JS version of Pact. Pact is a contract testing framework for HTTP APIs and non-HTTP asynchronous messaging systems.
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README.md

Pact JS

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Implementation of the consumer driven contract library Pact for Javascript.

From the Pact website:

The Pact family of frameworks provide support for Consumer Driven Contracts testing.

A Contract is a collection of agreements between a client (Consumer) and an API (Provider) that describes the interactions that can take place between them.

Consumer Driven Contracts is a pattern that drives the development of the Provider from its Consumers point of view.

Pact is a testing tool that guarantees those Contracts are satisfied.

Read Getting started with Pact for more information on how to get going.

NOTE: This project supersedes Pact Consumer JS DSL.

Installation

Versions

Version Stable Spec Compatibility Docs Installation
6.x.x No (beta) 2, 3* See v6 docs npm i -S @pact-foundation/pact@prerelease
5.x.x Yes 2 You are here npm i -S @pact-foundation/pact@5.x.x
4.x.x Yes (deprecated) Up to 2 See v4 docs npm i -S pact

See the Changelog for versions and their history.

* v3 support is limited to the subset of functionality in the Pact Specification v3 required to enable language inter-operable Message support.

Using Pact JS

Message and Asynchronous Support

Interested in trying pact on Message Queues, Lambdas, WebSockets and more? Check out our experimental support in the 6.x.x release and provide feedback on the API before it is rolled into the main library.

Consumer Side Testing

To use the library on your tests, add the pact dependency:

const { Pact } = require('pact')

The Pact class provides the following high-level APIs, they are listed in the order in which they typically get called in the lifecycle of testing a consumer:

API

API Options Returns Description
new Pact(options) See constructor options below Object Creates a Mock Server test double of your Provider API. If you need multiple Providers for a scenario, you can create as many as these as you need.
setup() n/a Promise Start the Mock Server and wait for it to be available. You would normally call this only once in a beforeAll(...) type clause
addInteraction() Object Promise Register an expectation on the Mock Server, which must be called by your test case(s). You can add multiple interactions per server, and each test would normally contain one or more of these. These will be validated and written to a pact if successful.
verify() n/a Promise Verifies that all interactions specified. This should be called once per test, to ensure your expectations were correct
finalize() n/a Promise Records the interactions registered to the Mock Server into the pact file and shuts it down. You would normally call this only once in an afterAll(...) type clause.

Constructor Options

Parameter Required? Type Description
consumer yes string The name of the consumer
provider yes string The name of the provider
port no number The port to run the mock service on, defaults to 1234
host no string The host to run the mock service, defaults to 127.0.0.1
ssl no boolean SSL flag to identify the protocol to be used (default false, HTTP)
sslcert no string Path to SSL certificate to serve on the mock service
sslkey no string Path to SSL key to serve on the mock service
dir no string Directory to output pact files
log no string Directory to log to
logLevel no string Log level: one of 'trace', 'debug', 'info', 'error', 'fatal' or 'warn'
spec no number Pact specification version (defaults to 2)
cors no boolean Allow CORS OPTION requests to be accepted, defaults to false
pactfileWriteMode no string Control how the Pact files are written. Choices: 'overwrite' 'update' or 'none'. Defaults to 'overwrite'

Example

The first step is to create a test for your API Consumer. The example below uses Mocha, and demonstrates the basic approach:

  1. Create the Pact object
  2. Start the Mock Provider that will stand in for your actual Provider
  3. Add the interactions you expect your consumer code to make when executing the tests
  4. Write your tests - the important thing here is that you test the outbound collaborating function which calls the Provider, and not just issue raw http requests to the Provider. This ensures you are testing your actual running code, just like you would in any other unit test, and that the tests will always remain up to date with what your consumer is doing.
  5. Validate the expected interactions were made between your consumer and the Mock Service
  6. Generate the pact(s)

Check out the examples folder for examples with Karma Jasmine, Mocha and Jest. The example below is taken from the integration spec.

const path = require('path')
const chai = require('chai')
const { Pact } = require('@pact-foundation/pact')
const chaiAsPromised = require('chai-as-promised')

const expect = chai.expect
const MOCK_SERVER_PORT = 2202

chai.use(chaiAsPromised);

describe('Pact', () => {

  // (1) Create the Pact object to represent your provider
  const provider = new Pact({
    consumer: 'TodoApp',
    provider: 'TodoService',
    port: MOCK_SERVER_PORT,
    log: path.resolve(process.cwd(), 'logs', 'pact.log'),
    dir: path.resolve(process.cwd(), 'pacts'),
    logLevel: 'INFO',
    spec: 2
  })

