s "
"from %(ip)s"),
{'resp': resp.status, 'ip': node['ip']})
continue
remote_hash = pickle.loads(resp.read())
del resp
suffixes = [suffix for suffix in local_hash if
local_hash[suffix] != remote_hash.get(suffix, -1)]
if not suffixes:
continue
hashed, recalc_hash = tpool.execute(tpooled_get_hashes,
job['path'], recalculate=suffixes,
reclaim_age=self.reclaim_age)
# See tpooled_get_hashes "Hack".
if isinstance(hashed, BaseException):
raise hashed
local_hash = recalc_hash
suffixes = [suffix for suffix in local_hash if
local_hash[suffix] != remote_hash.get(suffix, -1)]
self.rsync(node, job, suffixes)
with Timeout(self.http_timeout):
conn = http_connect(node['ip'], node['port'],
node['device'], job['partition'], 'REPLICATE',
'/' + '-'.join(suffixes),
headers={'Content-Length': '0'})
conn.getresponse().read()
self.suffix_sync += len(suffixes)
except (Exception, Timeout):
self.logger.exception(_("Error syncing with node: %s") %
node)
self.suffix_count += len(local_hash)
except (Exception, Timeout):
self.logger.exception(_("Error syncing partition"))
finally:
self.partition_times.append(time.time() - begin)
def stats_line(self):
"""
Logs various stats for the currently running replication pass.
"""
if self.replication_count:
rate = self.replication_count / (time.time() - self.start)
self.logger.info(_("%(replicated)d/%(total)d (%(percentage).2f%%)"
" partitions replicated in %(time).2fs (%(rate).2f/sec, "
"%(remaining)s remaining)"),
{'replicated': self.replication_count, 'total': self.job_count,
'percentage': self.replication_count * 100.0 / self.job_count,
'time': time.time() - self.start, 'rate': rate,
'remaining': '%d%s' % compute_eta(self.start,
self.replication_count, self.job_count)})
if self.suffix_count:
self.logger.info(_("%(checked)d suffixes checked - "
"%(hashed).2f%% hashed, %(synced).2f%% synced"),
{'checked': self.suffix_count,
'hashed': (self.suffix_hash * 100.0) / self.suffix_count,
'synced': (self.suffix_sync * 100.0) / self.suffix_count})
self.partition_times.sort()
self.logger.info(_("Partition times: max %(max).4fs, "
"min %(min).4fs, med %(med).4fs"),
{'max': self.partition_times[-1],
'min': self.partition_times[0],
'med': self.partition_times[
len(self.partition_times) // 2]})
else:
self.logger.info(_("Nothing replicated for %s seconds."),
(time.time() - self.start))
def kill_coros(self):
"""Utility function that kills all coroutines currently running."""
for coro in list(self.run_pool.coroutines_running):
try:
coro.kill(GreenletExit)
except GreenletExit:
pass
def heartbeat(self):
"""
Loop that runs in the background during replication. It periodically
logs progress.
"""
while True:
eventlet.sleep(self.stats_interval)
self.stats_line()
def detect_lockups(self):
"""
In testing, the pool.waitall() call very occasionally failed to return.
This is an attempt to make sure the replicator finishes its replication
pass in some eventuality.
"""
while True:
eventlet.sleep(self.lockup_timeout)
if self.replication_count == self.last_replication_count:
self.logger.error(_("Lockup detected.. killing live coros."))
self.kill_coros()
self.last_replication_count = self.replication_count
def collect_jobs(self):
"""
Returns a sorted list of jobs (dictionaries) that specify the
partitions, nodes, etc to be rsynced.
"""
jobs = []
ips = whataremyips()
for local_dev in [dev for dev in self.object_ring.devs
if dev and dev['ip'] in ips and dev['port'] == self.port]:
dev_path = join(self.devices_dir, local_dev['device'])
obj_path = join(dev_path, 'objects')
tmp_path = join(dev_path, 'tmp')
if self.mount_check and not os.path.ismount(dev_path):
self.logger.warn(_('%s is not mounted'), local_dev['device'])
continue
unlink_older_than(tmp_path, time.time() - self.reclaim_age)
if not os.path.exists(obj_path):
continue
for partition in os.listdir(obj_path):
try:
nodes = [node for node in
self.object_ring.get_part_nodes(int(partition))
if node['id'] != local_dev['id']]
jobs.append(dict(path=join(obj_path, partition),
nodes=nodes,
delete=len(nodes) > self.object_ring.replica_count - 1,
partition=partition))
except ValueError:
continue
random.shuffle(jobs)
# Partititons that need to be deleted take priority
jobs.sort(key=lambda job: not job['delete'])
self.job_count = len(jobs)
return jobs
def replicate(self):
"""Run a replication pass"""
self.start = time.time()
self.suffix_count = 0
self.suffix_sync = 0
self.suffix_hash = 0
self.replication_count = 0
self.last_replication_count = -1
self.partition_times = []
stats = eventlet.spawn(self.heartbeat)
lockup_detector = eventlet.spawn(self.detect_lockups)
eventlet.sleep() # Give spawns a cycle
try:
self.run_pool = GreenPool(size=self.concurrency)
jobs = self.collect_jobs()
for job in jobs:
if not self.check_ring():
self.logger.info(_("Ring change detected. Aborting "
"current replication pass."))
return
if job['delete']:
self.run_pool.spawn(self.update_deleted, job)
else:
self.run_pool.spawn(self.update, job)
with Timeout(self.lockup_timeout):
self.run_pool.waitall()
except (Exception, Timeout):
self.logger.exception(_("Exception in top-level replication loop"))
self.kill_coros()
finally:
stats.kill()
lockup_detector.kill()
self.stats_line()
def run_once(self, *args, **kwargs):
start = time.time()
self.logger.info(_("Running object replicator in script mode."))
self.replicate()
total = (time.time() - start) / 60
self.logger.info(
_("Object replication complete. (%.02f minutes)"), total)
if self.recon_enable:
try:
dump_recon_cache('object_replication_time', total, \
self.recon_object)
except (Exception, Timeout):
self.logger.exception(_('Exception dumping recon cache'))
def run_forever(self, *args, **kwargs):
self.logger.info(_("Starting object replicator in daemon mode."))
# Run the replicator continually
while True:
start = time.time()
self.logger.info(_("Starting object replication pass."))
# Run the replicator
self.replicate()
total = (time.time() - start) / 60
self.logger.info(
_("Object replication complete. (%.02f minutes)"), total)
if self.recon_enable:
try:
dump_recon_cache('object_replication_time', total, \
self.recon_object)
except (Exception, Timeout):
self.logger.exception(_('Exception dumping recon cache'))
self.logger.debug(_('Replication sleeping for %s seconds.'),
self.run_pause)
sleep(self.run_pause)
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