Perl 6 PDF Grammars - for content streams and overall file structure
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Latest commit 744de01 Feb 23, 2017 @dwarring dwarring fix fdf test


Although PDF documents do not lend themselves to an overall BNF style grammar description; there are areas where these can be put to use, including:

  • The overall file structure (headers, objects, cross-reference tables and footers).
  • The operands that make up content streams. These are used to markup text, forms, images and graphical elements.

PDF::Grammar is an experimental set of Perl 6 grammars for parsing and validation of real-world PDF examples. There are four grammars:

PDF::Grammar::Content - describes the text and graphics operators that are used to produce page layout.

PDF::Grammar::Content::Fast - is an optimized version of PDF::Grammar::Content.

PDF::Grammar::FDF - this describes the file structure of FDF (Form Data) exchange files.

PDF::Grammar::PDF - this describes the file structure of PDF documents, including headers, trailers, top-level objects and the cross-reference table.

PDF::Grammar::Function - a tokeniser for Postscript Calculator (type 4) functions.

PDF-Grammar has so far been tested against a number of sample of PDF documents and may still be subject to change.

I have been working off the PDF 1.7 reference manual ( I've relaxed rules, when needed, to handle real-world examples.

Usage Notes

  • PDF input files typically contain a mixture of ASCII directives and binary data, plus byte-orientated addressing. For this reason **latin1 encoding is recommended **. For example:

    % perl6 -MPDF::Grammar::PDF -e"say PDF::Grammar::PDF.parse( slurp($f, :enc<latin1>) )"

  • pdftk is a useful utility for preprocessing pdfs, including uncompression and decryption:

    % pdftk flyer.pdf output flyer.unc.pdf uncompress
    % perl6 -MPDF::Grammar::PDF -e"say PDF::Grammar::PDF.parsefile( 'flyer.unc.pdf' )"


  • parse some markup content:

    % perl6 -MPDF::Grammar::Content -e"say PDF::Grammar::Content.parse('(Hello, world\041) Tj')"

  • parse a PDF file:

    % perl6 -MPDF::Grammar::PDF -e"say PDF::Grammar::PDF.parsefile( $f )"

  • dump the contents of a PDF

    use v6;
    use PDF::Grammar::PDF;
    use PDF::Grammar::PDF::Actions;
    sub MAIN(Str $pdf-file) {
        my $actions =;
        if PDF::Grammar::PDF.parsefile( $pdf-file, :$actions ) {
            say $/.ast.perl;
        else {
            say "failed to parse PDF: $pdf-file";

Ast Reference

The action methods in this module return AST trees. Each node in the tree consists of a key, value pair, where the key is the AST Tag, indicating the type of the AST node.

For example, here's the AST tree for the following parse:

use PDF::Grammar::PDF;
use PDF::Grammar::PDF::Actions;
my $actions =;

PDF::Grammar::PDF.parse( q:to"--END-DOC--", :rule<ind-obj>, :$actions);
3 0 obj <<
   /Type /Pages
   /Count 1
   /Kids [4 0 R]

say '# ' ~ $/.ast.perl;
# :ind-obj($[3, 0, :dict({:Count(:int(1)), :Kids(:array([:ind-ref($[4, 0])])), :Type(:name("Pages"))})])

This is an indirect object (ind-obj), it contains a dictionary object (dict). Entries in the dictionary are:

  • Count with integer value (int) of 1.
  • Kids, and array (array) containing one indirect reference (ind-ref).
  • Type with name (name) 'Pages'.

In most cases, the node type corresponds to the name of the rule or token that was used to construct the node.

This AST representation is used extensively throughout the PDF tool-chain. For example, as an intermediate format by PDF::Writer for reserialization.

For reference, here is a list of all AST node types:

AST Tag | Perl Type | Description --- | --- | --- | --- | array | Array[Any] | Array object type, e.g. [ 0 0 612 792 ] body | Array[Hash] | The FDF/PDF body. A PDF with revisions has multiple body segments bool | Bool | Boolean object type, e.g. true dict | Hash | Dictionary object type, e.g. << /Type /Catalog /Pages 3 0 R >> encoded | Str | Raw encoded stream data. This is returned as a latin-1 byte-string. entries | Array[Hash] | A list of entries in a cross reference segment decoded | Str | Uncompressed/unencrypted stream data fdf | Hash | An FDF document gen-num | UInt | Object generation number header | Hash | PDF or FDF header, e.g. %PDF1.4 hex-string | Str | A hex-string, e.g. <736e6f6f7079> ind-ref | Array[UInt] | An indirect reference, .e.g. 23 2 R ind-obj | Any | An indirect object. This is a three element array that contains an object number, generation number and the object int | Int | Integer object type, e.g. 42 obj-count | UInt | object count/number of entries in a cross reference segment obj-first-num | UInt | object first number in a cross reference segment obj-num | UInt | Object number offset | UInt | byte offset of an indirect object in the file. literal | Str | A literal string, e.g. (Hello, World!) name | Str | String object type, e.g. /Fred null | Mu | Null object type, e.g. null pdf | Hash | A PDF document, consisting of a header and body array real | Real | Real object type, e.g. 42.0 start | UInt | Start position of stream data (returned by ind-obj-nibble rule) startxref | UInt | byte offset from the start of the file to the start of the trailer stream | Hash | Stream object type. A dictionary indirect object followed by stream data trailer | Hash | Trailer. This typically contains the trailer dict entry. type | UInt | Index entry type: 0 - free, 1 - inuse, 2 - stream object version | Rat | The PDF / FDF version number, parsed from the header

See also

  • PDF - for PDF manipulation, including compression, encryption and reading and writing of PDF data.