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These scripts were created to assist with internet voting in the event of a tie, such that election officials could perform a verifiable, repeatable tie-breaking procedure: a remote coin toss.


First, you'll need to generate a seed that can be shared with anyone who will be verifying the coin toss:

$ ./bin/get_seed

With the seed, you can now do a coin toss:

$ ./bin/toss 3641f821-6fb4-7d51-94e1-dce0e92f4571 Alice,Bob

toss also supports multi-way ties and multiple winners:

$ ./bin/toss 3641f821-6fb4-7d51-94e1-dce0e92f4571 Alice,Bob,Carol \
['Bob', 'Carol']


When a fellow employee at DreamHost (Steven Berler) reviewed this, he noted that a corrupt election official could generate seeds until one was obtained that broke the tie according to personal preference.


Avoiding Abuse with Policy

One way to mitigate this would be to announce ahead of time the seed or a means of deriving the seed, based on information available to all the election officials only after a tie had been announced.

An Election with a Tie

Let's suppose we have an election where Alice and Bob are clear winners, but there is a tie for third between Carol and Dave. Eve comes in last. Let's say that the election data for the tied candidates is as follows:

  • Carol: loses to Alice by 40-47; loses to Bob by 38-45; beats Dave 41-40; loses to Eve 40-41
  • Dave: loses to Alice 29-54; loses to Bob by 26-48; loses to Carol; 40-41; beats Eve 44-42

An Example Policy

For such occasions, one could -- ahead of time! -- define a policy that would utilize this data to generate a seed whereby tie-breaking coin-tosses could be verified by any election official.

An example of this might be:

  • Get the pre-announced seed. Ideally, this seed will be generated based on something known ahead of time and can't be manipulated. For instance, the starting date of the voting period (e.g., 2012-08-21). With the understanding that only one election will be held on that day (or starting on that day) with the given set of candidates, this date-based seed should help in making a unique seed for breaking a possible future tie.

  • In the event of a tie, list the candidate scores in a predetermined order (we've sepearated each win/loss with a colon). In this example, we append the votes in candidate first-name alphabetical order (Carol's scores are first, then Dave's). The vote scores for each tied candidate are listed in ranking order (i.e., relationship to first-place winner is first score and relationship to last-place winner is the last score).

  • Using these known and unique (once combined) pieces of data, generate the seed that will be used in the coin toss:

    $ ./bin/get_seed \ \
       --data=2012-08-21 \
       --data=Carol.Smith:40-47:38-45:41-40:40-41 \
  • Anyone that performs a coin-toss with this new seed will get the same result (note that the names are passed in ascending order, sorted by first name):

    $ ./bin/toss 52752184-527a-53b7-8472-8050d6b3643d Carol.Smith,Dave.Doe