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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
This module implements the bytecode cache system Jinja is optionally
using. This is useful if you have very complex template situations and
the compiliation of all those templates slow down your application too
Situations where this is useful are often forking web applications that
are initialized on the first request.
:copyright: (c) 2017 by the Jinja Team.
:license: BSD.
from os import path, listdir
import os
import sys
import stat
import errno
import marshal
import tempfile
import fnmatch
from hashlib import sha1
from jinja2.utils import open_if_exists
from jinja2._compat import BytesIO, pickle, PY2, text_type
# marshal works better on 3.x, one hack less required
if not PY2:
marshal_dump = marshal.dump
marshal_load = marshal.load
def marshal_dump(code, f):
if isinstance(f, file):
marshal.dump(code, f)
def marshal_load(f):
if isinstance(f, file):
return marshal.load(f)
return marshal.loads(
bc_version = 3
# magic version used to only change with new jinja versions. With 2.6
# we change this to also take Python version changes into account. The
# reason for this is that Python tends to segfault if fed earlier bytecode
# versions because someone thought it would be a good idea to reuse opcodes
# or make Python incompatible with earlier versions.
bc_magic = 'j2'.encode('ascii') + \
pickle.dumps(bc_version, 2) + \
pickle.dumps((sys.version_info[0] << 24) | sys.version_info[1])
class Bucket(object):
"""Buckets are used to store the bytecode for one template. It's created
and initialized by the bytecode cache and passed to the loading functions.
The buckets get an internal checksum from the cache assigned and use this
to automatically reject outdated cache material. Individual bytecode
cache subclasses don't have to care about cache invalidation.
def __init__(self, environment, key, checksum):
self.environment = environment
self.key = key
self.checksum = checksum
def reset(self):
"""Resets the bucket (unloads the bytecode)."""
self.code = None
def load_bytecode(self, f):
"""Loads bytecode from a file or file like object."""
# make sure the magic header is correct
magic =
if magic != bc_magic:
# the source code of the file changed, we need to reload
checksum = pickle.load(f)
if self.checksum != checksum:
# if marshal_load fails then we need to reload
self.code = marshal_load(f)
except (EOFError, ValueError, TypeError):
def write_bytecode(self, f):
"""Dump the bytecode into the file or file like object passed."""
if self.code is None:
raise TypeError('can\'t write empty bucket')
pickle.dump(self.checksum, f, 2)
marshal_dump(self.code, f)
def bytecode_from_string(self, string):
"""Load bytecode from a string."""
def bytecode_to_string(self):
"""Return the bytecode as string."""
out = BytesIO()
return out.getvalue()
class BytecodeCache(object):
"""To implement your own bytecode cache you have to subclass this class
and override :meth:`load_bytecode` and :meth:`dump_bytecode`. Both of
these methods are passed a :class:`~jinja2.bccache.Bucket`.
A very basic bytecode cache that saves the bytecode on the file system::
from os import path
class MyCache(BytecodeCache):
def __init__(self, directory): = directory
def load_bytecode(self, bucket):
filename = path.join(, bucket.key)
if path.exists(filename):
with open(filename, 'rb') as f:
def dump_bytecode(self, bucket):
filename = path.join(, bucket.key)
with open(filename, 'wb') as f:
A more advanced version of a filesystem based bytecode cache is part of
def load_bytecode(self, bucket):
"""Subclasses have to override this method to load bytecode into a
bucket. If they are not able to find code in the cache for the
bucket, it must not do anything.
raise NotImplementedError()
def dump_bytecode(self, bucket):
"""Subclasses have to override this method to write the bytecode
from a bucket back to the cache. If it unable to do so it must not
fail silently but raise an exception.
raise NotImplementedError()
def clear(self):
"""Clears the cache. This method is not used by Jinja2 but should be
implemented to allow applications to clear the bytecode cache used
by a particular environment.
def get_cache_key(self, name, filename=None):
"""Returns the unique hash key for this template name."""
hash = sha1(name.encode('utf-8'))
if filename is not None:
filename = '|' + filename
if isinstance(filename, text_type):
filename = filename.encode('utf-8')
return hash.hexdigest()
def get_source_checksum(self, source):
"""Returns a checksum for the source."""
return sha1(source.encode('utf-8')).hexdigest()
def get_bucket(self, environment, name, filename, source):
"""Return a cache bucket for the given template. All arguments are
mandatory but filename may be `None`.
key = self.get_cache_key(name, filename)
checksum = self.get_source_checksum(source)
bucket = Bucket(environment, key, checksum)
return bucket
def set_bucket(self, bucket):
"""Put the bucket into the cache."""
class FileSystemBytecodeCache(BytecodeCache):
"""A bytecode cache that stores bytecode on the filesystem. It accepts
two arguments: The directory where the cache items are stored and a
pattern string that is used to build the filename.
