Safely add untrusted strings to HTML/XML markup.
Branch: master
Clone or download
davidism Merge pull request #109 from boxingbeetle/issue-108
Add NULL check after native call to __html__ method
Latest commit 1ab4f0a Feb 20, 2019



MarkupSafe implements a text object that escapes characters so it is safe to use in HTML and XML. Characters that have special meanings are replaced so that they display as the actual characters. This mitigates injection attacks, meaning untrusted user input can safely be displayed on a page.


Install and update using pip:

pip install -U MarkupSafe


>>> from markupsafe import Markup, escape
>>> # escape replaces special characters and wraps in Markup
>>> escape('<script>alert(document.cookie);</script>')
>>> # wrap in Markup to mark text "safe" and prevent escaping
>>> Markup('<strong>Hello</strong>')
>>> escape(Markup('<strong>Hello</strong>'))
>>> # Markup is a text subclass (str on Python 3, unicode on Python 2)
>>> # methods and operators escape their arguments
>>> template = Markup("Hello <em>%s</em>")
>>> template % '"World"'
Markup('Hello <em>&#34;World&#34;</em>')


The Pallets organization develops and supports MarkupSafe and other libraries that use it. In order to grow the community of contributors and users, and allow the maintainers to devote more time to the projects, please donate today.