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.. module:: jinja2
    :synopsis: public Jinja2 API

This document describes the API to Jinja2 and not the template language. It will be most useful as reference to those implementing the template interface to the application and not those who are creating Jinja2 templates.


Jinja2 uses a central object called the template :class:`Environment`. Instances of this class are used to store the configuration and global objects, and are used to load templates from the file system or other locations. Even if you are creating templates from strings by using the constructor of :class:`Template` class, an environment is created automatically for you, albeit a shared one.

Most applications will create one :class:`Environment` object on application initialization and use that to load templates. In some cases however, it's useful to have multiple environments side by side, if different configurations are in use.

The simplest way to configure Jinja2 to load templates for your application looks roughly like this:

from jinja2 import Environment, PackageLoader, select_autoescape
env = Environment(
    loader=PackageLoader('yourapplication', 'templates'),
    autoescape=select_autoescape(['html', 'xml'])

This will create a template environment with the default settings and a loader that looks up the templates in the templates folder inside the yourapplication python package. Different loaders are available and you can also write your own if you want to load templates from a database or other resources. This also enables autoescaping for HTML and XML files.

To load a template from this environment you just have to call the :meth:`get_template` method which then returns the loaded :class:`Template`:

template = env.get_template('mytemplate.html')

To render it with some variables, just call the :meth:`render` method:

print template.render(the='variables', go='here')

Using a template loader rather than passing strings to :class:`Template` or :meth:`Environment.from_string` has multiple advantages. Besides being a lot easier to use it also enables template inheritance.

Notes on Autoescaping

In future versions of Jinja2 we might enable autoescaping by default for security reasons. As such you are encouraged to explicitly configure autoescaping now instead of relying on the default.


Jinja2 is using Unicode internally which means that you have to pass Unicode objects to the render function or bytestrings that only consist of ASCII characters. Additionally newlines are normalized to one end of line sequence which is per default UNIX style (\n).

Python 2.x supports two ways of representing string objects. One is the str type and the other is the unicode type, both of which extend a type called basestring. Unfortunately the default is str which should not be used to store text based information unless only ASCII characters are used. With Python 2.6 it is possible to make unicode the default on a per module level and with Python 3 it will be the default.

To explicitly use a Unicode string you have to prefix the string literal with a u: u'Hänsel und Gretel sagen Hallo'. That way Python will store the string as Unicode by decoding the string with the character encoding from the current Python module. If no encoding is specified this defaults to 'ASCII' which means that you can't use any non ASCII identifier.

To set a better module encoding add the following comment to the first or second line of the Python module using the Unicode literal:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

We recommend utf-8 as Encoding for Python modules and templates as it's possible to represent every Unicode character in utf-8 and because it's backwards compatible to ASCII. For Jinja2 the default encoding of templates is assumed to be utf-8.

It is not possible to use Jinja2 to process non-Unicode data. The reason for this is that Jinja2 uses Unicode already on the language level. For example Jinja2 treats the non-breaking space as valid whitespace inside expressions which requires knowledge of the encoding or operating on an Unicode string.

For more details about Unicode in Python have a look at the excellent Unicode documentation.

Another important thing is how Jinja2 is handling string literals in templates. A naive implementation would be using Unicode strings for all string literals but it turned out in the past that this is problematic as some libraries are typechecking against str explicitly. For example datetime.strftime does not accept Unicode arguments. To not break it completely Jinja2 is returning str for strings that fit into ASCII and for everything else unicode:

>>> m = Template(u"{% set a, b = 'foo', 'föö' %}").module
>>> m.a
>>> m.b

High Level API

The high-level API is the API you will use in the application to load and render Jinja2 templates. The :ref:`low-level-api` on the other side is only useful if you want to dig deeper into Jinja2 or :ref:`develop extensions <jinja-extensions>`.

.. autoclass:: Environment([options])
    :members: from_string, get_template, select_template,
              get_or_select_template, join_path, extend, compile_expression,
              compile_templates, list_templates, add_extension

    .. attribute:: shared

        If a template was created by using the :class:`Template` constructor
        an environment is created automatically.  These environments are
        created as shared environments which means that multiple templates
        may have the same anonymous environment.  For all shared environments
        this attribute is `True`, else `False`.