  // this is the response you expect from your Provider
  const EXPECTED_BODY = [{
    id: 1,
    name: 'Project 1',
    due: '2016-02-11T09:46:56.023Z',
    tasks: [
      {id: 1, name: 'Do the laundry', 'done': true},
      {id: 2, name: 'Do the dishes', 'done': false},
      {id: 3, name: 'Do the backyard', 'done': false},
      {id: 4, name: 'Do nothing', 'done': false}
    ]
  }]

  context('when there are a list of projects', () => {
    describe('and there is a valid user session', () => {
      before((done) => {
        // (2) Start the mock server
        provider.setup()
          // (3) add interactions to the Mock Server, as many as required
          .then(() => {
            return provider.addInteraction({
              // The 'state' field specifies a "Provider State"
              state: 'i have a list of projects',
              uponReceiving: 'a request for projects',
              withRequest: {
                method: 'GET',
                path: '/projects',
                headers: { 'Accept': 'application/json' }
              },
              willRespondWith: {
                status: 200,
                headers: { 'Content-Type': 'application/json' },
                body: EXPECTED_BODY
              }
            })
          })
          .then(() => done())
      })

      // (4) write your test(s)
      it('should generate a list of TODOs for the main screen', () => {
        const todoApp = new TodoApp();
        todoApp.getProjects() // <- this method would make the remote http call
          .then((projects) => {
      	    expect(projects).to.be.a('array')
            expect(projects).to.have.deep.property('projects[0].id', 1)

            // (5) validate the interactions you've registered and expected occurred
            // this will throw an error if it fails telling you what went wrong
      	    expect(provider.verify()).to.not.throw()
          })
      })

      // (6) write the pact file for this consumer-provider pair,
      // and shutdown the associated mock server.
      // You should do this only _once_ per Provider you are testing.
      after(() => {
        provider.finalize()
      })
    })
  })
})

Provider API Testing

Once you have created Pacts for your Consumer, you need to validate those Pacts against your Provider. The Verifier object provides the following API for you to do so:

API Options Returns Description
verifyProvider() See below Promise Start the Mock Server
  1. Start your local Provider service.
  2. Optionally, instrument your API with ability to configure provider states
  3. Then run the Provider side verification step
const { Verifier } = require('pact');
let opts = {
  ...
};

new Verifier().verifyProvider(opts).then(function () {
	// do something
});

Verification Options

Parameter Required Type Description
providerBaseUrl true string Running API provider host endpoint. Required.
provider true string Name of the Provider. Required.
pactUrls true array of strings Array of local Pact file paths or HTTP-based URLs (e.g. from a broker). Required if not using a Broker.
pactBrokerUrl false string URL of the Pact Broker to retrieve pacts from. Required if not using pactUrls.
tags false array of strings Array of tags, used to filter pacts from the Broker. Optional.
providerStatesSetupUrl false string URL to send PUT requests to setup a given provider state. Optional, required only if you provide a 'state' in any consumer tests.
pactBrokerUsername false string Username for Pact Broker basic authentication
pactBrokerPassword false string Password for Pact Broker basic authentication
publishVerificationResult false boolean Publish verification result to Broker
providerVersion false boolean Provider version, required to publish verification results to a broker
customProviderHeaders false array of strings Header(s) to add to provider state set up and pact verification requests. eg 'Authorization: Basic cGFjdDpwYWN0'.Broker. Optional otherwise.
timeout false number The duration in ms we should wait to confirm verification process was successful. Defaults to 30000, Optional.

That's it! Read more about Verifying Pacts.

API with Provider States

If you have any state's in your consumer tests that you need to validate during verification, you will need to configure your provider for Provider States. This means you must specify providerStatesSetupUrl in the verifyProvider function and configure an extra (dynamic) API endpoint to setup provider state (--provider-states-setup-url) for the given test state, which sets the active pact consumer and provider state accepting two parameters: consumer and state and returns an HTTP 200 eg. consumer=web&state=customer%20is%20logged%20in.

See this Provider for a working example, or read more about Provider States.

API with Authorization

Sometimes you may need to add things to the requests that can't be persisted in a pact file. Examples of these would be authentication tokens, which have a small life span. e.g. an OAuth bearer token: Authorization: Bearer 0b79bab50daca910b000d4f1a2b675d604257e42.

