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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
This module provides class-based views inspired by the ones in Django.
:copyright: © 2010 by the Pallets team.
:license: BSD, see LICENSE for more details.
from .globals import request
from ._compat import with_metaclass
http_method_funcs = frozenset(['get', 'post', 'head', 'options',
'delete', 'put', 'trace', 'patch'])
class View(object):
"""Alternative way to use view functions. A subclass has to implement
:meth:`dispatch_request` which is called with the view arguments from
the URL routing system. If :attr:`methods` is provided the methods
do not have to be passed to the :meth:`~flask.Flask.add_url_rule`
method explicitly::
class MyView(View):
methods = ['GET']
def dispatch_request(self, name):
return 'Hello %s!' % name
app.add_url_rule('/hello/<name>', view_func=MyView.as_view('myview'))
When you want to decorate a pluggable view you will have to either do that
when the view function is created (by wrapping the return value of
:meth:`as_view`) or you can use the :attr:`decorators` attribute::
class SecretView(View):
methods = ['GET']
decorators = [superuser_required]
def dispatch_request(self):
The decorators stored in the decorators list are applied one after another
when the view function is created. Note that you can *not* use the class
based decorators since those would decorate the view class and not the
generated view function!
#: A list of methods this view can handle.
methods = None
#: Setting this disables or force-enables the automatic options handling.
provide_automatic_options = None
#: The canonical way to decorate class-based views is to decorate the
#: return value of as_view(). However since this moves parts of the
#: logic from the class declaration to the place where it's hooked
#: into the routing system.
#: You can place one or more decorators in this list and whenever the
#: view function is created the result is automatically decorated.
#: .. versionadded:: 0.8
decorators = ()
def dispatch_request(self):
"""Subclasses have to override this method to implement the
actual view function code. This method is called with all
the arguments from the URL rule.
raise NotImplementedError()
def as_view(cls, name, *class_args, **class_kwargs):
"""Converts the class into an actual view function that can be used
with the routing system. Internally this generates a function on the
fly which will instantiate the :class:`View` on each request and call
the :meth:`dispatch_request` method on it.
The arguments passed to :meth:`as_view` are forwarded to the
constructor of the class.
def view(*args, **kwargs):
self = view.view_class(*class_args, **class_kwargs)
return self.dispatch_request(*args, **kwargs)
if cls.decorators:
view.__name__ = name
view.__module__ = cls.__module__
for decorator in cls.decorators:
view = decorator(view)
# We attach the view class to the view function for two reasons:
# first of all it allows us to easily figure out what class-based
# view this thing came from, secondly it's also used for instantiating
# the view class so you can actually replace it with something else
# for testing purposes and debugging.
view.view_class = cls
view.__name__ = name
view.__doc__ = cls.__doc__
view.__module__ = cls.__module__
view.methods = cls.methods
view.provide_automatic_options = cls.provide_automatic_options
return view
class MethodViewType(type):
"""Metaclass for :class:`MethodView` that determines what methods the view
def __init__(cls, name, bases, d):
super(MethodViewType, cls).__init__(name, bases, d)
if 'methods' not in d:
methods = set()
for key in http_method_funcs:
if hasattr(cls, key):
# If we have no method at all in there we don't want to add a
# method list. This is for instance the case for the base class
# or another subclass of a base method view that does not introduce
# new methods.
if methods:
cls.methods = methods
class MethodView(with_metaclass(MethodViewType, View)):
"""A class-based view that dispatches request methods to the corresponding
class methods. For example, if you implement a ``get`` method, it will be
used to handle ``GET`` requests. ::
class CounterAPI(MethodView):
def get(self):
return session.get('counter', 0)
def post(self):
session['counter'] = session.get('counter', 0) + 1
return 'OK'
app.add_url_rule('/counter', view_func=CounterAPI.as_view('counter'))
def dispatch_request(self, *args, **kwargs):
meth = getattr(self, request.method.lower(), None)
# If the request method is HEAD and we don't have a handler for it
# retry with GET.
if meth is None and request.method == 'HEAD':
meth = getattr(self, 'get', None)
assert meth is not None, 'Unimplemented method %r' % request.method
return meth(*args, **kwargs)