    .. attribute:: sandboxed

        If the environment is sandboxed this attribute is `True`.  For the
        sandbox mode have a look at the documentation for the

    .. attribute:: filters

        A dict of filters for this environment.  As long as no template was
        loaded it's safe to add new filters or remove old.  For custom filters
        see :ref:`writing-filters`.  For valid filter names have a look at

    .. attribute:: tests

        A dict of test functions for this environment.  As long as no
        template was loaded it's safe to modify this dict.  For custom tests
        see :ref:`writing-tests`.  For valid test names have a look at

    .. attribute:: globals

        A dict of global variables.  These variables are always available
        in a template.  As long as no template was loaded it's safe
        to modify this dict.  For more details see :ref:`global-namespace`.
        For valid object names have a look at :ref:`identifier-naming`.

    .. attribute:: policies

        A dictionary with :ref:`policies`.  These can be reconfigured to
        change the runtime behavior or certain template features.  Usually
        these are security related.

    .. attribute:: code_generator_class

       The class used for code generation.  This should not be changed
       in most cases, unless you need to modify the Python code a
       template compiles to.

    .. attribute:: context_class

       The context used for templates.  This should not be changed
       in most cases, unless you need to modify internals of how
       template variables are handled.  For details, see

    .. automethod:: overlay([options])

    .. method:: undefined([hint, obj, name, exc])

        Creates a new :class:`Undefined` object for `name`.  This is useful
        for filters or functions that may return undefined objects for
        some operations.  All parameters except of `hint` should be provided
        as keyword parameters for better readability.  The `hint` is used as
        error message for the exception if provided, otherwise the error
        message will be generated from `obj` and `name` automatically.  The exception
        provided as `exc` is raised if something with the generated undefined
        object is done that the undefined object does not allow.  The default
        exception is :exc:`UndefinedError`.  If a `hint` is provided the
        `name` may be omitted.

        The most common way to create an undefined object is by providing
        a name only::

            return environment.undefined(name='some_name')

        This means that the name `some_name` is not defined.  If the name
        was from an attribute of an object it makes sense to tell the
        undefined object the holder object to improve the error message::

            if not hasattr(obj, 'attr'):
                return environment.undefined(obj=obj, name='attr')

        For a more complex example you can provide a hint.  For example
        the :func:`first` filter creates an undefined object that way::

            return environment.undefined('no first item, sequence was empty')

        If it the `name` or `obj` is known (for example because an attribute
        was accessed) it should be passed to the undefined object, even if
        a custom `hint` is provided.  This gives undefined objects the
        possibility to enhance the error message.

.. autoclass:: Template
    :members: module, make_module

    .. attribute:: globals

        The dict with the globals of that template.  It's unsafe to modify
        this dict as it may be shared with other templates or the environment
        that loaded the template.

    .. attribute:: name

        The loading name of the template.  If the template was loaded from a
        string this is `None`.

    .. attribute:: filename

        The filename of the template on the file system if it was loaded from
        there.  Otherwise this is `None`.

    .. automethod:: render([context])

    .. automethod:: generate([context])

    .. automethod:: stream([context])

    .. automethod:: render_async([context])

    .. automethod:: generate_async([context])

.. autoclass:: jinja2.environment.TemplateStream()
    :members: disable_buffering, enable_buffering, dump


.. versionchanged:: 2.4

Jinja2 now comes with autoescaping support. As of Jinja 2.9 the autoescape extension is removed and built-in. However autoescaping is not yet enabled by default though this will most likely change in the future. It's recommended to configure a sensible default for autoescaping. This makes it possible to enable and disable autoescaping on a per-template basis (HTML versus text for instance).

.. autofunction:: jinja2.select_autoescape

Here a recommended setup that enables autoescaping for templates ending in '.html', '.htm' and '.xml' and disabling it by default for all other extensions. You can use the :func:`~jinja2.select_autoescape` function for this:

from jinja2 import Environment, select_autoescape
env = Environment(autoescape=select_autoescape(['html', 'htm', 'xml']),

The :func:`~jinja.select_autoescape` function returns a function that works rougly like this:

def autoescape(template_name):
    if template_name is None:
        return False
    if template_name.endswith(('.html', '.htm', '.xml'))

When implementing a guessing autoescape function, make sure you also accept None as valid template name. This will be passed when generating templates from strings. You should always configure autoescaping as defaults in the future might change.

