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README

              Backup and Recovery Manager for PostgreSQL Tutorial

   Barman (backup and recovery manager) is an administration tool for
   disaster recovery of PostgreSQL servers written in Python. Barman can
   perform remote backups of multiple servers in business critical
   environments, and helps DBAs during the recovery phase.

   Barman's most wanted features include: backup catalogues, retention
   policies, remote recovery, archiving and compression of WAL files and
   of backups. Barman is written and maintained by PostgreSQL
   professionals 2ndQuadrant.
     __________________________________________________________________

Introduction

   In a perfect world, there would be no need for a backup. However it is
   important, especially in business environments, to be prepared for when
   the "unexpected" happens. In a database scenario, the unexpected could
   take any of the following forms:
     * data corruption;
     * system failure, including hardware failure;
     * human error;
     * natural disaster.

   In such cases, any ICT manager or DBA should be able to repair the
   incident and recover the database in the shortest possible time. We
   normally refer to this discipline as Disaster recovery.

   This guide assumes that you are familiar with theoretical disaster
   recovery concepts, and you have a grasp of PostgreSQL fundamentals in
   terms of physical backup and disaster recovery. If not, we encourage
   you to read the PostgreSQL documentation or any of the recommended
   books on PostgreSQL.

   Professional training on this topic is another effective way of
   learning these concepts. At any time of the year you can find many
   courses available all over the world, delivered by PostgreSQL companies
   such as 2ndQuadrant.

   For now, you should be aware that any PostgreSQL physical/binary backup
   (not to be confused with the logical backups produced by the pg_dump
   utility) is composed of:
     * a base backup;
     * one or more WAL files (usually collected through continuous
       archiving).

   PostgreSQL offers the core primitives that allow DBAs to setup a really
   robust Disaster Recovery environment. However, it becomes complicated
   to manage multiple backups, from one or more PostgreSQL servers.
   Restoring a given backup is another task that any PostgreSQL DBA would
   love to see more automated and user friendly.

   With these goals in mind, 2ndQuadrant started the development of Barman
   for PostgreSQL. Barman is an acronym for "Backup and Recovery Manager".
   Currently Barman works only on Linux and Unix operating systems.
     __________________________________________________________________

Before you start

   The first step is to decide the architecture of your backup. In a
   simple scenario, you have one PostgreSQL instance (server) running on a
   host. You want your data continuously backed up to another server,
   called the backup server.

   Barman allows you to launch PostgreSQL backups directly from the backup
   server, using SSH connections. Furthermore, it allows you to centralise
   your backups in case you have more than one PostgreSQL server to
   manage.

   During this guide, we will assume that:
     * there is one PostgreSQL instance on a host (called pg for
       simplicity)
     * there is one backup server on another host (called backup)
     * communication via SSH between the two servers is enabled
     * the PostgreSQL server can be reached from the backup server as the
       postgres operating system user (or another user with PostgreSQL
       database superuser privileges, typically configured via ident
       authentication)

   It is important to note that, for disaster recovery, these two servers
   must not share any physical resource except for the network. You can
   use Barman in geographical redundancy scenarios for better disaster
   recovery outcomes.

  System requirements

     * Linux/Unix
     * Python 2.6 or 2.7
     * Python modules:
          + argh
          + psycopg2
          + python-dateutil < 2.0 (since version 2.0 requires python3)
          + distribute (optional)
     * PostgreSQL >= 8.4
     * rsync >= 3.0.4

   Important
   The same major version of PostgreSQL should be installed on both
   servers.

   Tip
   Users of RedHat Enterprise Linux, CentOS and Scientific Linux are
   advised to install the Extra Packages Enterprise Linux (EPEL)
   repository.
   [Further information at [1]http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/EPEL]
     __________________________________________________________________

Installation

   Create a system user called barman on the backup server. As barman
   user, download the sources and uncompress them.

