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* Improve text on Packaging

Make various improvements to the text on packaging.

* The original text assumes that only software developers install software
  packages, which is absurd; end-users install software packages all
  the time.
* The original text seemed to assume that there are only
  language-level packages, but system-level packages & containers
  are a thing :-). At least acknowledge them.
  Also, this doesn't make sense in some cases
  (e.g., software specific to one website that's updated through commits,
  or IoT software where there are no "packages" - you
  upload the entire image); that should be admitted.
* Fix main text to stop using "you/your" to mean "project developer".
  There are at least two *different* readers: (1) developers of the project
  being measured and (2) potential users of the project being measured.
  Many users of scorecard will be #2, they'll
  reading scorecard results to decide if they want to use the software
  being measured. So don't say "you" and assume that "you" means
  project developers.  I left "you" meaning "project developers"
  inside remediation, under the assumption that this was remdediation
  text for project developers.
  To be fair, *users* of software can also sometimes
  take remediation steps; that might be worth adding as its own
  section if we text to add there (e.g., `user_remediation`).

I have intentionally not run `make generate-docs` as that would add other
irrelevant changes.  Instead, after this PR is accepted there should be a
`make generate-docs` & a pull of *that*.

Signed-off-by: David A. Wheeler <dwheeler@dwheeler.com>

* Add note about filing an issue

Add note about filing an issue if scorecard fails to detect
the packaging mechanism, per review by @naveensrinivasan (thanks!).

Signed-off-by: David A. Wheeler <dwheeler@dwheeler.com>
bc5d7a8

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Security Scorecards

build CodeQL

Motivation

We created Scorecards to give consumers of open-source projects an easy way to judge whether their dependencies are safe.

Scorecards is an automated tool that assesses a number of important heuristics ("checks") associated with software security and assigns each check a score of 0-10. You can use these scores to understand specific areas to improve in order to strengthen the security posture of your project. You can also assess the risks that dependencies introduce, and make informed decisions about accepting these risks, evaluating alternative solutions, or working with the maintainers to make improvements.

The inspiration for Scorecards’ logo: "You passed! All D's ... and an A!"

Goals

  1. Automate analysis and trust decisions on the security posture of open source projects.

  2. Use this data to proactively improve the security posture of the critical projects the world depends on.

Scorecard Checks

The following checks are all run against the target project by default:

Name Description
Binary-Artifacts Is the project free of checked-in binaries?
Branch-Protection Does the project use Branch Protection ?
CI-Tests Does the project run tests in CI, e.g. GitHub Actions, Prow?
CII-Best-Practices Does the project have a CII Best Practices Badge?
Code-Review Does the project require code review before code is merged?
Contributors Does the project have contributors from at least two different organizations?
Dependency-Update-Tool Does the project use tools to help update its dependencies?
Fuzzing Does the project use fuzzing tools, e.g. OSS-Fuzz?
Maintained Is the project maintained?
Pinned-Dependencies Does the project declare and pin dependencies?
Packaging Does the project build and publish official packages from CI/CD, e.g. GitHub Publishing ?
SAST Does the project use static code analysis tools, e.g. CodeQL, SonarCloud?
Security-Policy Does the project contain a security policy?
Signed-Releases Does the project cryptographically sign releases?
Token-Permissions Does the project declare GitHub workflow tokens as read only?
Vulnerabilities Does the project have unfixed vulnerabilities? Uses the OSV service.

To see detailed information about each check and remediation steps, check out the checks documentation page.

Usage

Authentication

Before running Scorecard, you need to either:

  • create a GitHub access token and set it in an environment variable called GITHUB_AUTH_TOKEN, GITHUB_TOKEN, GH_AUTH_TOKEN or GH_TOKEN. This helps to avoid the GitHub's api rate limits with unauthenticated requests.
# For posix platforms, e.g. linux, mac:
export GITHUB_AUTH_TOKEN=<your access token>
# Multiple tokens can be provided separated by comma to be utilized
# in a round robin fashion.
export GITHUB_AUTH_TOKEN=<your access token1>,<your access token2>

# For windows:
set GITHUB_AUTH_TOKEN=<your access token>
set GITHUB_AUTH_TOKEN=<your access token1>,<your access token2>
  • create a GitHub App Installations for higher rate-limit quotas. If you have an installed GitHub App and key file, you can use the three environment variables below, following the commands shown above for your platform.
GITHUB_APP_KEY_PATH=<path to the key file on disk>
GITHUB_APP_INSTALLATION_ID=<installation id>
GITHUB_APP_ID=<app id>

These variables can be obtained from the GitHub developer settings page.