Inside the templates the behaviour can be temporarily changed by using the autoescape block (see :ref:`autoescape-overrides`).

Notes on Identifiers

Jinja2 uses the regular Python 2.x naming rules. Valid identifiers have to match [a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z0-9_]*. As a matter of fact non ASCII characters are currently not allowed. This limitation will probably go away as soon as unicode identifiers are fully specified for Python 3.

Filters and tests are looked up in separate namespaces and have slightly modified identifier syntax. Filters and tests may contain dots to group filters and tests by topic. For example it's perfectly valid to add a function into the filter dict and call it to.unicode. The regular expression for filter and test identifiers is [a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z0-9_]*(\.[a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z0-9_]*)*`.

Undefined Types

These classes can be used as undefined types. The :class:`Environment` constructor takes an undefined parameter that can be one of those classes or a custom subclass of :class:`Undefined`. Whenever the template engine is unable to look up a name or access an attribute one of those objects is created and returned. Some operations on undefined values are then allowed, others fail.

The closest to regular Python behavior is the StrictUndefined which disallows all operations beside testing if it's an undefined object.

.. autoclass:: jinja2.Undefined()

    .. attribute:: _undefined_hint

        Either `None` or an unicode string with the error message for
        the undefined object.

    .. attribute:: _undefined_obj

        Either `None` or the owner object that caused the undefined object
        to be created (for example because an attribute does not exist).

    .. attribute:: _undefined_name

        The name for the undefined variable / attribute or just `None`
        if no such information exists.

    .. attribute:: _undefined_exception

        The exception that the undefined object wants to raise.  This
        is usually one of :exc:`UndefinedError` or :exc:`SecurityError`.

    .. method:: _fail_with_undefined_error(\*args, \**kwargs)

        When called with any arguments this method raises
        :attr:`_undefined_exception` with an error message generated
        from the undefined hints stored on the undefined object.

.. autoclass:: jinja2.DebugUndefined()

.. autoclass:: jinja2.StrictUndefined()

There is also a factory function that can decorate undefined objects to implement logging on failures:

.. autofunction:: jinja2.make_logging_undefined

Undefined objects are created by calling :attr:`undefined`.


:class:`Undefined` objects are implemented by overriding the special __underscore__ methods. For example the default :class:`Undefined` class implements __unicode__ in a way that it returns an empty string, however __int__ and others still fail with an exception. To allow conversion to int by returning 0 you can implement your own:

class NullUndefined(Undefined):
    def __int__(self):
        return 0
    def __float__(self):
        return 0.0

To disallow a method, just override it and raise :attr:`~Undefined._undefined_exception`. Because this is a very common idom in undefined objects there is the helper method :meth:`~Undefined._fail_with_undefined_error` that does the error raising automatically. Here a class that works like the regular :class:`Undefined` but chokes on iteration:

class NonIterableUndefined(Undefined):
    __iter__ = Undefined._fail_with_undefined_error

The Context

.. autoclass:: jinja2.runtime.Context()
    :members: resolve, get_exported, get_all

    .. attribute:: parent

        A dict of read only, global variables the template looks up.  These
        can either come from another :class:`Context`, from the
        :attr:`Environment.globals` or :attr:`Template.globals` or points
        to a dict created by combining the globals with the variables
        passed to the render function.  It must not be altered.

    .. attribute:: vars

        The template local variables.  This list contains environment and
        context functions from the :attr:`parent` scope as well as local
        modifications and exported variables from the template.  The template
        will modify this dict during template evaluation but filters and
        context functions are not allowed to modify it.

    .. attribute:: environment

        The environment that loaded the template.

    .. attribute:: exported_vars

        This set contains all the names the template exports.  The values for
        the names are in the :attr:`vars` dict.  In order to get a copy of the
        exported variables as dict, :meth:`get_exported` can be used.

    .. attribute:: name

        The load name of the template owning this context.

    .. attribute:: blocks

        A dict with the current mapping of blocks in the template.  The keys
        in this dict are the names of the blocks, and the values a list of
        blocks registered.  The last item in each list is the current active
        block (latest in the inheritance chain).

