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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
Implements test support helpers. This module is lazily imported
and usually not used in production environments.
:copyright: (c) 2015 by Armin Ronacher.
:license: BSD, see LICENSE for more details.
import werkzeug
from contextlib import contextmanager
from werkzeug.test import Client, EnvironBuilder
from flask import _request_ctx_stack
from flask.json import dumps as json_dumps
from werkzeug.urls import url_parse
except ImportError:
from urlparse import urlsplit as url_parse
def make_test_environ_builder(
app, path='/', base_url=None, subdomain=None, url_scheme=None,
*args, **kwargs
"""Creates a new test builder with some application defaults thrown in."""
assert (
not (base_url or subdomain or url_scheme)
or (base_url is not None) != bool(subdomain or url_scheme)
), 'Cannot pass "subdomain" or "url_scheme" with "base_url".'
if base_url is None:
http_host = app.config.get('SERVER_NAME') or 'localhost'
app_root = app.config['APPLICATION_ROOT']
if subdomain:
http_host = '{0}.{1}'.format(subdomain, http_host)
if url_scheme is None:
url_scheme = app.config['PREFERRED_URL_SCHEME']
url = url_parse(path)
base_url = '{scheme}://{netloc}/{path}'.format(
scheme=url.scheme or url_scheme,
netloc=url.netloc or http_host,
path = url.path
if url.query:
sep = b'?' if isinstance(url.query, bytes) else '?'
path += sep + url.query
if 'json' in kwargs:
assert 'data' not in kwargs, (
"Client cannot provide both 'json' and 'data'."
# push a context so flask.json can use app's json attributes
with app.app_context():
kwargs['data'] = json_dumps(kwargs.pop('json'))
if 'content_type' not in kwargs:
kwargs['content_type'] = 'application/json'
return EnvironBuilder(path, base_url, *args, **kwargs)
class FlaskClient(Client):
"""Works like a regular Werkzeug test client but has some knowledge about
how Flask works to defer the cleanup of the request context stack to the
end of a ``with`` body when used in a ``with`` statement. For general
information about how to use this class refer to
.. versionchanged:: 0.12
`app.test_client()` includes preset default environment, which can be
set after instantiation of the `app.test_client()` object in
Basic usage is outlined in the :ref:`testing` chapter.
preserve_context = False
def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
super(FlaskClient, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
self.environ_base = {
"HTTP_USER_AGENT": "werkzeug/" + werkzeug.__version__
def session_transaction(self, *args, **kwargs):
"""When used in combination with a ``with`` statement this opens a
session transaction. This can be used to modify the session that
the test client uses. Once the ``with`` block is left the session is
stored back.
with client.session_transaction() as session:
session['value'] = 42
Internally this is implemented by going through a temporary test
request context and since session handling could depend on
request variables this function accepts the same arguments as
:meth:`~flask.Flask.test_request_context` which are directly
passed through.
if self.cookie_jar is None:
raise RuntimeError('Session transactions only make sense '
'with cookies enabled.')
app = self.application
environ_overrides = kwargs.setdefault('environ_overrides', {})
outer_reqctx =
with app.test_request_context(*args, **kwargs) as c:
session_interface = app.session_interface
sess = session_interface.open_session(app, c.request)
if sess is None:
raise RuntimeError('Session backend did not open a session. '
'Check the configuration')
# Since we have to open a new request context for the session
# handling we want to make sure that we hide out own context
# from the caller. By pushing the original request context
# (or None) on top of this and popping it we get exactly that
# behavior. It's important to not use the push and pop
# methods of the actual request context object since that would
# mean that cleanup handlers are called
yield sess
resp = app.response_class()
if not session_interface.is_null_session(sess):
session_interface.save_session(app, sess, resp)
headers = resp.get_wsgi_headers(c.request.environ)
self.cookie_jar.extract_wsgi(c.request.environ, headers)
def open(self, *args, **kwargs):
as_tuple = kwargs.pop('as_tuple', False)
buffered = kwargs.pop('buffered', False)
follow_redirects = kwargs.pop('follow_redirects', False)
if (
not kwargs and len(args) == 1
and isinstance(args[0], (EnvironBuilder, dict))
environ = self.environ_base.copy()
if isinstance(args[0], EnvironBuilder):
environ['flask._preserve_context'] = self.preserve_context
kwargs.setdefault('environ_overrides', {}) \
['flask._preserve_context'] = self.preserve_context
kwargs.setdefault('environ_base', self.environ_base)
builder = make_test_environ_builder(
self.application, *args, **kwargs
environ = builder.get_environ()
self, environ,
def __enter__(self):
if self.preserve_context:
raise RuntimeError('Cannot nest client invocations')
self.preserve_context = True
return self
def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, tb):
self.preserve_context = False
# on exit we want to clean up earlier. Normally the request context
# stays preserved until the next request in the same thread comes
# in. See RequestGlobals.push() for the general behavior.
top =
if top is not None and top.preserved: