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.. module:: cx_Oracle

Module Interface

.. data:: __future__

    Special object which contains attributes which control the behavior of
    cx_Oracle, allowing for opting in for new features. No attributes are
    currently supported so all attributes will silently ignore being set and
    will always appear to have the value None.

    .. note::

        This method is an extension to the DB API definition.

    .. versionadded:: 6.2


.. function:: Binary(string)

    Construct an object holding a binary (long) string value.


.. function:: clientversion()

    Return the version of the client library being used as a 5-tuple. The five
    values are the major version, minor version, update number, patch number
    and port update number.

    .. note::

        This method is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. function:: Connection(user=None, password=None, dsn=None, mode=None, \
        handle=None, pool=None, threaded=False, events=False, cclass=None, \
        purity=None, newpassword=None, encoding=None, nencoding=None, \
        edition=None, appcontext=[], tag=None, matchanytag=False, \
        shardingkey=[], supershardingkey=[])
    connect(user=None, password=None, dsn=None, mode=None, handle=None, \
        pool=None, threaded=False, events=False, cclass=None, purity=None, \
        newpassword=None, encoding=None, nencoding=None, edition=None, \
        appcontext=[], tag=None, matchanytag=None, shardingkey=[], \
        supershardingkey=[])

    Constructor for creating a connection to the database. Return a
    :ref:`connection object <connobj>`. All parameters are optional and can be
    specified as keyword parameters.

    The dsn (data source name) is the TNS entry (from the Oracle names server
    or tnsnames.ora file) or is a string like the one returned from
    :meth:`~cx_Oracle.makedsn()`. If only one parameter is passed, a connect
    string is assumed which is to be of the format ``user/password@dsn``, the
    same format accepted by Oracle applications such as SQL\*Plus.

    If the mode is specified, it must be one of :data:`~cx_Oracle.SYSDBA`,
    :data:`~cx_Oracle.SYSASM`, :data:`~cx_Oracle.SYSOPER`,
    :data:`~cx_Oracle.SYSBKP`, :data:`~cx_Oracle.SYSDGD`,
    :data:`~cx_Oracle.SYSKMT` or :data:`~cx_Oracle.SYSRAC` which are defined
    at the module level; otherwise, it defaults to the normal mode of
    connecting.

    If the handle is specified, it must be of type OCISvcCtx\* and is only of
    use when embedding Python in an application (like PowerBuilder) which has
    already made the connection.

    The pool parameter is expected to be a
    :ref:`session pool object <sesspool>` and the use of this parameter is the
    equivalent of calling :meth:`SessionPool.acquire()`. Parameters not
    acecpted by that method are ignored.

    The threaded parameter is expected to be a boolean expression which
    indicates whether or not Oracle should wrap accesses to connections with a
    mutex. Doing so in single threaded applications imposes a performance
    penalty of about 10-15% which is why the default is False.

    The events parameter is expected to be a boolean expression which indicates
    whether or not to initialize Oracle in events mode. This is required for
    continuous query notification and high availablity event notifications.

    The cclass parameter is expected to be a string and defines the connection
    class for database resident connection pooling (DRCP).

    The purity parameter is expected to be one of
    :data:`~cx_Oracle.ATTR_PURITY_NEW`, :data:`~cx_Oracle.ATTR_PURITY_SELF`, or
    :data:`~cx_Oracle.ATTR_PURITY_DEFAULT`.

    The newpassword parameter is expected to be a string if specified and sets
    the password for the logon during the connection process.

    The encoding parameter is expected to be a string if specified and sets the
    encoding to use for regular database strings. If not specified, the
    environment variable NLS_LANG is used. If the environment variable NLS_LANG
    is not set, ASCII is used.

    The nencoding parameter is expected to be a string if specified and sets
    the encoding to use for national character set database strings. If not
    specified, the environment variable NLS_NCHAR is used. If the environment
    variable NLS_NCHAR is not used, the environment variable NLS_LANG is used
    instead, and if the environment variable NLS_LANG is not set, ASCII is
    used.

    The edition parameter is expected to be a string if specified and sets the
    edition to use for the session. It is only relevant if both the client and
    the database are at least Oracle Database 11.2. If this parameter is used
    with the cclass parameter the exception "DPI-1058: edition not supported
    with connection class" will be raised.

    The appcontext parameter is expected to be a list of 3-tuples, if specified,
    and sets the application context for the connection. Application context
    is available in the database by using the sys_context() PL/SQL method and
    can be used within a logon trigger as well as any other PL/SQL procedures.
    Each entry in the list is expected to contain three strings: the namespace,
    the name and the value.

    The tag parameter, if specified, is expected to be a string and will limit
    the sessions that can be returned from a session pool unless the
    matchanytag parameter is set to True. In that case sessions with the
    specified tag will be preferred over others, but if no such sessions are
    available a session with a different tag may be returned instead. In any
    case, untagged sessions will always be returned if no sessions with the
    specified tag are available. Sessions are tagged when they are
    :meth:`released <SessionPool.release>` back to the pool.

    The shardingkey and supershardingkey parameters, if specified, are expected
    to be a sequence of values which will be used to identify the database
    shard to connect to. Currently only strings are supported for the key
    values.


.. function:: Cursor(connection)

    Constructor for creating a cursor.  Return a new
    :ref:`cursor object <cursorobj>` using the connection.

    .. note::

        This method is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. function:: Date(year, month, day)

    Construct an object holding a date value.


.. function:: DateFromTicks(ticks)

    Construct an object holding a date value from the given ticks value (number
    of seconds since the epoch; see the documentation of the standard Python
    time module for details).


.. function:: makedsn(host, port, sid=None, service_name=None, region=None, \
        sharding_key=None, super_sharding_key=None)

    Return a string suitable for use as the dsn parameter for
    :meth:`~cx_Oracle.connect()`. This string is identical to the strings that
    are defined by the Oracle names server or defined in the tnsnames.ora file.

    .. note::

        This method is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. function:: SessionPool(user=None, password=None, dsn=None, min=1, max=2, \
        increment=1, connectiontype=cx_Oracle.Connection, threaded=False, \
        getmode=cx_Oracle.SPOOL_ATTRVAL_NOWAIT, events=False, \
        homogeneous=True, externalauth=False, encoding=None, nencoding=None, \
        edition=None, timeout=0, waitTimeout=0, maxLifetimeSession=0, \
        sessionCallback=None)

    Create and return a :ref:`session pool object <sesspool>`. This
    allows for very fast connections to the database and is of primary use in a
    server where the same connection is being made multiple times in rapid
    succession (a web server, for example).

    If the connection type is specified, all calls to
    :meth:`~SessionPool.acquire()` will create connection objects of that type,
    rather than the base type defined at the module level.

    The threaded parameter is expected to be a boolean expression which
    indicates whether Oracle should wrap accesses to connections with a mutex.
    Doing so in single threaded applications imposes a performance penalty of
    about 10-15% which is why the default is False.

    The events parameter is expected to be a boolean expression which indicates
    whether or not to initialize Oracle in events mode. This is required for
    continuous query notification and high availability event notifications.

    The homogeneous parameter is expected to be a boolean expression which
    indicates whether or not to create a homogeneous pool. A homogeneous pool
    requires that all connections in the pool use the same credentials. As such
    proxy authentication and external authentication is not possible with a
    homogeneous pool.

    The externalauth parameter is expected to be a boolean expression which
    indicates whether or not external authentication should be used. External
    authentication implies that something other than the database is
    authenticating the user to the database. This includes the use of operating
    system authentication and Oracle wallets.

    The encoding parameter is expected to be a string, if specified, and sets
    the encoding to use for regular database strings. If not specified, the
    environment variable NLS_LANG is used. If the environment variable NLS_LANG
    is not set, ASCII is used.