   For a system-wide installation, type:

  barman@backup$ ./setup.py build
  barman@backup# ./setup.py install # run this command with root privileges or s
udo

   For a local installation, type:

     barman@backup$ ./setup.py install --user

   Important
   The --user option works only with python-distribute

   barman will be installed in your user directory (make sure that your
   PATH environment variable is set properly).
     __________________________________________________________________

Getting started

  Prerequisites

    SSH connection

   Barman needs a bidirectional SSH connection between the barman user on
   the backup server and the postgres user. SSH must be configured such
   that there is no password prompt presented when connecting. on the pg
   server. As the barman user on the backup server, generate an SSH key
   with an empty password, and append the public key to the
   authorized_keys file of the postgres user on the pg server.

   The barman user on the backup server should then be able to perform the
   following operation without typing a password:

     barman@backup$ ssh postgres@pg

   The procedure must be repeated with sides swapped in order to allow the
   postgres user on the pg server to connect to the backup server as the
   barman user without typing a password:

     postgres@pg$ ssh barman@backup

   For further information, refer to OpenSSH documentation.

    PostgreSQL connection

   You need to make sure that the backup server allows connection to the
   PostgreSQL server on pg as superuser (postgres).

   You can choose your favourite client authentication method among those
   offered by PostgreSQL. More information can be found here:
   [2]http://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/static/client-authentication.
   html

     barman@backup$ psql -c 'SELECT version()' -U postgres -h pg

    Backup directory

   Barman needs a main backup directory to store all the backups. Even
   though you can define a separate folder for each server you want to
   back up and for each type of resource (backup or WAL segments, for
   instance), we suggest that you adhere to the default rules and stick
   with the conventions that Barman chooses for you.

   You will see that the configuration file (as explained below) defines a
   barman_home variable, which is the directory where Barman will store
   all your backups by default. We choose /srv/barman as home directory
   for Barman:

  barman@backup$ sudo mkdir /srv/barman
  barman@backup$ sudo chown barman:barman /srv/barman

   Important
   We assume that you have enough space, and that you have already thought
   about redundancy and safety of your disks.

  Basic configuration

   In the docs directory you will find a minimal configuration file. Use
   it as a template, and copy it to /etc/barman.conf, or to
   ~/.barman.conf. In general, the former applies to all the users on the
   backup server, while the latter applies only to the barman user; for
   the purpose of this tutorial there is no difference in using one or the
   other.

   The configuration file follows the standard INI format, and is split
   in:
     * a section for general configuration (identified by the barman
       label)
     * a section for each PostgreSQL server to be backed up (identified by
       the server label, e.g. main or pg)

  [barman]
  ; Main directory
  barman_home = /var/lib/barman

  ; Log location
  log_file = /var/log/barman/barman.log

  ; Default compression level: possible values are None (default), bzip2, gzip o
r custom
  ;compression = gzip

  ; 'main' PostgreSQL Server configuration
  [main]
  ; Human readable description
  description =  "Main PostgreSQL Database"

  ; SSH options
  ssh_command = ssh postgres@pg

  ; PostgreSQL connection string
  conninfo = host=pg user=postgres

   You can now test the configuration by executing:

  barman@backup$ barman show-server main
  barman@backup$ barman check main

   Write down the incoming_wals_directory, as printed by the barman
   show-server main command, because you will need it to setup continuous
   WAL archiving.

    Continuous WAL archiving

   Edit the postgresql.conf file of the PostgreSQL instance on the pg
   database and activate the archive mode:

  wal_level = 'archive' # For PostgreSQL >= 9.0
  archive_mode = on
  archive_command = 'rsync -a %p barman@backup:INCOMING_WALS_DIRECTORY/%f'

   Make sure you change the INCOMING_WALS_DIRECTORY placeholder with the
   value returned by the barman show-server main command above.

   Restart the PostgreSQL server.

   In order to test that continuous archiving is on and properly working,
   you need to check both the PostgreSQL server
   [For more information, refer to the PostgreSQL documentation]
   and the backup server (in particular, that the WAL files are collected
   in the destination directory).