For this case, we have a facility that should be carefully used during verification - the ability to specificy custom headers to be sent during provider verification. The flag to achieve this is customProviderHeaders.

For example, to have two headers sent as part of the verification request, modify the verifyProvider options as per below:

let opts = {
  provider: 'Animal Profile Service',
  ...
  customProviderHeaders: ['Authorization: Bearer e5e5e5e5e5e5e5', 'SomeSpecialHeader: some specialvalue']
}

return new Verifier().verifyProvider(opts).then(output => { ... })

As you can see, this is your opportunity to modify\add to headers being sent to the Provider API, for example to create a valid time-bound token.

Important Note: You should only use this feature for things that can not be persisted in the pact file. By modifying the request, you are potentially modifying the contract from the consumer tests!

Publishing Pacts to a Broker

Sharing is caring - to simplify sharing Pacts between Consumers and Providers, we have created the Pact Broker.

The Broker:

  • versions your contracts
  • tells you which versions of your applications can be deployed safely together
  • allows you to deploy your services independently
  • provides API documentation of your applications that is guaranteed to be up-to date
  • visualises the relationships between your services
  • integrates with other systems, such as Slack or your CI server, via webhooks
  • ...and much much more.

Host your own, or signup for a free hosted Pact Broker.

let pact = require('@pact-foundation/pact-node');
let opts = {
   ...
};

pact.publishPacts(opts)).then(function () {
	// do something
});

Publishing options

Parameter Required Type Description
providerBaseUrl true string Running API provider host endpoint. Required.
pactUrls false array of strings Array of local Pact files or directories containing pact files. Path must be absolute. Required.
pactBroker false string The base URL of the Pact Broker. eg. https://test.pact.dius.com.au. Required.
pactBrokerUsername false string Username for Pact Broker basic authentication. Optional
pactBrokerPassword false string Password for Pact Broker basic authentication. Optional
consumerVersion false string A string containing a semver-style version e.g. 1.0.0. Required.
tags false array of strings Tag your pacts, often used with your branching, release or environment strategy e.g. ['prod', 'test']

Publishing Verification Results to a Pact Broker

If you're using a Pact Broker (e.g. a hosted one at https://pact.dius.com.au), you can publish your verification results so that consumers can query if they are safe to release.

It looks like this:

screenshot of verification result

You need to specify the following when constructing the pact object:

let opts = {
  provider: 'Animal Profile Service',
  ...
  publishVerificationResult: true,
  providerVersion: "1.0.0",
  provider: "Foo",

}

NOTE: You need to be retrieving pacts from the broker for this feature to work.

Matching

Matching makes your tests more expressive making your tests less brittle.

Rather than use hard-coded values which must then be present on the Provider side, you can use regular expressions and type matches on objects and arrays to validate the structure of your APIs.

NOTE: Make sure to start the mock service via the Pact declaration with the option specification: 2 to get access to these features.

Match common formats

Often times, you find yourself having to re-write regular expressions for common formats. We've created a number of them for you to save you the time:

method description
boolean Match a boolean value (using equality)
integer Will match all numbers that are integers (both ints and longs)
decimal Will match all real numbers (floating point and decimal)
hexadecimal Will match all hexadecimal encoded strings
iso8601Date Will match string containing basic ISO8601 dates (e.g. 2016-01-01)
iso8601DateTime Will match string containing ISO 8601 formatted dates (e.g. 2015-08-06T16:53:10+01:00)
iso8601DateTimeWithMillis Will match string containing ISO 8601 formatted dates, enforcing millisecond precision (e.g. 2015-08-06T16:53:10.123+01:00)
rfc3339Timestamp Will match a string containing an RFC3339 formatted timestapm (e.g. Mon, 31 Oct 2016 15:21:41 -0400)
iso8601Time Will match string containing times (e.g. T22:44:30.652Z)
ipv4Address Will match string containing IP4 formatted address
ipv6Address Will match string containing IP6 formatted address
uuid Will match strings containing UUIDs

Match based on type

const { like } = Matchers

provider.addInteraction({
  state: 'Has some animals',
  uponReceiving: 'a request for an animal',
  withRequest: {
    method: 'GET',
    path: '/animals/1'
  },
  willRespondWith: {
    status: 200,
    headers: {
      'Content-Type': 'application/json; charset=utf-8'
    },
    body: {
      id: 1,
      name: like('Billy'),
      address: like({
      	street: '123 Smith St',
	suburb: 'Smithsville',
	postcode: 7777
      })
    }
  }
})

Note that you can wrap a like around a single value or an object. When wrapped around an object, all values and child object values will be matched according to types, unless overridden by something more specific like a term.