    The nencoding parameter is expected to be a string, if specified, and sets
    the encoding to use for national character set database strings. If not
    specified, the environment variable NLS_NCHAR is used. If the environment
    variable NLS_NCHAR is not used, the environment variable NLS_LANG is used
    instead, and if the environment variable NLS_LANG is not set, ASCII is
    used.

    The edition parameter is expected to be a string, if specified, and sets
    the edition to use for the sessions in the pool. It is only relevant if
    both the client and the server are at least Oracle Database 11.2.

    The timeout parameter is expected to be an integer, if specified, and sets
    the length of time (in seconds) after which idle sessions in the pool are
    terminated. Note that termination only occurs when the pool is accessed.
    The default value of 0 means that no idle sessions are terminated.

    The waitTimeout parameter is expected to be an integer, if specified, and
    sets the length of time (in milliseconds) that the caller should wait for
    a session to become available in the pool before returning with an error.
    This value is only used if the getmode parameter is set to the value
    :data:`cx_Oracle.SPOOL_ATTRVAL_TIMEDWAIT`.

    The maxLifetimeSession parameter is expected to be an integer, if
    specified, and sets the maximum length of time (in seconds) a pooled
    session may exist. Sessions that are in use will not be closed. They become
    candidates for termination only when they are released back to the pool and
    have existed for longer than maxLifetimeSession seconds. Note that
    termination only occurs when the pool is accessed. The default value is 0
    which means that there is no maximum length of time that a pooled session
    may exist.

    The sessionCallback parameter is expected to be either a string or a
    callable. If the parameter is a string, this refers to a PL/SQL procedure
    that will be called when :func:`SessionPool.acquire()` requests a tag and
    that tag does not match the connection's actual tag. Support for the PL/SQL
    procedure requires Oracle Client libraries 12.2 or later. See the
    `OCI documentation <https://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?
    ctx=dblatest&id=GUID-B853A020-752F-494A-8D88-D0396EF57177>`__ for more
    information. If the sessionCallback parameter is a callable, however, it
    will be called when a newly created connection is returned from the pool
    or when a tag is requested and that tag does not match the connection's
    actual tag. The callable will be invoked with the connection and the
    requested tag as its only parameters.

    .. note::

        This method is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. function:: Time(hour, minute, second)

    Construct an object holding a time value.

    .. note::

        The time only data type is not supported by Oracle. Calling this
        function will raise a NotSupportedError exception.



.. function:: TimeFromTicks(ticks)

    Construct an object holding a time value from the given ticks value (number
    of seconds since the epoch; see the documentation of the standard Python
    time module for details).

    .. note::

        The time only data type is not supported by Oracle. Calling this
        function will raise a NotSupportedError exception.


.. function:: Timestamp(year, month, day, hour, minute, second)

    Construct an object holding a time stamp value.


.. function:: TimestampFromTicks(ticks)

    Construct an object holding a time stamp value from the given ticks value
    (number of seconds since the epoch; see the documentation of the standard
    Python time module for details).



Constants

General

.. data:: apilevel

    String constant stating the supported DB API level. Currently '2.0'.


.. data:: buildtime

    String constant stating the time when the binary was built.

    .. note::

        This constant is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. data:: paramstyle

    String constant stating the type of parameter marker formatting expected by
    the interface. Currently 'named' as in 'where name = :name'.


.. data:: threadsafety

    Integer constant stating the level of thread safety that the interface
    supports.  Currently 2, which means that threads may share the module and
    connections, but not cursors. Sharing means that a thread may use a
    resource without wrapping it using a mutex semaphore to implement resource
    locking.

    Note that in order to make use of multiple threads in a program which
    intends to connect and disconnect in different threads, the threaded
    parameter to :meth:`connect()` or :meth:`SessionPool()` must be true.


.. data:: version
.. data:: __version__

    String constant stating the version of the module. Currently '|release|'.

    .. note::

        This attribute is an extension to the DB API definition.


