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Cursor Object

.. method:: Cursor.__enter__()

    The entry point for the cursor as a context manager. It returns itself.

    .. note::

        This method is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. method:: Cursor.__exit__()

    The exit point for the cursor as a context manager. It closes the cursor.

    .. note::

        This method is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. attribute:: Cursor.arraysize

    This read-write attribute specifies the number of rows to fetch at a time
    internally and is the default number of rows to fetch with the
    :meth:`~Cursor.fetchmany()` call.  It defaults to 100 meaning to fetch 100
    rows at a time. Note that this attribute can drastically affect the
    performance of a query since it directly affects the number of network
    round trips that need to be performed. This is the reason for setting it to
    100 instead of the 1 that the DB API recommends.


.. attribute:: Cursor.bindarraysize

    This read-write attribute specifies the number of rows to bind at a time
    and is used when creating variables via :meth:`~Cursor.setinputsizes()` or
    :meth:`~Cursor.var()`. It defaults to 1 meaning to bind a single row at a
    time.

    .. note::

        The DB API definition does not define this attribute.


.. method:: Cursor.arrayvar(dataType, value, [size])

    Create an array variable associated with the cursor of the given type and
    size and return a :ref:`variable object <varobj>`. The value is either an
    integer specifying the number of elements to allocate or it is a list and
    the number of elements allocated is drawn from the size of the list. If the
    value is a list, the variable is also set with the contents of the list. If
    the size is not specified and the type is a string or binary, 4000 bytes
    is allocated. This is needed for passing arrays to PL/SQL (in cases where
    the list might be empty and the type cannot be determined automatically) or
    returning arrays from PL/SQL.

    .. note::

        The DB API definition does not define this method.


.. method:: Cursor.bindnames()

    Return the list of bind variable names bound to the statement. Note that a
    statement must have been prepared first.

    .. note::

        The DB API definition does not define this method.


.. attribute:: Cursor.bindvars

    This read-only attribute provides the bind variables used for the last
    execute. The value will be either a list or a dictionary depending on
    whether binding was done by position or name. Care should be taken when
    referencing this attribute. In particular, elements should not be removed
    or replaced.

    .. note::

        The DB API definition does not define this attribute.


.. method:: Cursor.callfunc(name, returnType, parameters=[], \
        keywordParameters={})

    Call a function with the given name. The return type is specified in the
    same notation as is required by :meth:`~Cursor.setinputsizes()`. The
    sequence of parameters must contain one entry for each parameter that the
    function expects. Any keyword parameters will be included after the
    positional parameters. The result of the call is the return value of the
    function.

    .. note::

        The DB API definition does not define this method.

    .. note::

        If you intend to call :meth:`Cursor.setinputsizes()` on the cursor
        prior to making this call, then note that the first item in the
        parameter list refers to the return value of the function.


.. method:: Cursor.callproc(name, parameters=[], keywordParameters={})

    Call a procedure with the given name. The sequence of parameters must
    contain one entry for each parameter that the procedure expects. The result
    of the call is a modified copy of the input sequence. Input parameters are
    left untouched; output and input/output parameters are replaced with
    possibly new values. Keyword parameters will be included after the
    positional parameters and are not returned as part of the output sequence.

    .. note::

        The DB API definition does not allow for keyword parameters.


.. method:: Cursor.close()

    Close the cursor now, rather than whenever __del__ is called. The cursor
    will be unusable from this point forward; an Error exception will be raised
    if any operation is attempted with the cursor.


.. attribute:: Cursor.connection

    This read-only attribute returns a reference to the connection object on
    which the cursor was created.

    .. note::

        This attribute is an extension to the DB API definition but it is
        mentioned in PEP 249 as an optional extension.


.. data:: Cursor.description

    This read-only attribute is a sequence of 7-item sequences. Each of these
    sequences contains information describing one result column: (name, type,
    display_size, internal_size, precision, scale, null_ok). This attribute
    will be None for operations that do not return rows or if the cursor has
    not had an operation invoked via the :meth:`~Cursor.execute()` method yet.

    The type will be one of the type objects defined at the module level.


.. method:: Cursor.execute(statement, [parameters], \*\*keywordParameters)

    Execute a statement against the database. Parameters may be passed as a
    dictionary or sequence or as keyword parameters. If the parameters are a
    dictionary, the values will be bound by name and if the parameters are a
    sequence the values will be bound by position. Note that if the values are
    bound by position, the order of the variables is from left to right as they
    are encountered in the statement and SQL statements are processed
    differently than PL/SQL statements. For this reason, it is generally
    recommended to bind parameters by name instead of by position.

    Parameters passed as a dictionary are name and value pairs. The name maps
    to the bind variable name used by the statement and the value maps to the
    Python value you wish bound to that bind variable.

    A reference to the statement will be retained by the cursor. If None or the
    same string object is passed in again, the cursor will execute that
    statement again without performing a prepare or rebinding and redefining.
    This is most effective for algorithms where the same statement is used, but
    different parameters are bound to it (many times). Note that parameters
    that are not passed in during subsequent executions will retain the value
    passed in during the last execution that contained them.

    For maximum efficiency when reusing an statement, it is best to use the
    :meth:`~Cursor.setinputsizes()` method to specify the parameter types and
    sizes ahead of time; in particular, None is assumed to be a string of
    length 1 so any values that are later bound as numbers or dates will raise
    a TypeError exception.

    If the statement is a query, the cursor is returned as a convenience to the
    caller (so it can be used directly as an iterator over the rows in the
    cursor); otherwise, ``None`` is returned.

    .. note::

        The DB API definition does not define the return value of this method.


.. method:: Cursor.executemany(statement, parameters, batcherrors=False, \
        arraydmlrowcounts=False)

    Prepare a statement for execution against a database and then execute it
    against all parameter mappings or sequences found in the sequence
    parameters. The statement is managed in the same way as the
    :meth:`~Cursor.execute()` method manages it. If the size of the buffers
    allocated for any of the parameters exceeds 2 GB, you will receive the
    error "DPI-1015: array size of <n> is too large", where <n> varies with the
    size of each element being allocated in the buffer. If you receive this
    error, decrease the number of elements in the sequence parameters.

    If there are no parameters, or parameters have previously been bound, the
    number of iterations can be specified as an integer instead of needing to
    provide a list of empty mappings or sequences.

    When true, the batcherrors parameter enables batch error support within
    Oracle and ensures that the call succeeds even if an exception takes place
    in one or more of the sequence of parameters. The errors can then be
    retrieved using :meth:`~Cursor.getbatcherrors()`.

    When true, the arraydmlrowcounts parameter enables DML row counts to be
    retrieved from Oracle after the method has completed. The row counts can
    then be retrieved using :meth:`~Cursor.getarraydmlrowcounts()`.

    Both the batcherrors parameter and the arraydmlrowcounts parameter can only
    be true when executing an insert, update, delete or merge statement; in all
    other cases an error will be raised.

    For maximum efficiency, it is best to use the
    :meth:`~Cursor.setinputsizes()` method to specify the parameter types and
    sizes ahead of time; in particular, None is assumed to be a string of
    length 1 so any values that are later bound as numbers or dates will raise
    a TypeError exception.


.. method:: Cursor.executemanyprepared(numIters)

    Execute the previously prepared and bound statement the given number of
    times.  The variables that are bound must have already been set to their
    desired value before this call is made.  This method was designed for the
    case where optimal performance is required as it comes at the expense of
    compatibility with the DB API.

    .. note::

        The DB API definition does not define this method.

    .. deprecated:: 6.4
        Use :meth:`~Cursor.executemany()` instead with None for the statement
        argument and an integer for the parameters argument.


.. method:: Cursor.fetchall()

    Fetch all (remaining) rows of a query result, returning them as a list of
    tuples. An empty list is returned if no more rows are available. Note that
    the cursor's arraysize attribute can affect the performance of this
    operation, as internally reads from the database are done in batches
    corresponding to the arraysize.

    An exception is raised if the previous call to :meth:`~Cursor.execute()`
    did not produce any result set or no call was issued yet.


.. method:: Cursor.fetchmany([numRows=cursor.arraysize])

    Fetch the next set of rows of a query result, returning a list of tuples.
    An empty list is returned if no more rows are available. Note that the
    cursor's arraysize attribute can affect the performance of this operation.

    The number of rows to fetch is specified by the parameter. If it is not
    given, the cursor's arrysize attribute determines the number of rows to be
    fetched. If the number of rows available to be fetched is fewer than the
    amount requested, fewer rows will be returned.

    An exception is raised if the previous call to :meth:`~Cursor.execute()`
    did not produce any result set or no call was issued yet.


.. method:: Cursor.fetchone()

    Fetch the next row of a query result set, returning a single tuple or None
    when no more data is available.

    An exception is raised if the previous call to :meth:`~Cursor.execute()`
    did not produce any result set or no call was issued yet.


.. method:: Cursor.fetchraw([numRows=cursor.arraysize])

    Fetch the next set of rows of a query result into the internal buffers of
    the defined variables for the cursor. The number of rows actually fetched
    is returned.  This method was designed for the case where optimal
    performance is required as it comes at the expense of compatibility with
    the DB API.

    An exception is raised if the previous call to :meth:`~Cursor.execute()`
    did not produce any result set or no call was issued yet.

    .. note::

        The DB API definition does not define this method.


.. attribute:: Cursor.fetchvars

    This read-only attribute specifies the list of variables created for the
    last query that was executed on the cursor.  Care should be taken when
    referencing this attribute. In particular, elements should not be removed
    or replaced.

    .. note::

        The DB API definition does not define this attribute.


.. method:: Cursor.getarraydmlrowcounts()

    Retrieve the DML row counts after a call to :meth:`~Cursor.executemany()`
    with arraydmlrowcounts enabled. This will return a list of integers
    corresponding to the number of rows affected by the DML statement for each
    element of the array passed to :meth:`~Cursor.executemany()`.

    .. note::

        The DB API definition does not define this method and it is only
        available for Oracle 12.1 and higher.


.. method:: Cursor.getbatcherrors()

    Retrieve the exceptions that took place after a call to
    :meth:`~Cursor.executemany()` with batcherors enabled. This will return a
    list of Error objects, one error for each iteration that failed. The offset
    can be determined by looking at the offset attribute of the error object.

    .. note::

        The DB API definition does not define this method.


.. method:: Cursor.getimplicitresults()

    Return a list of cursors which correspond to implicit results made
    available from a PL/SQL block or procedure without the use of OUT ref
    cursor parameters. The PL/SQL block or procedure opens the cursors and
    marks them for return to the client using the procedure
    dbms_sql.return_result. Cursors returned in this fashion should not be
    closed. They will be closed automatically by the parent cursor when it is
    closed. Closing the parent cursor will invalidate the cursors returned by
    this method.

    .. versionadded:: 5.3

    .. note::

        The DB API definition does not define this method and it is only
        available for Oracle Database 12.1 (both client and server must be at
        this level or higher). It is most like the DB API method nextset(), but
        unlike that method (which requires that the next result set overwrite
        the current result set), this method returns cursors which can be
        fetched independently of each other.


.. attribute:: Cursor.inputtypehandler

    This read-write attribute specifies a method called for each value that is
    bound to a statement executed on the cursor and overrides the attribute
    with the same name on the connection if specified. The method signature is
    handler(cursor, value, arraysize) and the return value is expected to be a
    variable object or None in which case a default variable object will be
    created. If this attribute is None, the value of the attribute with the
    same name on the connection is used.

    .. note::

        This attribute is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. method:: Cursor.__iter__()

    Returns the cursor itself to be used as an iterator.

    .. note::

        This method is an extension to the DB API definition but it is
        mentioned in PEP 249 as an optional extension.


.. attribute:: Cursor.outputtypehandler

    This read-write attribute specifies a method called for each column that is
    to be fetched from this cursor. The method signature is
    handler(cursor, name, defaultType, length, precision, scale) and the return
    value is expected to be a variable object or None in which case a default
    variable object will be created. If this attribute is None, the value of
    the attribute with the same name on the connection is used instead.

    .. note::

        This attribute is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. method:: Cursor.parse(statement)

    This can be used to parse a statement without actually executing it (this
    step is done automatically by Oracle when a statement is executed).

    .. note::

        The DB API definition does not define this method.

    .. note::

        You can parse any DML or DDL statement. DDL statements are executed
        immediately and an implied commit takes place.


.. method:: Cursor.prepare(statement, [tag])

    This can be used before a call to :meth:`~Cursor.execute()` to define the
    statement that will be executed. When this is done, the prepare phase will
    not be performed when the call to :meth:`~Cursor.execute()` is made with
    None or the same string object as the statement.  If specified the
    statement will be returned to the statement cache with the given tag. See
    the Oracle documentation for more information about the statement cache.

    .. note::

        The DB API definition does not define this method.


.. attribute:: Cursor.rowcount

    This read-only attribute specifies the number of rows that have currently
    been fetched from the cursor (for select statements) or that have been
    affected by the operation (for insert, update and delete statements).


.. attribute:: Cursor.rowfactory

    This read-write attribute specifies a method to call for each row that is
    retrieved from the database. Ordinarily a tuple is returned for each row
    but if this attribute is set, the method is called with the tuple that
    would normally be returned, and the result of the method is returned
    instead.

    .. note::

        The DB API definition does not define this attribute.


.. method:: Cursor.scroll(value=0, mode="relative")

    Scroll the cursor in the result set to a new position according to the
    mode.

    If mode is "relative" (the default value), the value is taken as an offset
    to the current position in the result set. If set to "absolute", value
    states an absolute target position. If set to "first", the cursor is
    positioned at the first row and if set to "last", the cursor is set to the
    last row in the result set.

    An error is raised if the mode is "relative" or "absolute" and the scroll
    operation would position the cursor outside of the result set.

    .. versionadded:: 5.3

    .. note::

        This method is an extension to the DB API definition but it is
        mentioned in PEP 249 as an optional extension.


.. attribute:: Cursor.scrollable

    This read-write boolean attribute specifies whether the cursor can be
    scrolled or not. By default, cursors are not scrollable, as the server
    resources and response times are greater than nonscrollable cursors. This
    attribute is checked and the corresponding mode set in Oracle when calling
    the method :meth:`~Cursor.execute()`.

    .. versionadded:: 5.3

    .. note::

        The DB API definition does not define this attribute.


.. method:: Cursor.setinputsizes(\*args, \*\*keywordArgs)

    This can be used before a call to :meth:`~Cursor.execute()`,
    :meth:`~Cursor.callfunc()` or :meth:`~Cursor.callproc()` to predefine
    memory areas for the operation's parameters. Each parameter should be a
    type object corresponding to the input that will be used or it should be an
    integer specifying the maximum length of a string parameter. Use keyword
    parameters when binding by name and positional parameters when binding by
    position. The singleton None can be used as a parameter when using
    positional parameters to indicate that no space should be reserved for that
    position.

    .. note::

        If you plan to use :meth:`~Cursor.callfunc()` then be aware that the
        first parameter in the list refers to the return value of the function.


.. method:: Cursor.setoutputsize(size, [column])

    This method does nothing and is retained solely for compatibility with the
    DB API. The module automatically allocates as much space as needed to fetch
    LONG and LONG RAW columns (or CLOB as string and BLOB as bytes).


.. attribute:: Cursor.statement

    This read-only attribute provides the string object that was previously
    prepared with :meth:`~Cursor.prepare()` or executed with
    :meth:`~Cursor.execute()`.

    .. note::

        The DB API definition does not define this attribute.


.. method:: Cursor.var(dataType, [size, arraysize, inconverter, outconverter, \
        typename, encodingErrors])

    Create a variable with the specified charactistics. This method was
    designed for use with PL/SQL in/out variables where the length or type
    cannot be determined automatically from the Python object passed in or for
    use in input and output type handlers defined on cursors or connections.

    The dataType parameter specifies the type of data that should be stored in
    the variable. This should be one of the types defined at the module level
    (such as :data:`cx_Oracle.STRING`) or a Python type that cx_Oracle knows
    how to process (such as str).

    The size parameter specifies the length of string and raw variables and is
    ignored in all other cases. If not specified for string and raw variables,
    the value 4000 is used.

    The arraysize parameter specifies the number of elements the variable will
    have. If not specified the bind array size (usually 1) is used. When a
    variable is created in an output type handler this parameter should be set
    to the cursor's array size.

    The inconverter and outconverter parameters specify methods used for
    converting values to/from the database. More information can be found in
    the section on :ref:`variable objects<varobj>`.

    The typename parameter specifies the name of a SQL object type and must be
    specified when using type :data:`cx_Oracle.OBJECT`.

    The encodingErrors parameter specifies what should happen when decoding
    byte strings fetched from the database into strings (Python 3) or unicode
    objects (Python 2). It should be one of the values noted in the builtin
    `decode <https://docs.python.org/3/library/stdtypes.html#bytes.decode>`__
    function.

    .. note::

        The DB API definition does not define this method.