Docker

scorecard is available as a Docker container:

The GITHUB_AUTH_TOKEN has to be set to a valid token

docker run -e GITHUB_AUTH_TOKEN=token gcr.io/openssf/scorecard:stable --show-details --repo=https://github.com/ossf/scorecard

Running Scorecards Using a URL

Scorecards can run using just one argument, the URL of the target repo:

$ go install github.com/ossf/scorecard/v2@latest
$ scorecard --repo=github.com/ossf-tests/scorecard-check-branch-protection-e2e
Starting [CII-Best-Practices]
Starting [Fuzzing]
Starting [Pinned-Dependencies]
Starting [CI-Tests]
Starting [Maintained]
Starting [Packaging]
Starting [SAST]
Starting [Dependency-Update-Tool]
Starting [Token-Permissions]
Starting [Security-Policy]
Starting [Signed-Releases]
Starting [Binary-Artifacts]
Starting [Branch-Protection]
Starting [Code-Review]
Starting [Contributors]
Starting [Vulnerabilities]
Finished [CI-Tests]
Finished [Maintained]
Finished [Packaging]
Finished [SAST]
Finished [Signed-Releases]
Finished [Binary-Artifacts]
Finished [Branch-Protection]
Finished [Code-Review]
Finished [Contributors]
Finished [Dependency-Update-Tool]
Finished [Token-Permissions]
Finished [Security-Policy]
Finished [Vulnerabilities]
Finished [CII-Best-Practices]
Finished [Fuzzing]
Finished [Pinned-Dependencies]

RESULTS
-------
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|  SCORE  |          NAME          |             REASON             |                         DOCUMENTATION/REMEDIATION                         |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 10 / 10 | Binary-Artifacts       | no binaries found in the repo  | github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#binary-artifacts       |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 9 / 10  | Branch-Protection      | branch protection is not       | github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#branch-protection      |
|         |                        | maximal on development and all |                                                                           |
|         |                        | release branches               |                                                                           |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| ?       | CI-Tests               | no pull request found          | github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#ci-tests               |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 0 / 10  | CII-Best-Practices     | no badge found                 | github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#cii-best-practices     |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 10 / 10 | Code-Review            | branch protection for default  | github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#code-review            |
|         |                        | branch is enabled              |                                                                           |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 0 / 10  | Contributors           | 0 different companies found -- | github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#contributors           |
|         |                        | score normalized to 0          |                                                                           |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 0 / 10  | Dependency-Update-Tool | no update tool detected        | github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#dependency-update-tool |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 0 / 10  | Fuzzing                | project is not fuzzed in       | github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#fuzzing                |
|         |                        | OSS-Fuzz                       |                                                                           |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 1 / 10  | Maintained             | 2 commit(s) found in the last  | github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#maintained             |
|         |                        | 90 days -- score normalized to |                                                                           |
|         |                        | 1                              |                                                                           |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| ?       | Packaging              | no published package detected  | github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#packaging              |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 8 / 10  | Pinned-Dependencies    | unpinned dependencies detected | github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#pinned-dependencies    |
|         |                        | -- score normalized to 8       |                                                                           |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 0 / 10  | SAST                   | no SAST tool detected          | github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#sast                   |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 0 / 10  | Security-Policy        | security policy file not       | github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#security-policy        |
|         |                        | detected                       |                                                                           |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| ?       | Signed-Releases        | no releases found              | github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#signed-releases        |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 10 / 10 | Token-Permissions      | tokens are read-only in GitHub | github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#token-permissions      |
|         |                        | workflows                      |                                                                           |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 10 / 10 | Vulnerabilities        | no vulnerabilities detected    | github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#vulnerabilities        |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|

Showing Detailed Results

For more details why a check fails, use the --show-details option:

./scorecard --repo=github.com/ossf-tests/scorecard-check-branch-protection-e2e --checks Branch-Protection --show-details
Starting [Pinned-Dependencies]
Finished [Pinned-Dependencies]

RESULTS
-------
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|  SCORE  |          NAME          |             REASON             |            DETAILS             |                         DOCUMENTATION/REMEDIATION                         |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 9 / 10  | Branch-Protection      | branch protection is not       | Info: 'force pushes' disabled  | github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#branch-protection      |
|         |                        | maximal on development and all | on branch 'main' Info: 'allow  |                                                                           |
|         |                        | release branches               | deletion' disabled on branch   |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | 'main' Info: linear history    |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | enabled on branch 'main' Info: |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | strict status check enabled    |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | on branch 'main' Warn: status  |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | checks for merging have no     |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | specific status to check on    |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | branch 'main' Info: number     |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | of required reviewers is 2     |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | on branch 'main' Info: Stale   |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | review dismissal enabled on    |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | branch 'main' Info: Owner      |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | review required on branch      |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | 'main' Info: 'admininistrator' |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | PRs need reviews before being  |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | merged on branch 'main'        |                                                                           |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|