Advanced Queuing: Delivery Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the :attr:`~DeqOptions.deliverymode` attribute of the :ref:`dequeue options object <deqoptions>` passed as the options parameter to the :meth:`Connection.deq()` method as well as the :attr:`~EnqOptions.deliverymode` attribute of the :ref:`enqueue options object <enqoptions>` passed as the options parameter to the :meth:`Connection.enq()` method. They are also possible values for the :attr:`~MessageProperties.deliverymode` attribute of the :ref:`message properties object <msgproperties>` passed as the msgproperties parameter to the :meth:`Connection.deq()` and :meth:`Connection.enq()` methods.

.. data:: MSG_BUFFERED

    This constant is used to specify that enqueue/dequeue operations should
    enqueue or dequeue buffered messages.


.. data:: MSG_PERSISTENT

    This constant is used to specify that enqueue/dequeue operations should
    enqueue or dequeue persistent messages. This is the default value.


.. data:: MSG_PERSISTENT_OR_BUFFERED

    This constant is used to specify that dequeue operations should dequeue
    either persistent or buffered messages.


Advanced Queuing: Dequeue Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the :attr:`~DeqOptions.mode` attribute of the :ref:`dequeue options object <deqoptions>`. This object is the options parameter for the :meth:`Connection.deq()` method.

.. data:: DEQ_BROWSE

    This constant is used to specify that dequeue should read the message
    without acquiring any lock on the message (eqivalent to a select
    statement).


.. data:: DEQ_LOCKED

    This constant is used to specify that dequeue should read and obtain a
    write lock on the message for the duration of the transaction (equivalent
    to a select for update statement).


.. data:: DEQ_REMOVE

    This constant is used to specify that dequeue should read the message and
    update or delete it. This is the default value.


.. data:: DEQ_REMOVE_NODATA

    This constant is used to specify that dequeue should confirm receipt of the
    message but not deliver the actual message content.


Advanced Queuing: Dequeue Navigation Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the :attr:`~DeqOptions.navigation` attribute of the :ref:`dequeue options object <deqoptions>`. This object is the options parameter for the :meth:`Connection.deq()` method.

.. data:: DEQ_FIRST_MSG

    This constant is used to specify that dequeue should retrieve the first
    available message that matches the search criteria. This resets the
    position to the beginning of the queue.


.. data:: DEQ_NEXT_MSG

    This constant is used to specify that dequeue should retrieve the next
    available message that matches the search criteria. If the previous message
    belongs to a message group, AQ retrieves the next available message that
    matches the search criteria and belongs to the message group. This is the
    default.


.. data:: DEQ_NEXT_TRANSACTION

    This constant is used to specify that dequeue should skip the remainder of
    the transaction group and retrieve the first message of the next
    transaction group. This option can only be used if message grouping is
    enabled for the current queue.


Advanced Queuing: Dequeue Visibility Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the :attr:`~DeqOptions.visibility` attribute of the :ref:`dequeue options object <deqoptions>`. This object is the options parameter for the :meth:`Connection.deq()` method.

.. data:: DEQ_IMMEDIATE

    This constant is used to specify that dequeue should perform its work as
    part of an independent transaction.


.. data:: DEQ_ON_COMMIT

    This constant is used to specify that dequeue should be part of the current
    transaction. This is the default value.


Advanced Queuing: Dequeue Wait Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the :attr:`~DeqOptions.wait` attribute of the :ref:`dequeue options object <deqoptions>`. This object is the options parameter for the :meth:`Connection.deq()` method.

.. data:: DEQ_NO_WAIT

    This constant is used to specify that dequeue not wait for messages to be
    available for dequeuing.


.. data:: DEQ_WAIT_FOREVER

    This constant is used to specify that dequeue should wait forever for
    messages to be available for dequeuing. This is the default value.


Advanced Queuing: Enqueue Visibility Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the :attr:`~EnqOptions.visibility` attribute of the :ref:`enqueue options object <enqoptions>`. This object is the options parameter for the :meth:`Connection.enq()` method.

.. data:: ENQ_IMMEDIATE

    This constant is used to specify that enqueue should perform its work as
    part of an independent transaction.


.. data:: ENQ_ON_COMMIT

    This constant is used to specify that enqueue should be part of the current
    transaction. This is the default value.


Advanced Queuing: Message States

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the :attr:`~MessageProperties.state` attribute of the :ref:`message properties object <msgproperties>`. This object is the msgproperties parameter for the :meth:`Connection.deq()` and :meth:`Connection.enq()` methods.

.. data:: MSG_EXPIRED

    This constant is used to specify that the message has been moved to the
    exception queue.


.. data:: MSG_PROCESSED

    This constant is used to specify that the message has been processed and
    has been retained.


.. data:: MSG_READY

    This constant is used to specify that the message is ready to be processed.


.. data:: MSG_WAITING

    This constant is used to specify that the message delay has not yet been
    reached.


Advanced Queuing: Other

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are special constants used in advanced queuing.

.. data:: MSG_NO_DELAY

    This constant is a possible value for the :attr:`~MessageProperties.delay`
    attribute of the :ref:`message properties object <msgproperties>` passed
    as the msgproperties parameter to the :meth:`Connection.deq()` and
    :meth:`Connection.enq()` methods. It specifies that no delay should be
    imposed and the message should be immediately available for dequeuing. This
    is also the default value.


.. data:: MSG_NO_EXPIRATION

    This constant is a possible value for the
    :attr:`~MessageProperties.expiration` attribute of the
    :ref:`message properties object <msgproperties>` passed as the msgproperties
    parameter to the :meth:`Connection.deq()` and :meth:`Connection.enq()`
    methods. It specifies that the message never expires. This is also the
    default value.


Connection Authorization Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the mode parameter of the :meth:`connect()` method.

.. data:: PRELIM_AUTH

    This constant is used to specify that preliminary authentication is to be
    used. This is needed for performing database startup and shutdown.


.. data:: SYSASM

    This constant is used to specify that SYSASM access is to be acquired.


.. data:: SYSBKP

    This constant is used to specify that SYSBACKUP access is to be acquired.


.. data:: SYSDBA

    This constant is used to specify that SYSDBA access is to be acquired.


.. data:: SYSDGD

    This constant is used to specify that SYSDG access is to be acquired.


.. data:: SYSKMT

    This constant is used to specify that SYSKM access is to be acquired.


.. data:: SYSOPER

    This constant is used to specify that SYSOPER access is to be acquired.


.. data:: SYSRAC

    This constant is used to specify that SYSRAC access is to be acquired.


Database Shutdown Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the mode parameter of the :meth:`Connection.shutdown()` method.

.. data:: DBSHUTDOWN_ABORT

    This constant is used to specify that the caller should not wait for
    current processing to complete or for users to disconnect from the
    database. This should only be used in unusual circumstances since database
    recovery may be necessary upon next startup.


.. data:: DBSHUTDOWN_FINAL

    This constant is used to specify that the instance can be truly halted.
    This should only be done after the database has been shutdown with one of
    the other modes (except abort) and the database has been closed and
    dismounted using the appropriate SQL commands.


.. data:: DBSHUTDOWN_IMMEDIATE

    This constant is used to specify that all uncommitted transactions should
    be rolled back and any connected users should be disconnected.


.. data:: DBSHUTDOWN_TRANSACTIONAL

    This constant is used to specify that further connections to the database
    should be prohibited and no new transactions should be allowed. It then
    waits for all active transactions to complete.


.. data:: DBSHUTDOWN_TRANSACTIONAL_LOCAL

    This constant is used to specify that further connections to the database
    should be prohibited and no new transactions should be allowed. It then
    waits for only local active transactions to complete.


Event Types

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the :attr:`Message.type` attribute of the messages that are sent for subscriptions created by the :meth:`Connection.subscribe()` method.

.. data:: EVENT_AQ

    This constant is used to specify that one or more messages are available
    for dequeuing on the queue specified when the subscription was created.