Match based on arrays

Matching provides the ability to specify flexible length arrays. For example:

pact.eachLike(obj, { min: 3 })

Where obj can be any javascript object, value or Pact.Match. It takes optional argument ({ min: 3 }) where min is greater than 0 and defaults to 1 if not provided.

Below is an example that uses all of the Pact Matchers.

const { somethingLike: like, term, eachLike } = pact

const animalBodyExpectation = {
  'id': 1,
  'first_name': 'Billy',
  'last_name': 'Goat',
  'animal': 'goat',
  'age': 21,
  'gender': term({
    matcher: 'F|M',
    generate: 'M'
  }),
  'location': {
    'description': 'Melbourne Zoo',
    'country': 'Australia',
    'post_code': 3000
  },
  'eligibility': {
    'available': true,
    'previously_married': false
  },
  'children': eachLike({'name': 'Sally', 'age': 2})
}

// Define animal list payload, reusing existing object matcher
// Note that using eachLike ensure that all values are matched by type
const animalListExpectation = eachLike(animalBodyExpectation, {
  min: MIN_ANIMALS
})

provider.addInteraction({
  state: 'Has some animals',
  uponReceiving: 'a request for all animals',
  withRequest: {
    method: 'GET',
    path: '/animals/available'
  },
  willRespondWith: {
    status: 200,
    headers: {
      'Content-Type': 'application/json; charset=utf-8'
    },
    body: animalListExpectation
  }
})

Match by regular expression

If none of the above matchers or formats work, you can write your own regex matcher.

The underlying mock service is written in Ruby, so the regular expression must be in a Ruby format, not a Javascript format.

const { term } = pact

provider.addInteraction({
  state: 'Has some animals',
  uponReceiving: 'a request for an animal',
  withRequest: {
    method: 'GET',
    path: '/animals/1'
  },
  willRespondWith: {
    status: 200,
    headers: {
      'Content-Type': 'application/json; charset=utf-8'
    },
    body: {
      id: 100,
      name: "billy",
      'gender': term({
        matcher: 'F|M',
        generate: 'F'
      }),
    }
  }
})

Tutorial (60 minutes)

Learn everything in Pact JS in 60 minutes: https://github.com/DiUS/pact-workshop-js

Examples

Using Pact in non-Node environments

Pact requires a Node runtime to be able to start and stop Mock servers, write logs and other things.

However, when used within browser or non-Node based environments - such as with Karma or ng-test - this is not possible.

To address this challenge, we have released a separate 'web' based module for this purpose - pact-web. Whilst it still provides a testing DSL, it cannot start and stop mock servers as per the pact package, so you will need to coordinate this yourself prior to and after executing any tests.

To get started, install pact-web and Pact Node:

npm install --save-dev @pact-foundation/pact-web @pact-foundation/pact-node

If you're not using Karma, you can start and stop the mock server using Pact Node or something like Grunt Pact.

Using Pact with Karma

We have create a plugin for Karma, which will automatically start and stop any Mock Server for your Pact tests.

Modify your karma.conf.js file as per below to get started:

    // Load pact framework - this will start/stop mock server automatically
    frameworks: ['pact'],

    // Load the pact and default karma plugins
    plugins: [
      'karma-*',
      '@pact-foundation/karma-pact'
    ],

    // load pact web module
    files: [
      'node_modules/@pact-foundation/pact-web/pact-web.js',
      ...
    ],

    // Configure the mock service
    pact: [{
      port: 1234,
      consumer: 'KarmaMochaConsumer',
      provider: 'KarmaMochaProvider',
      logLevel: 'DEBUG',
      log: path.resolve(process.cwd(), 'logs', 'pact.log'),
      dir: path.resolve(process.cwd(), 'pacts')
    }],

Check out the Examples for how to use the Karma interface.

Using Pact with RequireJS

The module name should be "Pact" - not "pact-js". An example config with a karma test might look like the following:

In client-spec.js change the define to:

define(['client', 'Pact'], function (example, Pact) {

In test-main.js:

require.config({
    baseUrl: '/base',
    paths: {
        'Pact': 'node_modules/pact-web/pact-web',
        'client': 'js/client'
    },
    deps: allTestFiles,
    callback: window.__karma__.start
})

See this Stack Overflow question for background, and this gist with a working example.

Troubleshooting

If you are having issues, a good place to start is setting logLevel: 'DEBUG' when configuring the new Pact({...}) object.

Parallel tests

Pact tests are inherently stateful, as we need to keep track of the interactions on a per-test basis, to ensure each contract is validated in isolation from others. However, in larger test suites, this can result in slower test execution.

Modern testing frameworks like Ava and Jest support parallel execution out-of-the-box, which

The good news is, parallel test execution is possible, you need to ensure that:

  1. Before any test run invocation, you remove any existing pact files, to prevent invalid / stale interactions being left over from previous test runs
  2. Each test is fully self-contained, with its own mock server on its own port
  3. You set the option pactfileWriteMode to "merge", instructing Pact to merge any pact documents with the same consumer and provider pairing at the end of all test runs.

When all of your tests have completed, the result is the union of the all of the interactions from each test case in the generated pact file.

See the following examples for working parallel tests:

Splitting tests across multiple files

Pact tests tend to be quite long, due to the need to be specific about request/response payloads. Often times it is nicer to be able to split your tests across multiple files for manageability.

You have a number of options to achieve this feat:

  1. Consider implementing the Parallel tests guidelines.

  2. Create a Pact test helper to orchestrate the setup and teardown of the mock service for multiple tests.

    In larger test bases, this can significantly reduce test suite time and the amount of code you have to manage.

    See this example and this issue for more.

  3. Set pactfileWriteMode to merge in the Pact() constructor

    This will allow you to have multiple independent tests for a given Consumer-Provider pair, without it clobbering previous interactions, thereby allowing you to incrementally build up or modify your pact files.

    This feature addresses the use case of "my pact suite takes bloody ages to run, so I just want to replace the interactions that have been run in this test execution" and requires careful management

    NOTE: If using this approach, you must be careful to clear out existing pact files (e.g. rm ./pacts/*.json) before you run tests to ensure you don't have left over requests that are no longer relevent.

    See this PR for background.

Re-run specific verification failures

If you prefix your test command (e.g. npm t) with the following two environment variables, you can selectively run a specific interaction during provider verification.

For the e2e example, let's assume we have the following failure:

3 interactions, 2 failures

Failed interactions:

* A request for all animals given Has some animals

* A request for an animal with id 1 given Has an animal with ID 1

If we wanted to target the second failure, we can extract the description and state as the bits before and after the word "given":

PACT_DESCRIPTION="a request for an animal with ID 1" PACT_PROVIDER_STATE="Has an animal with ID 1" npm t

Also note that PACT_DESCRIPTION is the failing description and PACT_PROVIDER_STATE is the corresponding providerState from the pact file itself.

Timeout

Under the hood, Pact JS spins up a Ruby Mock Service. On some systems, this may take more than a few seconds to start. It is recommended to review your unit testing timeout to ensure it has sufficient time to start the server.

See here for more details.

Note on Jest

Jest uses JSDOM under the hood which may cause issues with libraries making HTTP request.

You'll need to add the following snippet to your package.json to ensure it uses the proper Node environment:

"jest": {
  "testEnvironment": "node"
}

Also, from Jest 20, you can add the environment to the top of the test file as a comment. This will allow your pact test to run along side the rest of your JSDOM env tests.

/**
 * @jest-environment node
 */

Jest also runs tests in parallel by default, which can be problematic with Pact which is stateful. See parallel tests to see how to make it run in parallel, or run Jest with the --runInBand option to run them sequentially.

See this issue for background, and the Jest example for a working example.

Debugging

If your standard tricks don't get you anywhere, setting the logLevel to DEBUG and increasing the timeout doesn't help and you don't know where else to look, it could be that the binaries we use to do much of the Pact magic aren't starting as expected.

Try starting the mock service manually and seeing if it comes up. When submitting a bug report, it would be worth running these commands before hand as it will greatly help us:

./node_modules/@pact-foundation/pact-standalone/platforms/<platform>/bin/pact-mock-service

...and also the verifier (it will whinge about missing params, but that means it works):

./node_modules/@pact-foundation/pact-standalone/platforms/darwin/bin/pact-provider-verifier

Contributing

  1. Fork it
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create new Pull Request

If you would like to implement Pact in another language, please check out the Pact specification and have a chat to one of us on the pact-dev Google group.

The vision is to have a compatible Pact implementation in all the commonly used languages, your help would be greatly appreciated!

Contact

Join us in Slack

or