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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
Werkzeug is the Swiss Army knife of Python web development.
It provides useful classes and functions for any WSGI application to make
the life of a python web developer much easier. All of the provided
classes are independent from each other so you can mix it with any other
:copyright: (c) 2014 by the Werkzeug Team, see AUTHORS for more details.
:license: BSD, see LICENSE for more details.
from types import ModuleType
import sys
from werkzeug._compat import iteritems
__version__ = ''
# This import magic raises concerns quite often which is why the implementation
# and motivation is explained here in detail now.
# The majority of the functions and classes provided by Werkzeug work on the
# HTTP and WSGI layer. There is no useful grouping for those which is why
# they are all importable from "werkzeug" instead of the modules where they are
# implemented. The downside of that is, that now everything would be loaded at
# once, even if unused.
# The implementation of a lazy-loading module in this file replaces the
# werkzeug package when imported from within. Attribute access to the werkzeug
# module will then lazily import from the modules that implement the objects.
# import mapping to objects in other modules
all_by_module = {
'werkzeug.debug': ['DebuggedApplication'],
'werkzeug.local': ['Local', 'LocalManager', 'LocalProxy', 'LocalStack',
'werkzeug.serving': ['run_simple'],
'werkzeug.test': ['Client', 'EnvironBuilder', 'create_environ',
'werkzeug.testapp': ['test_app'],
'werkzeug.exceptions': ['abort', 'Aborter'],
'werkzeug.urls': ['url_decode', 'url_encode', 'url_quote',
'url_quote_plus', 'url_unquote', 'url_unquote_plus',
'url_fix', 'Href', 'iri_to_uri', 'uri_to_iri'],
'werkzeug.formparser': ['parse_form_data'],
'werkzeug.utils': ['escape', 'environ_property', 'append_slash_redirect',
'redirect', 'cached_property', 'import_string',
'dump_cookie', 'parse_cookie', 'unescape',
'format_string', 'find_modules', 'header_property',
'html', 'xhtml', 'HTMLBuilder', 'validate_arguments',
'ArgumentValidationError', 'bind_arguments',
'werkzeug.wsgi': ['get_current_url', 'get_host', 'pop_path_info',
'peek_path_info', 'SharedDataMiddleware',
'DispatcherMiddleware', 'ClosingIterator', 'FileWrapper',
'make_line_iter', 'LimitedStream', 'responder',
'wrap_file', 'extract_path_info'],
'werkzeug.datastructures': ['MultiDict', 'CombinedMultiDict', 'Headers',
'EnvironHeaders', 'ImmutableList',
'ImmutableDict', 'ImmutableMultiDict',
'ImmutableTypeConversionDict', 'Accept',
'MIMEAccept', 'CharsetAccept',
'LanguageAccept', 'RequestCacheControl',
'ResponseCacheControl', 'ETags', 'HeaderSet',
'WWWAuthenticate', 'Authorization',
'FileMultiDict', 'CallbackDict', 'FileStorage',
'OrderedMultiDict', 'ImmutableOrderedMultiDict'
'werkzeug.useragents': ['UserAgent'],
'werkzeug.http': ['parse_etags', 'parse_date', 'http_date', 'cookie_date',
'parse_cache_control_header', 'is_resource_modified',
'parse_accept_header', 'parse_set_header', 'quote_etag',
'unquote_etag', 'generate_etag', 'dump_header',
'parse_list_header', 'parse_dict_header',
'parse_www_authenticate_header', 'remove_entity_headers',
'is_entity_header', 'remove_hop_by_hop_headers',
'parse_options_header', 'dump_options_header',
'is_hop_by_hop_header', 'unquote_header_value',
'quote_header_value', 'HTTP_STATUS_CODES'],
'werkzeug.wrappers': ['BaseResponse', 'BaseRequest', 'Request', 'Response',
'AcceptMixin', 'ETagRequestMixin',
'ETagResponseMixin', 'ResponseStreamMixin',
'CommonResponseDescriptorsMixin', 'UserAgentMixin',
'AuthorizationMixin', 'WWWAuthenticateMixin',
'': ['generate_password_hash', 'check_password_hash'],
# the undocumented easteregg ;-)
'werkzeug._internal': ['_easteregg']
# modules that should be imported when accessed as attributes of werkzeug
attribute_modules = frozenset(['exceptions', 'routing'])
object_origins = {}
for module, items in iteritems(all_by_module):
for item in items:
object_origins[item] = module
class module(ModuleType):
"""Automatically import objects from the modules."""
def __getattr__(self, name):
if name in object_origins:
module = __import__(object_origins[name], None, None, [name])
for extra_name in all_by_module[module.__name__]:
setattr(self, extra_name, getattr(module, extra_name))
return getattr(module, name)
elif name in attribute_modules:
__import__('werkzeug.' + name)
return ModuleType.__getattribute__(self, name)
def __dir__(self):
"""Just show what we want to show."""
result = list(new_module.__all__)
result.extend(('__file__', '__doc__', '__all__',
'__docformat__', '__name__', '__path__',
'__package__', '__version__'))
return result
# keep a reference to this module so that it's not garbage collected
old_module = sys.modules['werkzeug']
# setup the new module and patch it into the dict of loaded modules
new_module = sys.modules['werkzeug'] = module('werkzeug')
'__file__': __file__,
'__package__': 'werkzeug',
'__path__': __path__,
'__doc__': __doc__,
'__version__': __version__,
'__all__': tuple(object_origins) + tuple(attribute_modules),
'__docformat__': 'restructuredtext en'
# Due to bootstrapping issues we need to import exceptions here.
# Don't ask :-(