If no directory is specified a default cache directory is selected. On
Windows the user's temp directory is used, on UNIX systems a directory
is created for the user in the system temp directory.
The pattern can be used to have multiple separate caches operate on the
same directory. The default pattern is ``'__jinja2_%s.cache'``. ``%s``
is replaced with the cache key.
>>> bcc = FileSystemBytecodeCache('/tmp/jinja_cache', '%s.cache')
This bytecode cache supports clearing of the cache using the clear method.
def __init__(self, directory=None, pattern='__jinja2_%s.cache'):
if directory is None:
directory = self._get_default_cache_dir() = directory
self.pattern = pattern
def _get_default_cache_dir(self):
def _unsafe_dir():
raise RuntimeError('Cannot determine safe temp directory. You '
'need to explicitly provide one.')
tmpdir = tempfile.gettempdir()
# On windows the temporary directory is used specific unless
# explicitly forced otherwise. We can just use that.
if == 'nt':
return tmpdir
if not hasattr(os, 'getuid'):
dirname = '_jinja2-cache-%d' % os.getuid()
actual_dir = os.path.join(tmpdir, dirname)
os.mkdir(actual_dir, stat.S_IRWXU)
except OSError as e:
if e.errno != errno.EEXIST:
os.chmod(actual_dir, stat.S_IRWXU)
actual_dir_stat = os.lstat(actual_dir)
if actual_dir_stat.st_uid != os.getuid() \
or not stat.S_ISDIR(actual_dir_stat.st_mode) \
or stat.S_IMODE(actual_dir_stat.st_mode) != stat.S_IRWXU:
except OSError as e:
if e.errno != errno.EEXIST:
actual_dir_stat = os.lstat(actual_dir)
if actual_dir_stat.st_uid != os.getuid() \
or not stat.S_ISDIR(actual_dir_stat.st_mode) \
or stat.S_IMODE(actual_dir_stat.st_mode) != stat.S_IRWXU:
return actual_dir
def _get_cache_filename(self, bucket):
return path.join(, self.pattern % bucket.key)
def load_bytecode(self, bucket):
f = open_if_exists(self._get_cache_filename(bucket), 'rb')
if f is not None:
def dump_bytecode(self, bucket):
f = open(self._get_cache_filename(bucket), 'wb')
def clear(self):
# imported lazily here because google app-engine doesn't support
# write access on the file system and the function does not exist
# normally.
from os import remove
files = fnmatch.filter(listdir(, self.pattern % '*')
for filename in files:
remove(path.join(, filename))
except OSError:
class MemcachedBytecodeCache(BytecodeCache):
"""This class implements a bytecode cache that uses a memcache cache for
storing the information. It does not enforce a specific memcache library
(tummy's memcache or cmemcache) but will accept any class that provides
the minimal interface required.
Libraries compatible with this class:
- `werkzeug <>`_.contrib.cache
- `python-memcached <>`_
- `cmemcache <>`_
(Unfortunately the django cache interface is not compatible because it
does not support storing binary data, only unicode. You can however pass
the underlying cache client to the bytecode cache which is available
as `django.core.cache.cache._client`.)
The minimal interface for the client passed to the constructor is this:
.. class:: MinimalClientInterface
.. method:: set(key, value[, timeout])
Stores the bytecode in the cache. `value` is a string and
`timeout` the timeout of the key. If timeout is not provided
a default timeout or no timeout should be assumed, if it's
provided it's an integer with the number of seconds the cache
item should exist.
.. method:: get(key)
Returns the value for the cache key. If the item does not
exist in the cache the return value must be `None`.
The other arguments to the constructor are the prefix for all keys that
is added before the actual cache key and the timeout for the bytecode in
the cache system. We recommend a high (or no) timeout.
This bytecode cache does not support clearing of used items in the cache.
The clear method is a no-operation function.
.. versionadded:: 2.7
Added support for ignoring memcache errors through the
`ignore_memcache_errors` parameter.
def __init__(self, client, prefix='jinja2/bytecode/', timeout=None,
self.client = client
self.prefix = prefix
self.timeout = timeout
self.ignore_memcache_errors = ignore_memcache_errors
def load_bytecode(self, bucket):
code = self.client.get(self.prefix + bucket.key)
except Exception:
if not self.ignore_memcache_errors:
code = None
if code is not None:
def dump_bytecode(self, bucket):
args = (self.prefix + bucket.key, bucket.bytecode_to_string())
if self.timeout is not None:
args += (self.timeout,)
except Exception:
if not self.ignore_memcache_errors: