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title: Task processing type: guide order: 7 version: 0.15

Tasks and queues are primitives contained in @orbit/core that are useful for processing actions asynchronously and serially.

Although you'll typically work with tasks indirectly, understanding these concepts can help you better troubleshoot and harden your Orbit applications.

Tasks

Every action performed by sources, from updates to queries, is considered a "task" to be performed asynchronously.

The Task interface is simply:

interface Task {
  type: string;
  id?: string;
  data?: any;
}

A task's type, such as "query" or "update", signals how that task should be performed. An id is assigned to uniquely identify the task. And data should contain the type-specific data needed to perform the task, such as an object that conforms with the Query or Transform interfaces.

Performers

Tasks are performed asynchronously by a Performer:

export interface Performer {
  perform(task: Task): Promise<any>;
}

In @orbit/data, every Source implements the Performer interface.

Task queues

Tasks can be added to queues, which act as FIFO stacks that perform each task serially and asynchronously.

Task queues are associated with a single performer, such as a Source, that will perform each task. A performer must be assigned when instantiating a TaskQueue:

const queue = new TaskQueue(source); // `source` implements `Performer`

By default, task queues automatically process any tasks that are added to them and will continue until either all tasks have been performed or a problem has been encountered. For finer control over processing, it's possible to instantiate a queue that will only process tasks explicitly:

const queue = new TaskQueue(source, { autoProcess: false });

Tasks are normally added to the end of a queue via the push method:

queue.push({
  type: 'query',
  data: { expression: { op: 'findRecords', type: 'planet' } }
});

Task processing

Depending upon whether a queue is set to autoProcess, task processing will start either immediately or after the process method has been called.

Queues emit the following events when processing tasks:

  • change - whenever a task has been added or removed to a queue

  • beforeTask - before processing of a task begins

  • task - after a task has been processed successfully

  • fail - when a task has failed to process

  • complete - when all tasks have been processed

As each task is processed successfully, it will be removed from the queue.

If processing fails, the queue will emit the fail event and processing will stop. At that point, you have several options:

  • retry() will retry the task that failed.

  • skip() will cancel and discard the current task and proceed to process the next task.

  • clear() will cancel the current task and completely clear the queue.

  • shift() will cancel the current task and remove it, but will not continue processing.

  • unshift(newTask) will cancel the current task and insert a new task in front of it at the beginning of the queue.

These options provide fairly complete control over task processing, which can prove useful when handling exceptions, debugging, and testing.

Task queues for sources

Every Source in @orbit/data maintains two task queues:

  • A requestQueue for processing requests, such as updates and queries.

  • A syncQueue for synchronizing changes between sources.

These queues are discussed in more detail as part of the guide on "data flows".