  Listing the servers

   The following command displays the list of all the available servers:

     barman@backup$ barman list-server

  Executing a full backup

   To take a backup issue the command:

     barman@backup$ barman backup main

  Viewing the list of backups for a server

   To list all the available backups for a given server, issue:

     barman@backup$ barman list-backup main

   the format of the output is as in:

  main - 20120529T092136 - Wed May 30 15:20:25 2012 - Size: 5.0 TiB - WAL Size:
845.0 GiB (tablespaces: tb_name:/home/tblspace/name, tb_temp:/home/tblspace/temp
)

   where 20120529T092136 is the ID of the backup and Wed May 30 15:20:25
   2012 is the start time of the operation, Size is the size of the base
   backup and WAL Size is the size of WAL files archived.

  Restoring a whole server

   To restore a whole server issue the following command:

   barman@backup$ barman recover main 20110920T185953 /path/to/recover/directory

   where 20110920T185953 is the ID of the backup to be restored. When this
   command completes succesfully, /path/to/recover/directory contains a
   complete data directory ready to be started as a PostgreSQL database
   server.

   Here is an example of a command that starts the server:

     barman@backup$ pg_ctl -D /path/to/recover/directory start

   Important
   If you run this command as user barman, it will become the database
   superuser.

   You can retrieve a list of backup IDs for a specific server with:

     barman@backup$ barman list-backup srvpgsql

  Remote recovery

   Barman is able to recover a backup on a remote server through the
   --remote-ssh-command COMMAND option for the recover command.

   If this option is specified, barman uses COMMAND to connect to a remote
   host.

   Note
   The postgres user is normally used to recover on a remote host.

   There are some limitations when using remote recovery. It is important
   to be aware that:
     * Barman needs at least 4GB of free space in the system temporary
       directory (usually /tmp);
     * the SSH connection between Barman and the remote host must use
       public key exchange authentication method;
     * PGDATA directory must exists on the remote host and the remote user
       must be its owner;
     * a directory per tablespace must exist on the remote host and the
       remote user must be their owner;
     * there must be enough free space on the remote server to contain the
       base backup and the WAL files needed for recovery.

  Restoring to a given point in time

   Barman employs PostgreSQL's Point-in-Time Recovery (PITR) by allowing
   DBAs to specify a recovery target, either as a timestamp or as a
   transaction ID; you can also specify whether the recovery target should
   be included or not in the recovery.

   The recovery target can be specified using one of two mutually
   exclusive options:
     * --target-time TARGET_TIME: to specify a timestamp
     * --target-xid TARGET_XID: to specify a transaction ID

   You can use the --exclusive option to specify whether to stop
   immediately before or immediately after the recovery target.

   Barman allows you to specify a target timeline for recovery, using the
   target-tli option. The notion of timeline goes beyond the scope of this
   document; you can find more details in the PostgreSQL documentation, or
   in one of 2ndQuadrant's Recovery training courses.
     __________________________________________________________________

WAL compression

   The barman cron command (see below) will compress WAL files if the
   compression option is set in the configuration file. This option allows
   three values:
     * gzip: for Gzip compression (requires gzip)
     * bzip2: for Bzip2 compression (requires bzip2)
     * custom: for custom compression, which requires you to set the
       following options as well:
          + custom_compression_filter: a compression filter
          + custom_decompression_filter: a decompression filter
     __________________________________________________________________

Available commands

   Barman commands are applied to three different levels:
     * general commands, which apply to the backup catalogue
     * server commands, which apply to a specific server (list available
       backups, execute a backup, etc.)
     * backup commands, which apply to a specific backup in the catalogue
       (display information, issue a recovery, delete the backup, etc.)

   In the following sections the available commands will be described in
   detail.