.. data:: EVENT_DEREG

    This constant is used to specify that the subscription has been
    deregistered and no further notifications will be sent.


.. data:: EVENT_NONE

    This constant is used to specify no information is available about the
    event.


.. data:: EVENT_OBJCHANGE

    This constant is used to specify that a database change has taken place on
    a table registered with the :meth:`Subscription.registerquery()` method.


.. data:: EVENT_QUERYCHANGE

    This constant is used to specify that the result set of a query registered
    with the :meth:`Subscription.registerquery()` method has been changed.


.. data:: EVENT_SHUTDOWN

    This constant is used to specify that the instance is in the process of
    being shut down.


.. data:: EVENT_SHUTDOWN_ANY

    This constant is used to specify that any instance (when running RAC) is in
    the process of being shut down.


.. data:: EVENT_STARTUP

    This constant is used to specify that the instance is in the process of
    being started up.


Operation Codes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the operations parameter for the :meth:`Connection.subscribe()` method. One or more of these values can be OR'ed together. These values are also used by the :attr:`MessageTable.operation` or :attr:`MessageQuery.operation` attributes of the messages that are sent.

.. data:: OPCODE_ALLOPS

    This constant is used to specify that messages should be sent for all
    operations.


.. data:: OPCODE_ALLROWS

    This constant is used to specify that the table or query has been
    completely invalidated.


.. data:: OPCODE_ALTER

    This constant is used to specify that messages should be sent when a
    registered table has been altered in some fashion by DDL, or that the
    message identifies a table that has been altered.


.. data:: OPCODE_DELETE

    This constant is used to specify that messages should be sent when data is
    deleted, or that the message identifies a row that has been deleted.


.. data:: OPCODE_DROP

    This constant is used to specify that messages should be sent when a
    registered table has been dropped, or that the message identifies a table
    that has been dropped.


.. data:: OPCODE_INSERT

    This constant is used to specify that messages should be sent when data is
    inserted, or that the message identifies a row that has been inserted.


.. data:: OPCODE_UPDATE

    This constant is used to specify that messages should be sent when data is
    updated, or that the message identifies a row that has been updated.


Session Pool Get Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the getmode parameter of the :meth:`SessionPool()` method.

.. data:: SPOOL_ATTRVAL_FORCEGET

    This constant is used to specify that a new connection will be returned if
    there are no free sessions available in the pool.


.. data:: SPOOL_ATTRVAL_NOWAIT

    This constant is used to specify that an exception should be raised if
    there are no free sessions available in the pool. This is the default
    value.


.. data:: SPOOL_ATTRVAL_WAIT

    This constant is used to specify that the caller should wait until a
    session is available if there are no free sessions available in the pool.


.. data:: SPOOL_ATTRVAL_TIMEDWAIT

    This constant is used to specify that the caller should wait for a period
    of time (defined by the waitTimeout parameter) for a session to become
    available before returning with an error.


Session Pool Purity

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the purity parameter of the :meth:`connect()` method, which is used in database resident connection pooling (DRCP).

.. data:: ATTR_PURITY_DEFAULT

    This constant is used to specify that the purity of the session is the
    default value identified by Oracle (see Oracle's documentation for more
    information). This is the default value.


.. data:: ATTR_PURITY_NEW

    This constant is used to specify that the session acquired from the pool
    should be new and not have any prior session state.


.. data:: ATTR_PURITY_SELF

    This constant is used to specify that the session acquired from the pool
    need not be new and may have prior session state.


Subscription Grouping Classes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the groupingClass parameter of the :meth:`Connection.subscribe()` method.

.. data:: SUBSCR_GROUPING_CLASS_TIME

    This constant is used to specify that events are to be grouped by the
    period of time in which they are received.


Subscription Grouping Types

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the groupingType parameter of the :meth:`Connection.subscribe()` method.

.. data:: SUBSCR_GROUPING_TYPE_SUMMARY

    This constant is used to specify that when events are grouped a summary of
    the events should be sent instead of the individual events. This is the
    default value.

.. data:: SUBSCR_GROUPING_TYPE_LAST

    This constant is used to specify that when events are grouped the last
    event that makes up the group should be sent instead of the individual
    events.


Subscription Namespaces

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the namespace parameter of the :meth:`Connection.subscribe()` method.

.. data:: SUBSCR_NAMESPACE_AQ

    This constant is used to specify that notifications should be sent when a
    queue has messages available to dequeue.

.. data:: SUBSCR_NAMESPACE_DBCHANGE

    This constant is used to specify that database change notification or query
    change notification messages are to be sent. This is the default value.


Subscription Protocols

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the protocol parameter of the :meth:`Connection.subscribe()` method.

.. data:: SUBSCR_PROTO_HTTP

    This constant is used to specify that notifications will be sent to an
    HTTP URL when a message is generated. This value is currently not
    supported.


.. data:: SUBSCR_PROTO_MAIL

    This constant is used to specify that notifications will be sent to an
    e-mail address when a message is generated. This value is currently not
    supported.


.. data:: SUBSCR_PROTO_OCI

    This constant is used to specify that notifications will be sent to the
    callback routine identified when the subscription was created. It is the
    default value and the only value currently supported.


.. data:: SUBSCR_PROTO_SERVER

    This constant is used to specify that notifications will be sent to a
    PL/SQL procedure when a message is generated. This value is currently not
    supported.


Subscription Quality of Service

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the qos parameter of the :meth:`Connection.subscribe()` method. One or more of these values can be OR'ed together.

.. data:: SUBSCR_QOS_BEST_EFFORT

    This constant is used to specify that best effort filtering for query
    result set changes is acceptable. False positive notifications may be
    received.  This behaviour may be suitable for caching applications.


.. data:: SUBSCR_QOS_DEREG_NFY

    This constant is used to specify that the subscription should be
    automatically unregistered after the first notification is received.


.. data:: SUBSCR_QOS_QUERY

    This constant is used to specify that notifications should be sent if the
    result set of the registered query changes. By default no false positive
    notifications will be generated.


.. data:: SUBSCR_QOS_RELIABLE

    This constant is used to specify that notifications should not be lost in
    the event of database failure.


.. data:: SUBSCR_QOS_ROWIDS

    This constant is used to specify that the rowids of the inserted, updated
    or deleted rows should be included in the message objects that are sent.


Types

.. data:: BINARY

    This type object is used to describe columns in a database that contain
    binary data. In Oracle this is RAW columns.


.. data:: BFILE

    This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are BFILEs.

    .. note::

        This type is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. data:: BLOB

    This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are BLOBs.

    .. note::

        This type is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. data:: BOOLEAN

    This type object is used to represent PL/SQL booleans.

    .. versionadded:: 5.2.1

    .. note::

        This type is an extension to the DB API definition. It is only
        available in Oracle 12.1 and higher and only within PL/SQL. It cannot
        be used in columns.


.. data:: CLOB

    This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are CLOBs.

    .. note::

        This type is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. data:: CURSOR

    This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are cursors
    (in PL/SQL these are known as ref cursors).

    .. note::

        This type is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. data:: DATETIME

    This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are dates.


.. data:: FIXED_CHAR

    This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are fixed
    length strings (in Oracle these is CHAR columns); these behave differently
    in Oracle than varchar2 so they are differentiated here even though the DB
    API does not differentiate them.

    .. note::

        This attribute is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. data:: FIXED_NCHAR

    This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are NCHAR
    columns in Oracle; these behave differently in Oracle than nvarchar2 so
    they are differentiated here even though the DB API does not differentiate
    them.

    .. note::

        This type is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. data:: INTERVAL

    This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are of type
    interval day to second.

    .. note::

        This type is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. data:: LOB

    This type object is the Python type of :data:`BLOB` and :data:`CLOB` data
    that is returned from cursors.

    .. note::

        This type is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. data:: LONG_BINARY

    This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are long
    binary (in Oracle these are LONG RAW columns).

    .. note::

        This type is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. data:: LONG_STRING

    This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are long
    strings (in Oracle these are LONG columns).

    .. note::

        This type is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. data:: NATIVE_FLOAT

    This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are of type
    binary_double or binary_float.

    .. note::

        This type is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. data:: NATIVE_INT

    This type object is used to bind integers using Oracle's native integer
    support, rather than the standard number support.

    .. versionadded:: 5.3

    .. note::

        This type is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. data:: NCHAR

    This type object is used to describe national character strings (NVARCHAR2)
    in Oracle.

    .. note::

        This type is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. data:: NCLOB

    This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are NCLOBs.

    .. note::

        This type is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. data:: NUMBER

    This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are
    numbers.


.. data:: OBJECT

    This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are
    objects.

    .. note::

        This type is an extension to the DB API definition.


.. data:: ROWID

    This type object is used to describe the pseudo column "rowid".


.. data:: STRING

    This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are strings
    (in Oracle this is VARCHAR2 columns).


.. data:: TIMESTAMP

    This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are
    timestamps.

    .. note::

        This attribute is an extension to the DB API definition.


Exceptions

.. exception:: Warning

    Exception raised for important warnings and defined by the DB API but not
    actually used by cx_Oracle.


.. exception:: Error

    Exception that is the base class of all other exceptions defined by
    cx_Oracle and is a subclass of the Python StandardError exception (defined
    in the module exceptions).


.. exception:: InterfaceError

    Exception raised for errors that are related to the database interface
    rather than the database itself. It is a subclass of Error.


.. exception:: DatabaseError

    Exception raised for errors that are related to the database. It is a
    subclass of Error.


.. exception:: DataError

    Exception raised for errors that are due to problems with the processed
    data. It is a subclass of DatabaseError.


.. exception:: OperationalError

    Exception raised for errors that are related to the operation of the
    database but are not necessarily under the control of the progammer. It is
    a subclass of DatabaseError.


.. exception:: IntegrityError

    Exception raised when the relational integrity of the database is affected.
    It is a subclass of DatabaseError.


.. exception:: InternalError

    Exception raised when the database encounters an internal error. It is a
    subclass of DatabaseError.


.. exception:: ProgrammingError

    Exception raised for programming errors. It is a subclass of DatabaseError.


.. exception:: NotSupportedError

    Exception raised when a method or database API was used which is not
    supported by the database. It is a subclass of DatabaseError.


Exception handling

Note

PEP 249 (Python Database API Specification v2.0) says the following about exception values:

[...] The values of these exceptions are not defined. They should give the user a fairly good idea of what went wrong, though. [...]

With cx_Oracle every exception object has exactly one argument in the args tuple. This argument is a cx_Oracle._Error object which has the following five read-only attributes.

.. attribute:: _Error.code

    Integer attribute representing the Oracle error number (ORA-XXXXX).

.. attribute:: _Error.offset

    Integer attribute representing the error offset when applicable.

.. attribute:: _Error.message

    String attribute representing the Oracle message of the error. This
    message is localized by the environment of the Oracle connection.

.. attribute:: _Error.context

    String attribute representing the context in which the exception was
    raised.

.. attribute:: _Error.isrecoverable

    Boolean attribute representing whether the error is recoverable or not.
    This is False in all cases unless Oracle Database 12.1 is being used on
    both the server and the client.

    .. versionadded:: 5.3


This allows you to use the exceptions for example in the following way:

from __future__ import print_function

import cx_Oracle

connection = cx_Oracle.connect("cx_Oracle/dev@localhost/orclpdb")
cursor = connection.cursor()

try:
    cursor.execute("select 1 / 0 from dual")
except cx_Oracle.DatabaseError as exc:
    error, = exc.args
    print("Oracle-Error-Code:", error.code)
    print("Oracle-Error-Message:", error.message)