    .. attribute:: eval_ctx

        The current :ref:`eval-context`.

    .. automethod::, \*args, \**kwargs)


Context is immutable for the same reason Python's frame locals are immutable inside functions. Both Jinja2 and Python are not using the context / frame locals as data storage for variables but only as primary data source.

When a template accesses a variable the template does not define, Jinja2 looks up the variable in the context, after that the variable is treated as if it was defined in the template.


Loaders are responsible for loading templates from a resource such as the file system. The environment will keep the compiled modules in memory like Python's sys.modules. Unlike sys.modules however this cache is limited in size by default and templates are automatically reloaded. All loaders are subclasses of :class:`BaseLoader`. If you want to create your own loader, subclass :class:`BaseLoader` and override get_source.

.. autoclass:: jinja2.BaseLoader
    :members: get_source, load

Here a list of the builtin loaders Jinja2 provides:

.. autoclass:: jinja2.FileSystemLoader

.. autoclass:: jinja2.PackageLoader

.. autoclass:: jinja2.DictLoader

.. autoclass:: jinja2.FunctionLoader

.. autoclass:: jinja2.PrefixLoader

.. autoclass:: jinja2.ChoiceLoader

.. autoclass:: jinja2.ModuleLoader

Bytecode Cache

Jinja 2.1 and higher support external bytecode caching. Bytecode caches make it possible to store the generated bytecode on the file system or a different location to avoid parsing the templates on first use.

This is especially useful if you have a web application that is initialized on the first request and Jinja compiles many templates at once which slows down the application.

To use a bytecode cache, instantiate it and pass it to the :class:`Environment`.

.. autoclass:: jinja2.BytecodeCache
    :members: load_bytecode, dump_bytecode, clear

.. autoclass:: jinja2.bccache.Bucket
    :members: write_bytecode, load_bytecode, bytecode_from_string,
              bytecode_to_string, reset

    .. attribute:: environment

        The :class:`Environment` that created the bucket.

    .. attribute:: key

        The unique cache key for this bucket

    .. attribute:: code

        The bytecode if it's loaded, otherwise `None`.

Builtin bytecode caches:

.. autoclass:: jinja2.FileSystemBytecodeCache

.. autoclass:: jinja2.MemcachedBytecodeCache

Async Support

Starting with version 2.9, Jinja2 also supports the Python async and await constructs. As far as template designers go this feature is entirely opaque to them however as a developer you should be aware of how it's implemented as it influences what type of APIs you can safely expose to the template environment.

First you need to be aware that by default async support is disabled as enabling it will generate different template code behind the scenes which passes everything through the asyncio event loop. This is important to understand because it has some impact to what you are doing:

  • template rendering will require an event loop to be set for the current thread (asyncio.get_event_loop needs to return one)
  • all template generation code internally runs async generators which means that you will pay a performance penalty even if the non sync methods are used!
  • The sync methods are based on async methods if the async mode is enabled which means that render for instance will internally invoke render_async and run it as part of the current event loop until the execution finished.

Awaitable objects can be returned from functions in templates and any function call in a template will automatically await the result. This means that you can let provide a method that asynchronously loads data from a database if you so desire and from the template designer's point of view this is just another function they can call. This means that the await you would normally issue in Python is implied. However this only applies to function calls. If an attribute for instance would be an avaitable object then this would not result in the expected behavior.

Likewise iterations with a for loop support async iterators.


Starting with Jinja 2.9 policies can be configured on the environment which can slightly influence how filters and other template constructs behave. They can be configured with the :attr:`~jinja2.Environment.policies` attribute.


env.policies['urlize.rel'] = 'nofollow noopener'
This boolean controls on Python 2 if Jinja2 should store ASCII only literals as bytestring instead of unicode strings. This used to be always enabled for Jinja versions below 2.9 and now can be changed. Traditionally it was done this way since some APIs in Python 2 failed badly for unicode strings (for instance the datetime strftime API). Now however sometimes the inverse is true (for instance str.format). If this is set to False then all strings are stored as unicode internally.
Configures the leeway default for the truncate filter. Leeway as introduced in 2.9 but to restore compatibility with older templates it can be configured to 0 to get the old behavior back. The default is 5.
A string that defines the items for the rel attribute of generated links with the urlize filter. These items are always added. The default is noopener.
The default target that is issued for links from the urlize filter if no other target is defined by the call explicitly.
If this is set to a value other than None then the tojson filter will dump with this function instead of the default one. Note that this function should accept arbitrary extra arguments which might be passed in the future from the filter. Currently the only argument that might be passed is indent. The default dump function is json.dumps.
Keyword arguments to be passed to the dump function. The default is {'sort_keys': True}.
If this is set to True, {% trans %} blocks of the :ref:`i18n-extension` will always unify linebreaks and surrounding whitespace as if the trimmed modifier was used.


These helper functions and classes are useful if you add custom filters or functions to a Jinja2 environment.

.. autofunction:: jinja2.environmentfilter

.. autofunction:: jinja2.contextfilter

.. autofunction:: jinja2.evalcontextfilter

.. autofunction:: jinja2.environmentfunction

.. autofunction:: jinja2.contextfunction

.. autofunction:: jinja2.evalcontextfunction

.. function:: escape(s)

    Convert the characters ``&``, ``<``, ``>``, ``'``, and ``"`` in string `s`
    to HTML-safe sequences.  Use this if you need to display text that might
    contain such characters in HTML.  This function will not escaped objects
    that do have an HTML representation such as already escaped data.

    The return value is a :class:`Markup` string.

.. autofunction:: jinja2.clear_caches

.. autofunction:: jinja2.is_undefined

.. autoclass:: jinja2.Markup([string])
    :members: escape, unescape, striptags


The Jinja2 :class:`Markup` class is compatible with at least Pylons and Genshi. It's expected that more template engines and framework will pick up the __html__ concept soon.


.. autoexception:: jinja2.TemplateError

.. autoexception:: jinja2.UndefinedError

.. autoexception:: jinja2.TemplateNotFound

.. autoexception:: jinja2.TemplatesNotFound

.. autoexception:: jinja2.TemplateSyntaxError

    .. attribute:: message

        The error message as utf-8 bytestring.

    .. attribute:: lineno

        The line number where the error occurred

    .. attribute:: name

        The load name for the template as unicode string.

    .. attribute:: filename

        The filename that loaded the template as bytestring in the encoding
        of the file system (most likely utf-8 or mbcs on Windows systems).

    The reason why the filename and error message are bytestrings and not
    unicode strings is that Python 2.x is not using unicode for exceptions
    and tracebacks as well as the compiler.  This will change with Python 3.

.. autoexception:: jinja2.TemplateRuntimeError

.. autoexception:: jinja2.TemplateAssertionError

Custom Filters

Custom filters are just regular Python functions that take the left side of the filter as first argument and the arguments passed to the filter as extra arguments or keyword arguments.

For example in the filter {{ 42|myfilter(23) }} the function would be called with myfilter(42, 23). Here for example a simple filter that can be applied to datetime objects to format them:

def datetimeformat(value, format='%H:%M / %d-%m-%Y'):
    return value.strftime(format)

You can register it on the template environment by updating the :attr:`~Environment.filters` dict on the environment:

environment.filters['datetimeformat'] = datetimeformat

Inside the template it can then be used as follows:

written on: {{ article.pub_date|datetimeformat }}
publication date: {{ article.pub_date|datetimeformat('%d-%m-%Y') }}

Filters can also be passed the current template context or environment. This is useful if a filter wants to return an undefined value or check the current :attr:`~Environment.autoescape` setting. For this purpose three decorators exist: :func:`environmentfilter`, :func:`contextfilter` and :func:`evalcontextfilter`.

Here a small example filter that breaks a text into HTML line breaks and paragraphs and marks the return value as safe HTML string if autoescaping is enabled:

import re
from jinja2 import evalcontextfilter, Markup, escape

_paragraph_re = re.compile(r'(?:\r\n|\r|\n){2,}')

def nl2br(eval_ctx, value):
    result = u'\n\n'.join(u'<p>%s</p>' % p.replace('\n', Markup('<br>\n'))
                          for p in _paragraph_re.split(escape(value)))
    if eval_ctx.autoescape:
        result = Markup(result)
    return result

Context filters work the same just that the first argument is the current active :class:`Context` rather than the environment.

Evaluation Context

The evaluation context (short eval context or eval ctx) is a new object introduced in Jinja 2.4 that makes it possible to activate and deactivate compiled features at runtime.

Currently it is only used to enable and disable the automatic escaping but can be used for extensions as well.

In previous Jinja versions filters and functions were marked as environment callables in order to check for the autoescape status from the environment. In new versions it's encouraged to check the setting from the evaluation context instead.

Previous versions:

def filter(env, value):
    result = do_something(value)
    if env.autoescape:
        result = Markup(result)
    return result

In new versions you can either use a :func:`contextfilter` and access the evaluation context from the actual context, or use a :func:`evalcontextfilter` which directly passes the evaluation context to the function:

def filter(context, value):
    result = do_something(value)
    if context.eval_ctx.autoescape:
        result = Markup(result)
    return result

def filter(eval_ctx, value):
    result = do_something(value)
    if eval_ctx.autoescape:
        result = Markup(result)
    return result

The evaluation context must not be modified at runtime. Modifications must only happen with a :class:`nodes.EvalContextModifier` and :class:`nodes.ScopedEvalContextModifier` from an extension, not on the eval context object itself.

.. autoclass:: jinja2.nodes.EvalContext

   .. attribute:: autoescape

      `True` or `False` depending on if autoescaping is active or not.

   .. attribute:: volatile

      `True` if the compiler cannot evaluate some expressions at compile
      time.  At runtime this should always be `False`.

Custom Tests

Tests work like filters just that there is no way for a test to get access to the environment or context and that they can't be chained. The return value of a test should be True or False. The purpose of a test is to give the template designers the possibility to perform type and conformability checks.

Here a simple test that checks if a variable is a prime number:

import math

def is_prime(n):
    if n == 2:
        return True
    for i in xrange(2, int(math.ceil(math.sqrt(n))) + 1):
        if n % i == 0:
            return False
    return True

You can register it on the template environment by updating the :attr:`~Environment.tests` dict on the environment:

environment.tests['prime'] = is_prime

A template designer can then use the test like this:

{% if 42 is prime %}
    42 is a prime number
{% else %}
    42 is not a prime number
{% endif %}

The Global Namespace

Variables stored in the :attr:`Environment.globals` dict are special as they are available for imported templates too, even if they are imported without context. This is the place where you can put variables and functions that should be available all the time. Additionally :attr:`Template.globals` exist that are variables available to a specific template that are available to all :meth:`~Template.render` calls.

Low Level API

The low level API exposes functionality that can be useful to understand some implementation details, debugging purposes or advanced :ref:`extension <jinja-extensions>` techniques. Unless you know exactly what you are doing we don't recommend using any of those.

.. automethod:: Environment.lex

.. automethod:: Environment.parse

.. automethod:: Environment.preprocess

.. automethod:: Template.new_context

.. method:: Template.root_render_func(context)

    This is the low level render function.  It's passed a :class:`Context`
    that has to be created by :meth:`new_context` of the same template or
    a compatible template.  This render function is generated by the
    compiler from the template code and returns a generator that yields
    unicode strings.

    If an exception in the template code happens the template engine will
    not rewrite the exception but pass through the original one.  As a
    matter of fact this function should only be called from within a
    :meth:`render` / :meth:`generate` / :meth:`stream` call.

.. attribute:: Template.blocks

    A dict of block render functions.  Each of these functions works exactly
    like the :meth:`root_render_func` with the same limitations.

.. attribute:: Template.is_up_to_date

    This attribute is `False` if there is a newer version of the template
    available, otherwise `True`.


The low-level API is fragile. Future Jinja2 versions will try not to change it in a backwards incompatible way but modifications in the Jinja2 core may shine through. For example if Jinja2 introduces a new AST node in later versions that may be returned by :meth:`~Environment.parse`.

The Meta API

.. versionadded:: 2.2

The meta API returns some information about abstract syntax trees that could help applications to implement more advanced template concepts. All the functions of the meta API operate on an abstract syntax tree as returned by the :meth:`Environment.parse` method.

.. autofunction:: jinja2.meta.find_undeclared_variables

.. autofunction:: jinja2.meta.find_referenced_templates