  General commands

    List available servers

   You can display the list of active servers that have been configured
   for your backup system with:

     barman list-server

    Maintenance mode

   You can perform maintenance operations, like compressing WAL files and
   moving them from the incoming directory to the archived one, with:

     barman cron

   Note
   This command should be executed in a cron script. In future versions of
   Barman, this command will automatically enforce the retention policy.

  Server commands

    Show the configuration for a given server

   You can show the configuration parameters for a given server with:

     barman show-server <server_name>

    Take a base backup

   You can perform a full backup (base backup) for a given server with:

     barman backup <server_name>

    Show available backups for a server

   You can list the catalogue of available backups for a given server
   with:

     barman list-backup <server_name>

    Diagnostics check

   You can check if the connection to a given server is properly working
   with:

     barman check <server_name>

  Backup commands

   Note
   Remember: a backup ID can be retrieved with server list <server_name>

    Show backup information

   You can show all the available information for a particular backup of a
   given server with:

     barman show-backup <server_name> <backup_id>

    Delete a backup

   You can delete a given backup with:

     barman delete <server_name> <backup_id>

    List backup files

   You can list the files (base backup and required WAL files) for a given
   backup with:

     barman list-files [--target TARGET_TYPE] <server_name> <backup_id>

   With the --target TARGET_TYPE option, it is possible to choose the
   content of the list for a given backup.

   Possible values for TARGET_TYPE are:
     * data: lists just the data files;
     * standalone: lists the base backup files, including required WAL
       files;
     * wal: lists all WAL files from the beginning of the base backup to
       the start of the following one (or until the end of the log);
     * full: same as data + wal.

   The default value for TARGET_TYPE is standalone.

   Important
   The list-files command facilitates interaction with external tools, and
   therefore can be extremely useful to integrate Barman into your
   archiving procedures.
     __________________________________________________________________

Support and sponsor opportunities

   Barman is free software, written and maintained by 2ndQuadrant. If you
   require support on using Barman, or if you need new features, please
   get in touch with 2ndQuadrant. You can sponsor the development of new
   features of Barman and PostgreSQL which will be made publicly available
   as open source.

   For further information, please visit our websites:
     * Barman website: [3]http://www.pgbarman.org/
     * 2ndQuadrant website: [4]http://www.2ndquadrant.com/
     __________________________________________________________________

Authors

   In alphabetical order:
     * Carlo Ascani <[5]carlo.ascani@2ndquadrant.it> (core team)
     * Gabriele Bartolini <[6]gabriele.bartolini@2ndquadrant.it> (core
       team)
     * Marco Nenciarini <[7]marco.nenciarini@2ndquadrant.it> (core team)
     __________________________________________________________________

License and Contributions

   Barman is the exclusive property of 2ndQuadrant Italia and its code is
   distributed under GNU General Public License 3.
   Copyright © 2011-2012, 2ndQuadrant Italia (Devise.IT S.r.l.) -
   [8]http://www.2ndQuadrant.it.

   Barman has been partially funded through [9]4CaaSt, a research project
   funded by the European Commission's Seventh Framework programme.

   Contributions to Barman are welcome, and will be listed in the file
   AUTHORS. 2ndQuadrant Italia requires that any contributions provide a
   copyright assignment and a disclaimer of any work-for-hire ownership
   claims from the employer of the developer. This lets us make sure that
   all of the Barman distribution remains free code. Please contact
   [10]info@2ndQuadrant.it for a copy of the relevant Copyright Assignment
   Form.
     __________________________________________________________________

   Last updated 2012-07-06 11:32:06 CEST

References

   1. http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/EPEL
   2. http://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/static/client-authentication.html
   3. http://www.pgbarman.org/
   4. http://www.2ndquadrant.com/
   5. mailto:carlo.ascani@2ndquadrant.it
   6. mailto:gabriele.bartolini@2ndquadrant.it
   7. mailto:marco.nenciarini@2ndquadrant.it
   8. http://www.2ndQuadrant.it/
   9. http://4caast.morfeo-project.org/
  10. mailto:info@2ndQuadrant.it
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