Running Scorecards Using a Package Manager

For projects in the --npm, --pypi, or --rubygems ecosystems, you have the option to run Scorecards using a package manager. Provide the package name to run the checks on the corresponding GitHub source code.

For example:

./scorecard --npm=angular
Starting [Active]
Starting [Branch-Protection]
Starting [CI-Tests]
Starting [CII-Best-Practices]
Starting [Code-Review]
Starting [Contributors]
Starting [Pinned-Dependencies]
Starting [Fuzzing]
Starting [Packaging]
Starting [Pull-Requests]
Starting [SAST]
Starting [Security-Policy]
Starting [Signed-Releases]
Finished [Signed-Releases]
Finished [Fuzzing]
Finished [CII-Best-Practices]
Finished [Security-Policy]
Finished [CI-Tests]
Finished [Packaging]
Finished [SAST]
Finished [Code-Review]
Finished [Branch-Protection]
Finished [Pinned-Dependencies]
Finished [Active]
Finished [Pull-Requests]
Finished [Contributors]

RESULTS
-------
Active: Fail 10
Branch-Protection: Fail 0
CI-Tests: Pass 10
CII-Best-Practices: Fail 10
Code-Review: Pass 10
Contributors: Pass 10
Pinned-Dependencies: Fail 0
Fuzzing: Fail 10
Packaging: Fail 0
Pull-Requests: Fail 9
SAST: Fail 10
Security-Policy: Pass 10
Signed-Releases: Fail 0

Running Specific Checks

To run only specific check(s), add the --checks argument with a list of check names.

For example, --checks=CI-Tests,Code-Review.

Understanding Scorecard Results

Each check returns a Pass / Fail decision, as well as a confidence score between 0 and 10. A confidence of 0 should indicate the check was unable to achieve any real signal, and the result should be ignored. A confidence of 10 indicates the check is completely sure of the result.

Formatting Results

There are three formats currently: default, json, and csv. Others may be added in the future.

These may be specified with the --format flag.

Public Data

We publish a list of projects checked by Scorecards and their results in the BigQuery public dataset openssf:scorecardcron.scorecard. The latest results are available in the BigQuery view openssf:scorecardcron.scorecard_latest.

You can extract the latest results to Google Cloud storage in JSON format using the bq tool:

# Get the latest PARTITION_ID
bq query --nouse_legacy_sql 'SELECT partition_id FROM
openssf.scorecardcron.INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PARTITIONS WHERE table_name="scorecard"
ORDER BY partition_id DESC
LIMIT 1'

# Extract to GCS
bq extract --destination_format=NEWLINE_DELIMITED_JSON
'openssf:scorecardcron.scorecard$<partition_id>' gs://bucket-name/filename.json

The list of projects that are checked is available in the cron/data/projects.csv file in this repository. If you would like us to track more, please feel free to send a Pull Request with others.

NOTE: Currently, these lists are derived from projects hosted on GitHub ONLY. We do plan to expand them in near future to account for projects hosted on other source control systems.

Adding a Scorecard Check

If you'd like to add a check, please see guidance here.

Troubleshooting

  • Bugs and Feature Requests:

    If you have what looks like a bug, or you would like to make a feature request, please use the Github issue tracking system. Before you file an issue, please search existing issues to see if your issue is already covered.

  • Slack

    For realtime discussion, you can join the #security_scorecards slack channel. The Slack platform requires registration, but the openssf team channel is open to anyone. Feel free to come and ask any questions.

Supportability

Currently, scorecard officially supports OSX and Linux platforms. If you are using a Windows OS you may find issues. Contributions towards supporting Windows are welcome.

Contributing

If you want to get involved or have ideas you'd like to chat about, we discuss this project in the OSSF Best Practices Working Group meetings.

See the Community Calendar for the schedule and meeting invitations. The meetings happen biweekly https://calendar.google.com/calendar/embed?src=s63voefhp5i9pfltb5q67ngpes%40group.calendar.google.com&ctz=America%2FLos_Angeles

See the Contributing documentation for guidance on how to contribute.